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1.
J Clin Med ; 11(14)2022 Jul 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1928589

ABSTRACT

Pemphigus is a rare autoimmune blistering disease, involving potentially life-threatening conditions often requiring immunosuppression. Currently, the COVID-19 pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory disease coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection has become a global public emergency. Vaccines are the most effective defense against COVID-19 infection. However, in clinic, there are cases of new onset or flare of pemphigus following COVID-19 vaccination, where vaccines have manifested significantly desirable risk-benefit profiles for patients. Although Rituximab, as first-line therapy, may impair humoral immunity, pemphigus may not predispose to develop COVID-19 infection compared to a healthy population. Conversely, delay or interruption of immunosuppressants probably results in unfavorable clinical outcomes for disease progression. Overall, clinicians should encourage their patients to undergo the vaccination after a comprehensive assessment. The definite association between COVID-19 vaccination and pemphigus remains to be further elucidated. Herein, we provide an overview of the published studies to date on COVID-19 and pemphigus as well as the exploration of their complicated interplay. In addition, we discuss the management strategies for pemphigus patients in this special period, in an effort to more effectively establish a standard treatment paradigm for this particular patient group.

2.
Front Microbiol ; 12: 770657, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1903051

ABSTRACT

The resistance of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has augmented due to the abuse of antibiotics, bringing about difficulties in the treatment of infection especially with the formation of biofilm. Thus, it is essential to develop antimicrobials. Here we synthesized a novel small-molecule compound, which we termed SYG-180-2-2 (C21H16N2OSe), that had antibiofilm activity. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the antibiofilm effect of SYG-180-2-2 against clinical MRSA isolates at a subinhibitory concentration (4 µg/ml). In this study, it was showed that significant suppression in biofilm formation occurred with SYG-180-2-2 treatment, the inhibition ranged between 65.0 and 85.2%. Subsequently, confocal laser scanning microscopy and a bacterial biofilm metabolism activity assay further demonstrated that SYG-180-2-2 could suppress biofilm. Additionally, SYG-180-2-2 reduced bacterial adhesion and polysaccharide intercellular adhesin (PIA) production. It was found that the expression of icaA and other biofilm-related genes were downregulated as evaluated by RT-qPCR. At the same time, icaR and codY were upregulated when biofilms were treated with SYG-180-2-2. Based on the above results, we speculate that SYG-180-2-2 inhibits the formation of biofilm by affecting cell adhesion and the expression of genes related to PIA production. Above all, SYG-180-2-2 had no toxic effects on human normal alveolar epithelial cells BEAS-2B. Collectively, the small-molecule compound SYG-180-2-2 is a safe and effective antibacterial agent for inhibiting MRSA biofilm.

3.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-324430

ABSTRACT

The 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) causes novel coronavirus pneumonia (NCP). Given that approved drug repurposing becomes a common strategy to quickly find antiviral treatments, a collection of FDA-approved drugs can be powerful resources for new anti-NCP indication discoveries. In addition to synthetic compounds, Chinese Patent Drugs (CPD), also play a key role in the treatment of virus related infections diseases in China. Here we compiled major components from 38 CPDs that are commonly used in the respiratory diseases and docked them against two drug targets, ACE2 receptor and viral main protease. According to our docking screening, 10 antiviral components, including hesperidin, saikosaponin A, rutin, corosolic acid, verbascoside, baicalin, glycyrrhizin, mulberroside A, cynaroside, and bilirubin, can directly bind to both host cell target ACE2 receptor and viral target main protease. In combination of the docking results, the natural abundance of the substances, and botanical knowledge, we proposed that artemisinin, rutin, glycyrrhizin, cholic acid, hyodeoxycholic acid, puerarin, oleanic acid, andrographolide, matrine, codeine, morphine, chlorogenic acid, and baicalin (or Yinhuang Injection containing chlorogenic acid and baicalin) might be of value for clinical trials during a 2019-nCov outbreak.

4.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-308318

ABSTRACT

Background: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a new type of virus that firstly confirmed in Wuhan, China recently. SARS-CoV-2 mainly spread through droplets. Infection characteristics data of SARS-CoV-2 is still limited, especially about asymptomatic infection, familial aggregation infection and infection risk in family member. Methods: From 2nd January 2020 to 23th February 2020, we have screened 22,729 throat swab samples from individuals with either have contact history of imported personnel, out-of-city travel or residence history or flu-like symptoms during the past 14 days. SARS-CoV-2 RNA was extracted and detected by real-time PCR. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 19 (IBM, Armonk, NY, USA). The results were confirmed by the Pearson χ 2 test;P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: 35 SARS-CoV-2 positive patients were found, 22 were asymptomatic infection, and 31 were familial aggregation infection. Odds ratio of SARS-CoV-2 infection risk between family aggregated close contacts and overall close contacts was 29.40 (95% confidence interval: 13.99 - 62.205, χ 2 = 140.23, P < 0.001);odds ratio of SARS-CoV-2 infection risk between family aggregated close contacts and non-family aggregated close contacts was 703.50 (95% confidence interval: 89.53 - 5527.95, χ 2 = 282.659, P < 0.001). One SARS-CoV-2 positive patient infected 2.08 (25/12) people on average under social control without separate isolation. Conclusions: Social control is effective in SARS-CoV-2 inhibition, but self-isolation and screening should be added as supplementary means to avoid familial aggregation infection and find out asymptomatic patients.

5.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-318011

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) was initially reported in Wuhan, China since December, 2019. Here, we reported a timely and comprehensive resource named iCTCF to archive 256,356 chest computed tomography (CT) images, 127 types of clinical features (CFs), and laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 clinical status from 1170 patients, reaching a data volume of 38.2 GB. To facilitate COVID-19 diagnosis, we integrated the heterogeneous CT and CF datasets, and developed a novel framework of H ybrid-learning for U nbia S ed predic T ion of COVID -19 patients (HUST-19) to predict negative cases, mild/regular and severe/critically ill patients, respectively. Although both CT images and CFs are informative in predicting patients with or without COVID-19 pneumonia, the integration of CT and CF datasets achieved a striking accuracy with an area under the curve (AUC) value of 0.978, much higher than that when exclusively using either CT (0.919) or CF data (0.882). Together with HUST- 19, iCTCF can serve as a fundamental resource for improving the diagnosis and management of COVID-19 patients.Authors Wanshan Ning, Shijun Lei, Jingjing Yang, and Yukun Cao contributed equally to this work.

7.
Zhongguo Huanjing Kexue = China Environmental Science ; 41(5):2028, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1257860

ABSTRACT

Based on hourly concentration of PM2.5 and O3 during the epidemic period(January 24, 2020 to May 31, 2020) in Changsha, Zhuzhou and Xiangtan, the diurnal patterns, long-term persistence, multifractality and self-organization evolution dynamics of these two pollutants were studied to reveal the internal dynamic mechanism of the occurrence and evolution of heavy pollution events during the epidemic period. Firstly, the diurnal patterns of PM2.5 and O3 concentrations were investigated. It showed that O3 showed a single peak of high concentration in the daytime and low in the night, while PM2.5 showed a single lowest peak concentration in the day and high in the night, which was different from the pattern in non-epidemic periods. Furthermore, detrended fluctuation analysis(DFA), the multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis(MFDFA) and probability statistical analysis were applied to study the long-term persistence, multi-fractal structure of PM2.5 and O3 series. The results showed that PM2.5 and O3 series had significant long-term persistence characteristics and strong multi-fractal structures for the three cities. Meanwhile, detrended cross-correlation analysis(DCCA) and multifractal detrended cross-correlation analysis(MFDCCA) were conducted to estimate the cross-correlations between PM2.5 and O3 series. Long-term persistence as well as multifractal features at different time scales was also observed in PM2.5-O3 cross-correlations. Next, nonlinear analysis results obtained during epidemic period were compared with those obtained in the same periods of non-epidemic years of 2019 and 2018. Finally, based on the self-organized criticality(SOC) theory, the internal dynamic law of spatial and temporal evolution of PM2.5 and O3 series was discussed. Combined with the typical regional meteorological characteristics, it was found that the intrinsic dynamic mechanism of SOC may be one of the leading mechanisms of heavy air pollution episodes during the COVID-19 lockdown period. During the epidemic period, PM2.5 and O3 concentrations did not evolve independently but remained complex interactions. Under the stable meteorological conditions, the nonlinear coupling effect inside the air combined pollution might reach the dynamic critical state, thus, lead to the risk of heavy air pollution in Greater Changsha Metropolitan Region during the epidemic period.

8.
Front Psychiatry ; 12: 658388, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1247926

ABSTRACT

Background: The psychology of university and college students is immature, they are thus more likely to suffer from depression due to the COVID-19 pandemic. The present study aims to investigate the self-reported depression status of Chinese university and college students and explore its influencing factors. Methods: We conducted a network-based online survey, and a total of 17,876 participants completed the questionnaire. Depression was measured by the Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS). Univariate analysis and multivariate logistic analysis were performed to explore the influencing factors of self-reported depression symptoms. Results: The proportion of self-reported depression symptoms, mild self-reported depression symptoms, and moderate to severe (M/S) self-reported depression symptoms was 65.2, 53.7, and 11.5%, respectively. The mean score of self-reported depression was 54.8 ± 9.0. Female, personality type of partial introversion, junior college educational level, "moderate" or "high" self-perceived risk of infection, "moderately" or "highly" impacted by the outbreak, and being eager to go back to school were risk factors for M/S self-reported depression symptoms (p < 0.05). While, "moderate" or "high" concern about the outbreak, "moderate" or "high" satisfaction with pandemic prevention and control measures, and having health literacy on communicable diseases were protective factors for M/S self-reported depression symptoms (p < 0.05). Conclusion: The status of self-reported depression symptoms among university and college students was severer than expected, and the influencing factors were multifaceted. Government and school administrators should strengthen the dissemination of knowledge on disease prevention and control. Moreover, much attention should be paid to female and junior college students.

9.
Psychol Res Behav Manag ; 14: 385-392, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1170034

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Studies have suggested that public health emergencies can have many psychological effects on college students, therefore, the aim of this study is to investigate current situation of college students' anxiety and its determinants in the time of an unexpected pandemic. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We conducted convenience sampling to collect the data through network-based online questionnaires in February 2020, a total of 17,876 college students were included in the analysis. Chi-square test and multivariate logistic were used to identify the associations between the outbreak experiences and anxiety detection. RESULTS: This study found that detection rate of anxiety among college students was 18.2%. The differences in male students, students whose self-perceived risk of infection were high, who were greatly affected by the outbreak, eager to go back to school, reluctant to leave home and stay at home enough were of statistical significance among different anxiety level (OR>1, P<0.05). And the severe anxiety rate of students who living in cities was significantly higher (2.337[1.468, 3.721]). CONCLUSION: Although our results show that anxiety among college students was at a low level, various universities should focus on the online activities and develop appropriate epidemic management plans to prevent their feelings of worry, tension and panic.

10.
Learn Publ ; 34(3): 457-460, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1074355

ABSTRACT

Contradicting expectations, a non-medical journal received increasing submissions during the pandemic, even though laboratories remained closed.Peer reviewers and handling editors were both more responsive and provided faster turnaround times during 2020.The reasons for increased submission to the journal may have been due to reanalysis of older data or extracting more findings from research done pre-pandemic.

11.
Nat Biomed Eng ; 4(12): 1197-1207, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-933689

ABSTRACT

Data from patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are essential for guiding clinical decision making, for furthering the understanding of this viral disease, and for diagnostic modelling. Here, we describe an open resource containing data from 1,521 patients with pneumonia (including COVID-19 pneumonia) consisting of chest computed tomography (CT) images, 130 clinical features (from a range of biochemical and cellular analyses of blood and urine samples) and laboratory-confirmed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) clinical status. We show the utility of the database for prediction of COVID-19 morbidity and mortality outcomes using a deep learning algorithm trained with data from 1,170 patients and 19,685 manually labelled CT slices. In an independent validation cohort of 351 patients, the algorithm discriminated between negative, mild and severe cases with areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.944, 0.860 and 0.884, respectively. The open database may have further uses in the diagnosis and management of patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Algorithms , Deep Learning , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , ROC Curve , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods
12.
Circulation ; 142(12): 1190-1204, 2020 09 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-810574

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) converts angiotensin II, a potent vasoconstrictor, to angiotensin-(1-7) and is also a membrane protein that enables coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infectivity. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) phosphorylation of ACE2 enhances ACE2 stability. This mode of posttranslational modification of ACE2 in vascular endothelial cells is causative of a pulmonary hypertension (PH)-protective phenotype. The oncoprotein MDM2 (murine double minute 2) is an E3 ligase that ubiquitinates its substrates to cause their degradation. In this study, we investigated whether MDM2 is involved in the posttranslational modification of ACE2 through its ubiquitination of ACE2, and whether an AMPK and MDM2 crosstalk regulates the pathogenesis of PH. METHODS: Bioinformatic analyses were used to explore E3 ligase that ubiquitinates ACE2. Cultured endothelial cells, mouse models, and specimens from patients with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension were used to investigate the crosstalk between AMPK and MDM2 in regulating ACE2 phosphorylation and ubiquitination in the context of PH. RESULTS: Levels of MDM2 were increased and those of ACE2 decreased in lung tissues or pulmonary arterial endothelial cells from patients with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension and rodent models of experimental PH. MDM2 inhibition by JNJ-165 reversed the SU5416/hypoxia-induced PH in C57BL/6 mice. ACE2-S680L mice (dephosphorylation at S680) showed PH susceptibility, and ectopic expression of ACE2-S680L/K788R (deubiquitination at K788) reduced experimental PH. Moreover, ACE2-K788R overexpression in mice with endothelial cell-specific AMPKα2 knockout mitigated PH. CONCLUSIONS: Maladapted posttranslational modification (phosphorylation and ubiquitination) of ACE2 at Ser-680 and Lys-788 is involved in the pathogenesis of pulmonary arterial hypertension and experimental PH. Thus, a combined intervention of AMPK and MDM2 in the pulmonary endothelium might be therapeutically effective in PH treatment.


Subject(s)
Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-mdm2/metabolism , Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension/pathology , Ubiquitination , AMP-Activated Protein Kinases/deficiency , AMP-Activated Protein Kinases/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Animals , Disease Susceptibility , Endothelial Cells/cytology , Endothelial Cells/metabolism , Lung/pathology , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mice, Knockout , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/genetics , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-mdm2/antagonists & inhibitors , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-mdm2/genetics , RNA Interference , RNA, Small Interfering/metabolism , Rats
13.
Biosci Trends ; 14(3): 206-208, 2020 Jul 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-100188

ABSTRACT

Following a containment phase of two months, China has transitioned to the mitigation phase. However, China still faces the risk of COVID-19 spreading due to not only to sporadic new cases and imported cases but also asymptomatic carriers. According to daily reports from the National Health Commission of the People's Republic of China from March 31, 2020 to April 7, 2020, the number of new asymptomatic cases reported daily greatly exceeded that of new imported cases. As of 24:00 on April 7, there were a total of 1,095 asymptomatic cases with COVID-19 under medical observation on the Chinese mainland, including 358 imported cases. A growing number of studies have indicated that asymptomatic carriers are infectious to an extent and can potentially transmit COVID-19. At present, China's measures for managing asymptomatic carriers are 14 days of centralized quarantine and observation; in principle, people with two consecutive negative nucleic acid tests (at an interval of at least 24 hours) can be released from quarantine. However, asymptomatic carriers will not be included in confirmed cases unless they develop clinical manifestations while in quarantine. As "silent spreaders", asymptomatic carriers warrant attention as part of disease prevention and control. The testing and follow-up of asymptomatic carriers should be expanded to include people in close contact with patients with confirmed COVID-19 and asymptomatic cases, clusters of outbreaks, and key areas and populations with a high risk of infection.


Subject(s)
Asymptomatic Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
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