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1.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-323671

ABSTRACT

Background: Existing literatures demonstrated that meteorological factors could be of importance in affecting the spread patterns of the respiratory infectious diseases. However, how ambient temperature may influence the transmissibility of COVID-19 remains unclear. Objectives: We explore the association between ambient temperature and transmissibility of COVID-19 in different regions across China. Methods: : The surveillance data on COVID-19 and meteorological factors were collected from 28 provincial level regions in China, and estimated the instantaneous reproductive number ( R t ). The generalized additive model was used to assess the relationship between mean temperature and R t . Results: : There were 12745 COVID-19 cases collected in the study areas. We report the effect of temperature on R t is not of statistical significance, which holds for most of included regions except for those in North China. Conclusions: We found little statistical evidence for that the higher temperature may reduce the transmissibility of COVID-19.

2.
PLoS Pathog ; 17(3): e1009439, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1133695

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) causes the global pandemic of COVID-19. SARS-CoV-2 is classified as a biosafety level-3 (BSL-3) agent, impeding the basic research into its biology and the development of effective antivirals. Here, we developed a biosafety level-2 (BSL-2) cell culture system for production of transcription and replication-competent SARS-CoV-2 virus-like-particles (trVLP). This trVLP expresses a reporter gene (GFP) replacing viral nucleocapsid gene (N), which is required for viral genome packaging and virion assembly (SARS-CoV-2 GFP/ΔN trVLP). The complete viral life cycle can be achieved and exclusively confined in the cells ectopically expressing SARS-CoV or SARS-CoV-2 N proteins, but not MERS-CoV N. Genetic recombination of N supplied in trans into viral genome was not detected, as evidenced by sequence analysis after one-month serial passages in the N-expressing cells. Moreover, intein-mediated protein trans-splicing approach was utilized to split the viral N gene into two independent vectors, and the ligated viral N protein could function in trans to recapitulate entire viral life cycle, further securing the biosafety of this cell culture model. Based on this BSL-2 SARS-CoV-2 cell culture model, we developed a 96-well format high throughput screening for antivirals discovery. We identified salinomycin, tubeimoside I, monensin sodium, lycorine chloride and nigericin sodium as potent antivirals against SARS-CoV-2 infection. Collectively, we developed a convenient and efficient SARS-CoV-2 reverse genetics tool to dissect the virus life cycle under a BSL-2 condition. This powerful tool should accelerate our understanding of SARS-CoV-2 biology and its antiviral development.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Cell Culture Techniques/methods , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Containment of Biohazards , Genome, Viral/drug effects , High-Throughput Screening Assays , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/growth & development , Virus Replication/drug effects
3.
Environ Res ; 193: 110576, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-956049

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Existing literatures demonstrated that meteorological factors could be of importance in affecting the spread patterns of the respiratory infectious diseases. However, how ambient temperature may influence the transmissibility of COVID-19 remains unclear. OBJECTIVES: We explore the association between ambient temperature and transmissibility of COVID-19 in different regions across China. METHODS: The surveillance data on COVID-19 and meteorological factors were collected from 28 provincial level regions in China, and estimated the instantaneous reproductive number (Rt). The generalized additive model was used to assess the relationship between mean temperature and Rt. RESULTS: There were 12,745 COVID-19 cases collected in the study areas. We report the associated effect of temperature on Rt is likely to be negative but not of statistical significance, which holds for most Chinese regions. CONCLUSIONS: We found little statistical evidence for that the higher temperature may reduce the transmissibility of COVID-19. Since intensive control measures against the COVID-19 epidemics were implemented in China, we acknowledge this may impact the underlying effect size estimation, and thus cautiousness should be taken when interpreting our findings.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , China , Humans , Meteorological Concepts , SARS-CoV-2 , Temperature
4.
SSRN; 2020.
Preprint | SSRN | ID: ppcovidwho-673

ABSTRACT

Background: With the global spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), an increasing number of clinical trials are being designed and executed to evaluate t

5.
Front Pharmacol ; 11: 1330, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-776219

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: With the global spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), an increasing number of clinical trials are being designed and executed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of various therapies for COVID-19. We conducted this survey to assess the methodological quality of registry protocols on potential treatments for COVID-19. METHODS: Clinical trial protocols were identified on the ClinicalTrials.gov and the Chinese Clinical Trial Registry. Protocols were screened by two investigators independently against pre-defined eligibility criteria. Quality of the included protocols was assessed according to the modified 14-item SPIRIT (Standard Protocol Items: Recommendations for Interventional Trials) 2013 Statement. RESULTS: We included 82 randomized controlled trial (RCT) protocols investigating treatment modalities for COVID-19. These ongoing trials are being conducted in 16 provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities of China, and study interventions were either Western medicines (n = 56) or traditional Chinese medicine (n = 26). Findings of our quality assessment indicated that the existing trial protocols could be further improved on several aspects, including selection and definition of outcome measures, descriptions of study interventions and comparators, study subject recruitment time, definition of study inclusion and exclusion criteria, and allocation concealment methods. Descriptions of random sequence generation methodologies were accurate for the majority of included trial protocols (n = 64; 78.05%); however, reporting of allocation concealment remained unclear in 63 (76.83%) protocols. Therefore, the overall risk of selection bias across these RCTs was judged to be unclear. A total of 52 (63.41%) included RCT protocols were open-label trials and are thus associated with a high risk of performance bias and detection bias. CONCLUSION: Quality of currently available RCT protocols on the treatments for COVID-19 could be further improved. For transparency and effective knowledge translation in real-world clinically settings, it is important for trial investigators to standardize baseline treatments for patients with COVID-19 and assess clinically important core outcome measures. Despite eager anticipation from the public on the results of effectiveness trials in COVID-19, robust design, execution, and reporting of these trials should be regarded as high priority.

6.
Cell ; 183(3): 730-738.e13, 2020 10 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-746087

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 is an enveloped virus responsible for the COVID-19 pandemic. Despite recent advances in the structural elucidation of SARS-CoV-2 proteins, the detailed architecture of the intact virus remains to be unveiled. Here we report the molecular assembly of the authentic SARS-CoV-2 virus using cryoelectron tomography (cryo-ET) and subtomogram averaging (STA). Native structures of the S proteins in pre- and postfusion conformations were determined to average resolutions of 8.7-11 Å. Compositions of the N-linked glycans from the native spikes were analyzed by mass spectrometry, which revealed overall processing states of the native glycans highly similar to that of the recombinant glycoprotein glycans. The native conformation of the ribonucleoproteins (RNPs) and their higher-order assemblies were revealed. Overall, these characterizations revealed the architecture of the SARS-CoV-2 virus in exceptional detail and shed light on how the virus packs its ∼30-kb-long single-segmented RNA in the ∼80-nm-diameter lumen.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/physiology , Betacoronavirus/ultrastructure , Virus Assembly , Animals , Chlorocebus aethiops , Cryoelectron Microscopy , Humans , Mass Spectrometry , Models, Molecular , Protein Conformation , SARS-CoV-2 , Vero Cells , Viral Proteins/chemistry , Viral Proteins/ultrastructure , Virus Cultivation
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