Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 14 de 14
Filter
1.
Brain Behav Immun ; 87: 59-73, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1719339

ABSTRACT

As of April 15, 2020, the ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-2019) pandemic has swept through 213 countries and infected more than 1,870,000 individuals, posing an unprecedented threat to international health and the economy. There is currently no specific treatment available for patients with COVID-19 infection. The lessons learned from past management of respiratory viral infections have provided insights into treating COVID-19. Numerous potential therapies, including supportive intervention, immunomodulatory agents, antiviral therapy, and convalescent plasma transfusion, have been tentatively applied in clinical settings. A number of these therapies have provided substantially curative benefits in treating patients with COVID-19 infection. Furthermore, intensive research and clinical trials are underway to assess the efficacy of existing drugs and identify potential therapeutic targets to develop new drugs for treating COVID-19. Herein, we summarize the current potential therapeutic approaches for diseases related to COVID-19 infection and introduce their mechanisms of action, safety, and effectiveness.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Antimalarials/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus , Bevacizumab/therapeutic use , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Vaccines , Chloroquine/therapeutic use , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Immunization, Passive , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Interferons/therapeutic use , Janus Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Killer Cells, Natural , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation , Nitric Oxide/therapeutic use , Pandemics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Trace Elements/therapeutic use , Viral Vaccines/therapeutic use , Vitamins/therapeutic use , Zinc/therapeutic use
2.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-319519

ABSTRACT

Multiorgan injuries are a major complication of severe COVID-19;however, its pathogenesis is barely understood. Herein, we profiled the host responses to SARS-CoV-2 infection by performing quantitative proteomics of COVID-19 postmortem samples, and provided a comprehensive proteome map covering the protein alterations in eight different organs/tissues. Our results revealed that lung underwent the most abundant protein alterations mainly enriched in immune-/inflammation-related or morphology-related processes, while surprisingly, other organs/tissues exhibited significant protein alterations mainly enriched in processes related with organ movement, respiration, and metabolism. These results indicate that the major cause of lung injury was excessive inflammatory response, and subsequent intravascular thrombosis and pulmonary architecture/function destruction, while other organs/tissues were mainly injured by hypoxia and functional impairment. Therefore, our findings demonstrate the significant pathophysiological alternations of host proteins/pathways associated with multiorgan injuries of COVID-19, which provides invaluable knowledge about COVID-19-associated host responses and sheds light on the pathogenesis of COVID-19.

4.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 694754, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1485067

ABSTRACT

To investigate the characteristics of SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia and evaluate whether CT scans, especially at a certain CT level, could be used to predict the severity of SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia. In total 118 confirmed patients had been enrolled. All data including epidemiological, clinical characteristics, laboratory results, and images were collected and analyzed when they were administrated for the first time. All patients were divided into two groups. There were 106 severe/critical patients and 12 common ones. A total of 38 of the patients were women. The mean age was 50.5 ± 11.5 years. Overall, 80 patients had a history of exposure. The median time from onset of symptoms to administration was 8.0 days. The main symptoms included fever, cough, anorexia, fatigue, myalgia, headaches, and chills. Lymphocytes and platelets decreased and lactate dehydrogenase increased with increased diseased severity (P < 0.05). Calcium and chloride ions were decreased more significantly in severe/critical patients than in common ones (P < 0.05). The main comorbidities were diabetes, chronic cardiovascular disease, and chronic pulmonary disease, which occurred in 47 patients. In all 69 patients had respiratory failure, which is the most common SARS-CoV-2 complication, and liver dysfunction presented in 37 patients. Nine patients received mechanical ventilation therapy. One patient received continuous blood purification and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (EMCO) treatments. The average stay was 18.1 ± 10.8 days. Four patients died. The median of the radiographic score was four in common, and five in the severe/critical illness, which was a significant difference between the two groups. The radiographic score was in negative correlation with OI (ρ = -0.467, P < 0.01). The OI in severe/critically ill cases decreased significantly as the disease progressed, which was related to the lesion area in the left lung and right lungs (ρ = 0.688, R = 0.733). OI, the lesion area in the left lung and right lungs, lymphocytes, etc. were associated with different degrees of SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia (P < 0.05). The lesion area in both lungs were possible predictive factors for severe/critical cases. Patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia showed obvious clinical manifestations and laboratory result changes. Combining clinical features and the quantity of the lesion area in the fourth level of CT could effectively predict severe/critical SARS-CoV-2 cases.

5.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 7: 611460, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389196

ABSTRACT

Background: The data on long-term outcomes of patients infected by SARS-CoV-2 and treated with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) in China are merely available. Methods: A retrospective study included 73 patients infected by SARS-CoV-2 and treated with ECMO in 21 intensive care units in Hubei, China. Data on demographic information, clinical features, laboratory tests, ECMO durations, complications, and living status were collected. Results: The 73 ECMO-treated patients had a median age of 62 (range 33-78) years and 42 (63.6%) were males. Before ECMO initiation, patients had severe respiratory failure on mechanical ventilation with a median PO2/FiO2 of 71.9 [interquartile range (IQR), 58.6-87.0] mmHg and a median PCO2 of 62 [IQR, 43-84] mmHg on arterial blood analyses. The median duration from symptom onset to invasive mechanical ventilation, and to ECMO initiation was19 [IQR, 15-25] days, and 23 [IQR, 19-31] days. Before and after ECMO initiation, the proportions of patients receiving prone position ventilation were 58.9 and 69.9%, respectively. The median duration of ECMO support was 18.5 [IQR 12-30] days. During the treatments with ECMO, major hemorrhages occurred in 31 (42.5%) patients, and oxygenators were replaced in 21 (28.8%) patients. Since ECMO initiation, the 30-day mortality and 60-day mortality were 63.0 and 80.8%, respectively. Conclusions: In Hubei, China, the ECMO-treated patients infected by SARS-CoV-2 were of a broad age range and with severe hypoxemia. The durations of ECMO support, accompanied with increased complications, were relatively long. The long-term mortality in these patients was considerably high.

6.
Virol Sin ; 35(6): 768-775, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1217479

ABSTRACT

Convalescent plasma therapy has been implemented in a few cases of severe coronavirus disease 2019. No report about convalescent plasma therapy in treating patients with prolonged positivity of SARS-CoV-2 RNA has been published. In this study, we conducted a retrospective observational study in 27 patients with prolonged positivity of SARS-CoV-2 RNA, the clinical benefit of convalescent plasma therapy were analyzed. qRT-PCR test of SARS-CoV-2 RNA turned negative (≤ 7 days) in a part of patients (early negative group, n = 15) after therapy, others (late negative group, n = 12) turned negative in more than 7 days. Pulmonary imaging improvement was confirmed in 7 patients in early negative group and 8 in late negative group after CP therapy. Viral load decreased in early negative group compared with late negative group at day 3, 5, 7 after implementing convalescent plasma therapy. Patients in early negative group had a shorter median length of hospital stay. In conclusion, convalescent plasma therapy might help eliminate virus and shorten length of hospital stay in patients with prolonged positivity of SARS-CoV-2 RNA.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Immunization, Passive/methods , RNA, Viral/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Aged , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , China/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Length of Stay , Male , Middle Aged , RNA, Viral/blood , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Viral Load
7.
Virol Sin ; 35(6): 744-751, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1217476

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by SARS-CoV-2, has spread around the world with high mortality. To diagnose promptly and accurately is the vital step to effectively control its pandemic. Dynamic characteristics of SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies which are important for diagnosis of infection have not been fully demonstrated. In this retrospective, single-center, observational study, we enrolled the initial 131 confirmed cases of COVID-19 at Jin-Yin-Tan Hospital who had at least one-time antibody tested during their hospitalization. The dynamic changes of IgM and IgG antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid protein in 226 serum samples were detected by ELISA. The sensitivities of IgM and IgG ELISA detection were analyzed. Result showed that the sensitivity of the IgG ELISA detection (92.5%) was significantly higher than that of the IgM (70.8%) (P < 0.001). The meantimes of seroconversion for IgM and IgG were 6 days and 3 days, respectively. The IgM and IgG antibody levels peaked at around 18 days and 23 days, and then IgM fell to below the baseline level at about day 36, whereas IgG maintained at a relatively high level. In conclusion, antibodies should be detected to aid in diagnosis of COVID-19 infection. IgG could be a sensitive indicator for retrospective diagnosis and contact tracing, while IgM could be an indicator of early infection.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Serological Testing/methods , China/epidemiology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Immunoglobulin M/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Nucleocapsid Proteins/immunology , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , Young Adult
8.
Chinese Journal of Emergency Medicine ; 29(3):346-349, 2020.
Article in Chinese | GIM | ID: covidwho-1125321

ABSTRACT

Objective: To explore the efficacy of a combination regimen by Lopinave/Litonawe (LPV/r), emtricitabine and tenofovir alafenamide fumarate (FTC/TAF) for the treatment of novel coronavirus pneumonia.

9.
Burns Trauma ; 8: tkaa048, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1109169

ABSTRACT

There is little research that focuses on the relationship between the gut, metabolism, nutritional support and COVID-19. As a group of Chinese physicians, nutritionists and scientists working on the frontline treating COVID-19 patients, we aim to integrate our experiences and the current clinical evidence to address this pressing issue in this article. Based on our clinical observations and available evidence, we recommend the following practice. Firstly, the Nutritional Risk Screening 2002 tool should be used routinely and periodically; for patients with a score ≥3, oral nutritional supplements should be given immediately. Secondly, for patients receiving the antiviral agents lopinavir/ritonavir, gastrointestinal side effects should be monitored for and timely intervention provided. Thirdly, for feeding, the enteral route should be the first choice. In patients undergoing mechanical ventilation, establishing a jejunal route as early as possible can guarantee the feeding target being achieved if gastric dilatation occurs. Fourthly, we suggest a permissive underfeeding strategy for severe/critical patients admitted to the intensive care unit during the first week of admission, with the energy target no more than 20 kcal/kg/day (for those on mechanical ventilation, this target may be lowered to 10-15 kcal/kg/day) and the protein target around 1.0-1.2 g/kg/day. If the inflammatory condition is significantly alleviated, the energy target may be gradually increased to 25-30 kcal/kg/day and the protein target to 1.2-1.5 g/kg/day. Fifthly, supplemental parenteral nutrition should be used with caution. Lastly, omega-3 fatty acids may be used as immunoregulators, intravenous administration of omega-3 fatty emulsion (10 g/day) at an early stage may help to reduce the inflammatory reaction.

10.
Front Immunol ; 11: 607583, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1084623

ABSTRACT

The ongoing pandemic coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is rapidly spreading and has resulted in grievous morbidity and mortality worldwide. Despite the high infectiousness of SARS-CoV-2, the majority of infected individuals are asymptomatic or have mild symptoms and could eventually recover as a result of their balanced immune function. On the contrary, immuno-compromised patients are prone to progress into severe or critical types underpinned by the entanglement of an overexuberant proinflammatory response and injured immune function. Therefore, well-coordinated innate and adaptive immune systems are pivotal to viral eradication and tissue repair. An in-depth understanding of the immunological processes underlying COVID-19 could facilitate rapidly identifying and choosing optimal immunotherapy for patients with severe SARS-CoV-2 infection. In this review, based on current immunological evidence, we describe potential immune mechanisms and discuss promising immunotherapies for COVID-19, including IL-6R blockades, convalescent plasma, intravenous gamma globulin, thymosin alpha1, corticosteroids, and type-I interferon, and recent advances in the development of COVID-19 vaccines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/immunology , Immunotherapy/methods , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Front Microbiol ; 11: 600989, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1021898

ABSTRACT

SARS-coronavirus-2-induced immune dysregulation and inflammatory responses are involved in the pathogenesis of coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). However, very little is known about immune cell and cytokine alterations in specific organs of COVID-19 patients. Here, we evaluated immune cells and cytokines in postmortem tissues, i.e., lungs, intestine, liver, kidneys, and spleen of three patients with COVID-19. Imaging mass cytometry revealed monocyte, macrophage, and dendritic cell (DC) infiltration in the lung, intestine, kidney, and liver tissues. Moreover, in patients with COVID-19, natural killer T cells infiltrated the liver, lungs, and intestine, whereas B cells infiltrated the kidneys, lungs, and intestine. CD11b+ macrophages and CD11c+ DCs also infiltrated the lungs and intestine, a phenomenon that was accompanied by overproduction of the immunosuppressive cytokine interleukin (IL)-10. However, CD11b+ macrophages and CD11c+ DCs in the lungs or intestine of COVID-19 patients did not express human leukocyte antigen DR isotype. In contrast, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α expression was higher in the lungs, intestine, liver, and kidneys, but not in the spleen, of all COVID-19 patients (compared to levels in controls). Collectively, these findings suggested that IL-10 and TNF-α as immunosuppressive and pro-inflammatory agents, respectively,-might be prognostic and could serve as therapeutic targets for COVID-19.

13.
Ann Intensive Care ; 10(1): 73, 2020 Jun 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-549161

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-2019) pandemic has swept all over the world, posing a great pressure on critical care resources due to large number of patients needing critical care. Statements from front-line experts in the field of intensive care are urgently needed. METHODS: Sixteen front-line experts in China fighting against the COVID-19 epidemic in Wuhan were organized to develop an expert statement after 5 rounds of expert seminars and discussions to provide trustworthy recommendation on the management of critically ill COVID-19 patients. Each expert was assigned tasks within their field of expertise to provide draft statements and rationale. Parts of the expert statement are based on epidemiological and clinical evidence, without available scientific evidences. RESULTS: A comprehensive document with 46 statements are presented, including protection of medical personnel, etiological treatment, diagnosis and treatment of tissue and organ functional impairment, psychological interventions, immunity therapy, nutritional support, and transportation of critically ill COVID-19 patients. Among them, 5 recommendations were strong (Grade 1), 21 were weak (Grade 2), and 20 were experts' opinions. A strong agreement from voting participants was obtained for all recommendations. CONCLUSION: There are still no targeted therapies for COVID-19 patients. Dynamic monitoring and supportive treatment for the restoration of tissue vascularization and organ function are particularly important.

14.
Brain Behav Immun ; 88: 50-58, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-549071

ABSTRACT

Sleep is known to play an important role in immune function. However, the effects of sleep quality during hospitalization for COVID-19 remain unclear. This retrospective, single-center cohort study was conducted to investigate the effects of sleep quality on recovery from lymphopenia and clinical outcomes in hospitalized patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 admitted to the West District of Wuhan Union Hospital between January 25 and March 15, 2020. The Richards-Campbell sleep questionnaire (RCSQ) and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) were used to assess sleep quality. The epidemiological, demographic, clinical, laboratory, treatment, and outcome data were collected from electronic medical records and compared between the good-sleep group and poor-sleep group. In all, 135 patients (60 in good-sleep group and 75 in poor-sleep group) were included in this study. There were no significant between-group differences regarding demographic and baseline characteristics, as well as laboratory parameters upon admission and in-hospital treatment. Compared with patients in the good-sleep group, patients in the poor-sleep group had lower absolute lymphocyte count (ALC) (day 14: median, 1.10 vs 1.32, P = 0.0055; day 21: median, 1.18 vs 1.48, P = 0.0034) and its reduced recovery rate (day 14: median, 56.91 vs 69.40, P = 0.0255; day 21: median, 61.40 vs 111.47, P = 0.0003), as well as increased neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR; day 14: median, 3.17 vs 2.44, P = 0.0284; day 21: median, 2.73 vs 2.23, P = 0.0092) and its associated deterioration rate (day 14: median, -39.65 vs -61.09, P = 0.0155; day 21: median, -51.40% vs -75.43, P = 0.0003). Nine [12.0%] patients in the poor-sleep group required ICU care (P = 0.0151); meanwhile, none of the patients in good-sleep group required ICU care. Patients in the poor-sleep group had increased duration of hospital stay (33.0 [23.0-47.0] days vs 25.0 [20.5-36.5] days, P = 0.0116) compared to those in the good-sleep group. An increased incidence of hospital-acquired infection (seven [9.3%] vs one [1.7%]) was observed in the poor-sleep group compared to the good-sleep group; however, this difference was not significant (P = 0.1316). In conclusion, poor sleep quality during hospitalization in COVID-19 patients with lymphopenia is associated with a slow recovery from lymphopenia and an increased need for ICU care.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/blood , Lymphopenia/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/physiopathology , Sleep , Aged , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Convalescence , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Female , Health Facility Environment , Hospitalization , Humans , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Length of Stay , Lymphopenia/complications , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/complications , Time Factors
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL