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1.
Multilingua-Journal of Cross-Cultural and Interlanguage Communication ; 39(5):503-515, 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-781703

ABSTRACT

Multilingual crisis communication has emerged as a global challenge during the COVID-19 pandemic Global public health communication is characterized by the large-scale exclusion of linguistic minorities from timely high-quality information The severe limitations of multilingual crisis communication that the COVID-19 crisis has laid bare result from the dominance of English-centric global mass communication;the longstanding devaluation of minoritized languages;and the failure to consider the importance of multilingual repertoires for building trust and resilient communities These challenges, along with possible solutions, are explored in greater detail by the articles brought together in this special issue, which present case studies from China and the global Chinese diaspora As such, the special issue constitutes not only an exploration of the sociolinguistics of the COVID-19 crisis but also a concerted effort to open a space for intercultural dialogue within sociolinguistics We close by contending that, in order to learn lessons from COVID-19 and to be better prepared for future crises, sociolinguistics needs to include local knowledges and grassroots practices not only as objects of investigation but in its epistemologies;needs to diversify its knowledge base and the academic voices producing that knowledge base;and needs to re-enter dialogue with policy makers and activists

2.
Multilingua-Journal of Cross-Cultural and Interlanguage Communication ; 39(5):517-528, 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-781700

ABSTRACT

Translation is an important means of enabling access to information in an emergency response Increasingly, volunteer translators have been using social media platforms to self-organize and carry out urgent translation tasks that effectively complement official disaster relief efforts However, the role of crowdsourced translations and the capacity of volunteer translators in reducing the impact of disasters remain underestimated and therefore understudied Based on semi-structured interviews with five volunteer translators and online observation of their translation practices, this study investigates the role of a volunteer-driven crowdsourced translation effort in facilitating the donation and procurement of medical supplies between Wuhan and the world By addressing the real challenges of urgent crisis communication in Wuhan in the early stages of the pandemic, this study draws attention to the need to integrate information and communication technologies with multilingual resources for disaster relief In addition, it calls for the inclusion of multilingual logistics in national emergency preparation, response and recovery plans

3.
Phytomedicine ; 79: 153333, 2020 Sep 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-741456

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The novel coronavirus disease (2019-nCoV) has been affecting global health since the end of 2019 and there is no sign that the epidemic is abating . The major issue for controlling the infectious is lacking efficient prevention and therapeutic approaches. Chloroquine (CQ) and Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) have been reported to treat the disease, but the underlying mechanism remains controversial. PURPOSE: The objective of this study is to investigate whether CQ and HCQ could be ACE2 blockers and used to inhibit 2019-nCoV virus infection. METHODS: In our study, we used CCK-8 staining, flow cytometry and immunofluorescent staining to evaluate the toxicity and autophagy of CQ and HCQ, respectively, on ACE2 high-expressing HEK293T cells (ACE2h cells). We further analyzed the binding character of CQ and HCQ to ACE2 by molecular docking and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) assays, 2019-nCoV spike pseudotyped virus was also used to observe the viropexis effect of CQ and HCQ in ACE2h cells. RESULTS: Results showed that HCQ is slightly more toxic to ACE2h cells than CQ. Both CQ and HCQ could bind to ACE2 with KD = (7.31 ± 0.62)e-7 M and (4.82 ± 0.87)e-7 M, respectively. They exhibit equivalent suppression effect for the entrance of 2019-nCoV spike pseudotyped virus into ACE2h cells. CONCLUSIONS: CQ and HCQ both inhibit the entrance 2019-nCoV into cells by blocking the binding of the virus with ACE2. Our findings provide novel insights into the molecular mechanism of CQ and HCQ treatment effect on virus infection.

4.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 169: 112572, 2020 Sep 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-741059

ABSTRACT

Convalescent serum with a high abundance of neutralization IgG is a promising therapeutic agent for rescuing COVID-19 patients in the critical stage. Knowing the concentration of SARS-CoV-2 S1-specific IgG is crucial in selecting appropriate convalescent serum donors. Here, we present a portable microfluidic ELISA technology for rapid (15 min), quantitative, and sensitive detection of anti-SARS-CoV-2 S1 IgG in human serum with only 8 µL sample volume. We first identified a humanized monoclonal IgG that has a high binding affinity and a relatively high specificity towards SARS-CoV-2 S1 protein, which can subsequently serve as the calibration standard of anti-SARS-CoV-2 S1 IgG in serological analyses. We then measured the abundance of anti-SARS-CoV-2 S1 IgG in 16 convalescent COVID-19 patients. Due to the availability of the calibration standard and the large dynamic range of our assay, we were able to identify "qualified donors" for convalescent serum therapy with only one fixed dilution factor (200 ×). Finally, we demonstrated that our technology can sensitively detect SARS-CoV-2 antigens (S1 and N proteins) with pg/mL level sensitivities in 40 min. Overall, our technology can greatly facilitate rapid, sensitive, and quantitative analysis of COVID-19 related markers for therapeutic, diagnostic, epidemiologic, and prognostic purposes.

5.
Pattern Recognit ; : 107613, 2020 Aug 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-731882

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 outbreak continues to threaten the health and life of people worldwide. It is an immediate priority to develop and test a computer-aided detection (CAD) scheme based on deep learning (DL) to automatically localize and differentiate COVID-19 from community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) on chest X-rays. Therefore, this study aims to develop and test an efficient and accurate deep learning scheme that assists radiologists in automatically recognizing and localizing COVID-19. A retrospective chest X-ray image dataset was collected from open image data and the Xiangya Hospital, which was divided into a training group and a testing group. The proposed CAD framework is composed of two steps with DLs: the Discrimination-DL and the Localization-DL. The first DL was developed to extract lung features from chest X-ray radiographs for COVID-19 discrimination and trained using 3548 chest X-ray radiographs. The second DL was trained with 406-pixel patches and applied to the recognized X-ray radiographs to localize and assign them into the left lung, right lung or bipulmonary. X-ray radiographs of CAP and healthy controls were enrolled to evaluate the robustness of the model. Compared to the radiologists' discrimination and localization results, the accuracy of COVID-19 discrimination using the Discrimination-DL yielded 98.71%, while the accuracy of localization using the Localization-DL was 93.03%. This work represents the feasibility of using a novel deep learning-based CAD scheme to efficiently and accurately distinguish COVID-19 from CAP and detect localization with high accuracy and agreement with radiologists.

6.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 131: 110678, 2020 Aug 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-726410

ABSTRACT

At the end of 2019, the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), emerged in China. Currently, it is breaking out globally and posing a serious threat to public health. The typically clinical characteristics of COVID-19 patients were fever and respiratory symptoms, and a proportion of patients were accompanied by extrapulmonary symptoms including cardiac injury, kidney injury, liver injury, digestive tract injury, and neurological symptoms. Angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) has been proven to be a major receptor for SARS-CoV-2 and could mediate virus entry into cells. And transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS2) could cleave the spike (S) protein of SARS-CoV-2, which facilitates the fusion of SARS-CoV-2 and cellular membranes. The mRNA expressions of both ACE2 and TMPRSS2 were observed in the heart, digestive tract, liver, kidney, brain and other organs. SARS-CoV-2 may have a capacity to infect extrapulmonary organs due to the expressions of ACE2 and TMPRSS2 in the cells and tissues of these organs. It seems that there is a potential involvement of ACE2 and TMPRSS2 expressions in the virus infection of extrapulmonary organs and the manifestation of symptoms related to these organs in patients with COVID-19. Here, we revealed the expressions of ACE2 and TMPRSS2 in extrapulmonary organs, and we also summarized the clinical manifestation and the management of extrapulmonary complications in patients with COVID-19.

7.
Immunity ; 53(3): 685-696.e3, 2020 Sep 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-716745

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic poses a current world-wide public health threat. However, little is known about its hallmarks compared to other infectious diseases. Here, we report the single-cell transcriptional landscape of longitudinally collected peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in both COVID-19- and influenza A virus (IAV)-infected patients. We observed increase of plasma cells in both COVID-19 and IAV patients and XIAP associated factor 1 (XAF1)-, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-, and FAS-induced T cell apoptosis in COVID-19 patients. Further analyses revealed distinct signaling pathways activated in COVID-19 (STAT1 and IRF3) versus IAV (STAT3 and NFκB) patients and substantial differences in the expression of key factors. These factors include relatively increase of interleukin (IL)6R and IL6ST expression in COVID-19 patients but similarly increased IL-6 concentrations compared to IAV patients, supporting the clinical observations of increased proinflammatory cytokines in COVID-19 patients. Thus, we provide the landscape of PBMCs and unveil distinct immune response pathways in COVID-19 and IAV patients.

8.
Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy ; 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-712388

ABSTRACT

The emerging coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has become a serious global public health threat With more and more recovered patients, it is urgently needed for evaluation of the neutralizing antibody (NAb) in these patients In this study, we collected blood samples from 49 patients recently recovered from COVID-19 Serum NAbs were measured using a novel surrogate virus neutralization test (sVNT) Factors associated with NAb titers were analyzed using Ordinary Least Squares regression model The median age of the study participants was 37 years (IQR, 30 0-54 5) and 55 1% (27/49) of which were male The median time to blood collection (for NAb analysis) from illness onset, viral clearance and discharge were 43 0 days (IQR, 36 0-50 0), 27 0 days (IQR, 20 5-37) and 17 0 days (IQR, 15 0-33 0), respectively Patients had a median NAb titer of 1: 40 (IQR, 1:15-1:120) NAbs were not detected in two asymptomatic children who quickly cleared the virus NAb titers were higher in patients with older age (p = 0 020), symptomatic infection (p = 0 044), more profound lung involvement (p<0 001), abnormal C-reactive protein level (p<0 01) and elevated lactate dehydrogenase (p = 0 019) Multivariable analysis revealed that severity of pneumonia and having comorbidity positively correlated with NAb titers in recovered patients (p = 0 02), while use of corticosteroids negatively impacted NAb titers (p = 0 01) Our study suggests that some COVID-19 patients may not have detectable NAb after recovery SARS-CoV-2 NAb titers are positively correlated with severity of COVID-19 pneumonia

9.
J Clin Nurs ; 2020 Jul 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-672016

ABSTRACT

AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To explore the role of resilience in anxiety and depression and to clarify their relationships among patients with mild symptoms of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Wuhan, China. BACKGROUND: The outbreak of COVID-19 has negatively affected some individuals, but resilience plays a decisive role in the response of individuals under pressure and can help them deal with pressure more effectively. DESIGN: The cross-sectional descriptive correlational survey was reported in line with the STROBE guidelines. SUBJECT AND SETTING: In total, 296 patients from FangCang Hospital in Wuhan, Hubei, China, with mild symptoms of COVID-19 were recruited. METHODS: Participants were recruited through convenience sampling. The data collected included their demographic information, the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. RESULTS: A small number of patients in this study had above threshold anxiety (subthreshold anxiety and major anxiety) and depression (subthreshold depression and major depression). The mean total resilience score of the participants was slightly below the normal level of ordinary Chinese adults. Resilience was inversely associated with and was a protective factor for both anxiety and depression in our samples. Risk factors for anxiety include being female and having colleagues with COVID-19, while a risk factor for depression was having family members with COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that after taking the general demographics into consideration, higher levels of resilience were associated with lower anxiety and depression among mild COVID-19 patients in Wuhan, China. RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE: Health professionals, especially clinical nurses, need to be aware of the psychological status of COVID-19 patients and promote resilience to improve their mental health.

10.
J Virol ; 94(15)2020 07 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-661225

ABSTRACT

The emergence of a novel coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), resulted in a pandemic. Here, we used X-ray structures of human ACE2 bound to the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the spike protein (S) from SARS-CoV-2 to predict its binding to ACE2 proteins from different animals, including pets, farm animals, and putative intermediate hosts of SARS-CoV-2. Comparing the interaction sites of ACE2 proteins known to serve or not serve as receptors allows the definition of residues important for binding. From the 20 amino acids in ACE2 that contact S, up to 7 can be replaced and ACE2 can still function as the SARS-CoV-2 receptor. These variable amino acids are clustered at certain positions, mostly at the periphery of the binding site, while changes of the invariable residues prevent S binding or infection of the respective animal. Some ACE2 proteins even tolerate the loss or acquisition of N-glycosylation sites located near the S interface. Of note, pigs and dogs, which are not infected or are not effectively infected and have only a few changes in the binding site, exhibit relatively low levels of ACE2 in the respiratory tract. Comparison of the RBD of S of SARS-CoV-2 with that from bat coronavirus strain RaTG13 (Bat-CoV-RaTG13) and pangolin coronavirus (Pangolin-CoV) strain hCoV-19/pangolin/Guangdong/1/2019 revealed that the latter contains only one substitution, whereas Bat-CoV-RaTG13 exhibits five. However, ACE2 of pangolin exhibits seven changes relative to human ACE2, and a similar number of substitutions is present in ACE2 of bats, raccoon dogs, and civets, suggesting that SARS-CoV-2 may not be especially adapted to ACE2 of any of its putative intermediate hosts. These analyses provide new insight into the receptor usage and animal source/origin of SARS-CoV-2.IMPORTANCE SARS-CoV-2 is threatening people worldwide, and there are no drugs or vaccines available to mitigate its spread. The origin of the virus is still unclear, and whether pets and livestock can be infected and transmit SARS-CoV-2 are important and unknown scientific questions. Effective binding to the host receptor ACE2 is the first prerequisite for infection of cells and determines the host range. Our analysis provides a framework for the prediction of potential hosts of SARS-CoV-2. We found that ACE2 from species known to support SARS-CoV-2 infection tolerate many amino acid changes, indicating that the species barrier might be low. Exceptions are dogs and especially pigs, which revealed relatively low ACE2 expression levels in the respiratory tract. Monitoring of animals is necessary to prevent the generation of a new coronavirus reservoir. Finally, our analysis also showed that SARS-CoV-2 may not be specifically adapted to any of its putative intermediate hosts.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/physiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Virus Attachment , Animals , Animals, Domestic , Betacoronavirus/metabolism , Chiroptera/virology , Coronavirus Infections/metabolism , Dogs , Glycosylation , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Models, Animal , Pandemics , Pets , Pneumonia, Viral/metabolism , Protein Binding , Protein Conformation , Protein Interaction Domains and Motifs , Raccoons/virology , Sequence Alignment , Sequence Analysis, Protein , Swine , Viverridae/virology
11.
Respir Res ; 21(1): 180, 2020 Jul 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-647137

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In December 2019, the outbreak of a disease subsequently termed COVID-19 occurred in Wuhan, China. The number of cases increased rapidly and spread to six continents. However, there is limited information on the chest computed tomography (CT) results of affected patients. Chest CT can assess the severity of COVID-19 and has sufficient sensitivity to assess changes in response to glucocorticoid therapy. OBJECTIVE: Analyze COVID-19 patients to determine the relationships of clinical characteristics, chest CT score, and levels of inflammatory mediators. METHODS: This retrospective, single-center case series of 108 consecutive hospitalized patients with confirmed COVID-19 at Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College of HUST (Wuhan, China) examined patients admitted from January 28 to February 20, 2020. Patient demographics, comorbidities, clinical findings, chest CT results, and CT scores of affected lung parenchyma were recorded. The relationships between chest CT score with levels of systemic inflammatory mediators were determined. RESULTS: All patients exhibited signs of significant systemic inflammation, including increased levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), procalcitonin, chest CT score, and a decreased lymphocyte (LY) count. Chest CT score had positive associations with white blood cell (WBC) count, CRP, ESR, procalcitonin, and abnormal coagulation function, and a negative association with LY count. Treatment with a glucocorticoid increased the LY count, reduced the CT score and CRP level, and improved coagulation function. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 infection is characterized by a systemic inflammatory response that affects the lungs, blood, digestive system, and circulatory systems. The chest CT score is a good indicator of the extent of systemic inflammation. Glucocorticoid treatment appears to reduce systemic inflammation in these patients.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Adult/diagnostic imaging , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Adult/epidemiology , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Academic Medical Centers , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Blood Chemical Analysis , Blood Sedimentation , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , China/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Female , Hospital Mortality/trends , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Incidence , Leukocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Procalcitonin/metabolism , Radiography, Thoracic/methods , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Adult/physiopathology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Survival Analysis
12.
J Public Health (Oxf) ; 42(3): 656-658, 2020 Aug 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-639185

ABSTRACT

An ongoing outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has rapidly spread in the world, whereas asymptomatic carriers may also play a critical role in the pandemic. We report a familial cluster of COVID-19 caused by one family member before his onset of illness, indicating that it seems to be potentially infectious during the incubation period, even earlier than we expected. Close contact, especially in a small enclosed space, might be the cause of familial transmission. The unsynchronized changes in the clinical symptoms and COVID-19 nucleic acid were found in this case, so consecutive nucleic acid detection of pretty suspected cases was recommended. Family members, especially of whom the confirmed cases contacted with since one incubation period before onset rather than 2 days before onset, should be regarded as close contact and centrally isolated in case of asymptomatic infection already existed in the family.


Subject(s)
Asymptomatic Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Disease Outbreaks/statistics & numerical data , Disease Transmission, Infectious/statistics & numerical data , Family/psychology , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Betacoronavirus , China/epidemiology , Cluster Analysis , Humans
13.
J Med Virol ; 2020 Jun 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-607398

ABSTRACT

Millions of people were infected with the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) all over the world. Data on clinical symptoms of pediatric inpatients with COVID-19 infection were unclear. The aim of study was to investigate the clinical features of pediatric inpatients with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library were searched to seek for studies providing details on pediatric inpatients with SARS-CoV-2 infection which were published from 1st January to 21st April 2020. Studies with more than five pediatric inpatients were included in our meta-analysis.This study was registered in the PROSPERO database (CRD42020183550). As the results shown, fever (46%) and cough (42%) were the main clinical characters of pediatric inpatients with SARS-CoV-2 infection and the other clinical characters, such as diarrhea, vomiting, nasal congestion, and fatigue account for 10% in pediatric inpatients. The proportion of asymptomatic cases was 0.42 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.27-0.59) and severe cases was 0.03 (95% CI: 0.01-0.06). For the laboratory result, leukopenia (21%) and lymphocytosis (22%) were the mainly indicators for pediatric inpatients, followed by high aspartate aminotransferase (19%), lymphopenia (16%), high alanine aminotransferase (15%), high C-reactive protein (17%), leukocytosis (13%), high D-dimer (12%) and high creatine kinase-MB (5%). Regard to chest imaging features, unilateral and bilateral accounts for 22% in pediatric inpatients, respectively. In conclusion, compared with adult inpatients with SARS-CoV-2 infection, the pediatric inpatients had mild clinical characters, lab test indicators, and chest imaging features. More clinical studies focus on the pediatric patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection in other countries should be conducted.

16.
Chin. Trad. Herbal Drugs ; 7(51): 1795-1803, 20200412.
Article in Chinese | ELSEVIER | ID: covidwho-379964

ABSTRACT

Objective: To explore the potential effect of Shengjiang San for inhibiting SARS-CoV-2. Methods: The target genes of Beauveria bassiana, Cryptotympana pustulata, Curcuma longa, Rheum officinale in Shengjiang San were screened out through the database analysis of Encyclopedia of Traditional Chinese Medicine (ETCM), and traditional Chinese medicine system pharmacology platform (TCMSP), Bioinformatics Analysis Tool for Molecular Mechanism of Traditional Chinese Medicine (BATMAN-TCM) and Collective Molecular Activities of Useful Plants (CMAUP). GeneCards database was used to obtain target genes of antivirus. The intersection method was used to obtain the target genes related to the antiviral effect of Shengjiang San. Cytoscape 3.7.2 software was applied for the construction of prescription-CMM-targets (genes) networks. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment analysis and gene ontology (GO) functional enrichment analysis were performed by R language to predict the potential mechanism of Shengjiang San against the virus. TCMSP, CNKI and PubChem databases were used to retrieve the chemical components of B. bassiana, C. pustulata, C. longa and R. officinale in Shengjiang San. AutoDock Vina 1.1.2 was used for molecular docking to study the interactions of each chemical component with SARS-CoV-2 3CL hydrolase or angiotensin converting enzyme II (ACE2). Results: Shengjiang San could play an antiviral role through the corresponding 663 target genes. Top ten pathways were related to antivirus (P < 0.01) in the KEGG pathway enrichment screening, including influenza A, etc. The affinity values of a total of 133 compounds in Shengjiang San were < -29.3 kJ/mol for molecular docking with SARS-CoV-2 3CL hydrolase. The affinity values of 145 compounds for molecular docking with ACE2 were < -29.3 kJ/mol. Conclusion: Shengjiang San could regulate multiple signaling pathways to inhibit virus, and have a potential inhibiting effect on SARS-Cov-2.

17.
J. Inflamm. ; 1(17)20200514.
Article in English | ELSEVIER | ID: covidwho-260363

ABSTRACT

Background: To investigate the efficacy and safety of aerosol inhalation of recombinant human interferon α1b (IFNα1b) injection for noninfluenza viral pneumonia. Methods: One hundred sixty-four patients with noninfluenza viral pneumonia were divided into IFNα1b and control groups. The IFNα1b group received routine treatment + aerosol inhalation of recombinant human IFNα1b injection (50 μg × 2 injections, bid). The control group received routine treatment + IFN analog (two injections, bid). Overall response rate (ORR) of five kinds clinical symptoms. Further outcomes were daily average score and the response rate of each of the symptoms above. Results: A total of 163 patients were included in the full analysis set (FAS) and 151 patients were included in the per-protocol set (PPS). After 7 days of treatment, ORR of clinical symptoms was higher in IFNα1b group than that in control group for both the FAS and PPS. Moreover, after 7 days of treatment, the daily score of three efficacy indexes including expectoration, respiratory rate, and pulmonary rales were improved. The ORRs for expectoration and pulmonary rales were higher in the IFNα1b group than in the control group (P < 0.05). There were no significant differences of the ORRs for coughing, chest pain and respiratory rate between the two groups (P > 0.05). The incidence of adverse events was 6.5% (n = 5) in IFNα1b group and 3.5% (n = 3) in control group (P > 0.05). Conclusion: Aerosol inhalation of recombinant human IFNα1b is safe and it can improve the clinical symptoms of noninfluenza viral pneumonia.

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