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J Med Internet Res ; 23(10): e28613, 2021 10 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1417034


BACKGROUND: As a distributed technology, blockchain has attracted increasing attention from stakeholders in the medical industry. Although previous studies have analyzed blockchain applications from the perspectives of technology, business, or patient care, few studies have focused on actual use-case scenarios of blockchain in health care. In particular, the outbreak of COVID-19 has led to some new ideas for the application of blockchain in medical practice. OBJECTIVE: This paper aims to provide a systematic review of the current and projected uses of blockchain technology in health care, as well as directions for future research. In addition to the framework structure of blockchain and application scenarios, its integration with other emerging technologies in health care is discussed. METHODS: We searched databases such as PubMed, EMBASE, Scopus, IEEE, and Springer using a combination of terms related to blockchain and health care. Potentially relevant papers were then compared to determine their relevance and reviewed independently for inclusion. Through a literature review, we summarize the key medical scenarios using blockchain technology. RESULTS: We found a total of 1647 relevant studies, 60 of which were unique studies that were included in this review. These studies report a variety of uses for blockchain and their emphasis differs. According to the different technical characteristics and application scenarios of blockchain, we summarize some medical scenarios closely related to blockchain from the perspective of technical classification. Moreover, potential challenges are mentioned, including the confidentiality of privacy, the efficiency of the system, security issues, and regulatory policy. CONCLUSIONS: Blockchain technology can improve health care services in a decentralized, tamper-proof, transparent, and secure manner. With the development of this technology and its integration with other emerging technologies, blockchain has the potential to offer long-term benefits. Not only can it be a mechanism to secure electronic health records, but blockchain also provides a powerful tool that can empower users to control their own health data, enabling a foolproof health data history and establishing medical responsibility.

Blockchain , COVID-19 , Confidentiality , Data Management , Electronic Health Records , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
J Med Internet Res ; 23(9): e24081, 2021 09 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1403378


BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 outbreak has now become a pandemic and has had a serious adverse impact on global public health. The effect of COVID-19 on the lungs can be determined through 2D computed tomography (CT) imaging, which requires a high level of spatial imagination on the part of the medical provider. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to determine whether viewing a 3D hologram with mixed reality techniques can improve medical professionals' understanding of the pulmonary lesions caused by COVID-19. METHODS: The study involved 60 participants, including 20 radiologists, 20 surgeons, and 20 medical students. Each of the three groups was randomly divided into two groups, either the 2D CT group (n=30; mean age 29 years [range 19-38 years]; males=20) or the 3D holographic group (n=30; mean age 30 years [range 20=38 years]; males=20). The two groups completed the same task, which involved identifying lung lesions caused by COVID-19 for 6 cases using a 2D CT or 3D hologram. Finally, an independent radiology professor rated the participants' performance (out of 100). All participants in two groups completed a Likert scale questionnaire regarding the educational utility and efficiency of 3D holograms. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration Task Load Index (NASA-TLX) was completed by all participants. RESULTS: The mean task score of the 3D hologram group (mean 91.98, SD 2.45) was significantly higher than that of the 2D CT group (mean 74.09, SD 7.59; P<.001). With the help of 3D holograms, surgeons and medical students achieved the same score as radiologists and made obvious progress in identifying pulmonary lesions caused by COVID-19. The Likert scale questionnaire results showed that the 3D hologram group had superior results compared to the 2D CT group (teaching: 2D CT group median 2, IQR 1-2 versus 3D group median 5, IQR 5-5; P<.001; understanding and communicating: 2D CT group median 1, IQR 1-1 versus 3D group median 5, IQR 5-5; P<.001; increasing interest: 2D CT group median 2, IQR 2-2 versus 3D group median 5, IQR 5-5; P<.001; lowering the learning curve: 2D CT group median 2, IQR 1-2 versus 3D group median 4, IQR 4-5; P<.001; spatial awareness: 2D CT group median 2, IQR 1-2 versus 3D group median 5, IQR 5-5; P<.001; learning: 2D CT group median 3, IQR 2-3 versus 3D group median 5, IQR 5-5; P<.001). The 3D group scored significantly lower than the 2D CT group for the "mental," "temporal," "performance," and "frustration" subscales on the NASA-TLX. CONCLUSIONS: A 3D hologram with mixed reality techniques can be used to help medical professionals, especially medical students and newly hired doctors, better identify pulmonary lesions caused by COVID-19. It can be used in medical education to improve spatial awareness, increase interest, improve understandability, and lower the learning curve. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Chinese Clinical Trial Registry ChiCTR2100045845;

Augmented Reality , COVID-19 , Students, Medical , Adult , Humans , Lung , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , United States , Young Adult
Intell Med ; 1(1): 16-18, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1293861


Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) made a huge effect globally. With the assistance of mixed reality (MR) technology, complicated clinical works became easier to carry out and the condition had been greatly improved with high-tech advantages such as improved convenience, better understanding and communication, higher security, and medical resource saving. This study aimed to introduce one kind of MR application in the fight against COVID-19 and anticipate more feasible smart healthcare applications to enhance our strength for the final victory.