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1.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 30(32): 79386-79401, 2023 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20239653

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 severely affected the world in 2020. Taking the two outbreaks in China in 2020 and 2022 as examples, the spatiotemporal changes in surface water quality levels and CODMn and NH3-N concentrations were analyzed, and the relationships between the variations in the two pollutants and environmental and social factors were evaluated. The results showed that during the two lockdowns, due to the total water consumption (including industrial, agricultural, and domestic water) decreased, the proportion of good water quality increased by 6.22% and 4.58%, and the proportion of polluted water decreased by 6.00% and 3.98%, the quality of water environment has been improved significantly. However, the proportion of excellent water quality decreased by 6.19% after entering the unlocking period. Before the second lockdown period, the average CODMn concentration exhibited a "falling, rising, and falling" trend, while the average NH3-N concentration changed in the opposite direction. The correlation analysis revealed that the increasing trend of pollutant concentrations was positively correlated with longitude and latitude, and weakly correlated with DEM and precipitation. A slight decrease trend in NH3-N concentration was negatively correlated with the population density variation and positively correlated with the temperature variation. The relationship between the change in the number of confirmed cases in provincial regions and the change in pollutant concentrations was uncertain, with positive and negative correlations. This study demonstrates the impact of lockdowns on water quality and the possibility of improving water quality through artificial regulation, which can provide a reference basis for water environmental management.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Water Pollutants, Chemical , Humans , Water Quality , Environmental Monitoring/methods , Rivers , Water Pollutants, Chemical/analysis , Communicable Disease Control , China
2.
J Med Virol ; 95(6): e28871, 2023 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20238610

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 is still spreading globally. Studies have reported the stability of SARS-CoV-2 in aerosols and on surfaces under different conditions. However, studies on the stability of SARS-CoV-2 and viral nucleic acids on common food and packaging material surfaces are insufficient. The study evaluated the stability of SARS-CoV-2 using TCID50 assays and the persistence of SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acids using droplet digital polymerase chain reaction on various food and packaging material surfaces. Viral nucleic acids were stable on food and material surfaces under different conditions. The viability of SARS-CoV-2 varied among different surfaces. SARS-CoV-2 was inactivated on most food and packaging material surfaces within 1 day at room temperature but was more stable at lower temperatures. Viruses survived for at least 1 week on pork and plastic at 4°C, while no viable viruses were detected on hairtail, orange, or carton after 3 days. There were viable viruses and a slight titer decrease after 8 weeks on pork and plastic, but titers decreased rapidly on hairtail and carton at -20°C. These results highlight the need for targeted preventive and disinfection measures based on different types of foods, packaging materials, and environmental conditions, particularly in the cold-chain food trade, to combat the ongoing pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nucleic Acids , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Biological Assay , Plastics
3.
Comput Biol Med ; 163: 107113, 2023 Jun 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20230910

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in 2019 has highlighted the need for automatic diagnosis of the disease, which can develop rapidly into a severe condition. Nevertheless, distinguishing between COVID-19 pneumonia and community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) through computed tomography scans can be challenging due to their similar characteristics. The existing methods often perform poorly in the 3-class classification task of healthy, CAP, and COVID-19 pneumonia, and they have poor ability to handle the heterogeneity of multi-centers data. To address these challenges, we design a COVID-19 classification model using global information optimized network (GIONet) and cross-centers domain adversarial learning strategy. Our approach includes proposing a 3D convolutional neural network with graph enhanced aggregation unit and multi-scale self-attention fusion unit to improve the global feature extraction capability. We also verified that domain adversarial training can effectively reduce feature distance between different centers to address the heterogeneity of multi-center data, and used specialized generative adversarial networks to balance data distribution and improve diagnostic performance. Our experiments demonstrate satisfying diagnosis results, with a mixed dataset accuracy of 99.17% and cross-centers task accuracies of 86.73% and 89.61%.

4.
Allergy Asthma Immunol Res ; 2023 Apr 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2316649

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Asthma is a common chronic inflammatory respiratory tract disease with high morbidity and mortality. The global trends in asthma burden remain poorly understood, and asthma incidence has increased during the worldwide coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. This study aimed to provide a comprehensive view of the global distribution of asthma burden and its attributable risk factors from 1990 to 2019. METHODS: Based on the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019 Database, asthma incidence, deaths, disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), the corresponding age-standardized incidence rate (ASIR), age-standardized death rate (ASDR), age-standardized DALY rate, and estimated annual percentage change were analyzed according to age, sex, sociodemographic index (SDI) quintiles, and locations. Risk factors contributing to asthma deaths and DALYs were also investigated. RESULTS: Globally, the asthma incidence increased by 15%, but deaths and DALYs decreased. The corresponding ASIR, ASDR, and age-standardized DALY rate also decreased. The high SDI region had the highest ASIR, and the low SDI region had the highest ASDR. The ASDR and age-standardized DALY rate were negatively correlated with the SDI. The low-middle SDI region, particularly South Asia, showed the highest asthma-related deaths and DALYs. The incidence peak was under 9 years old, and more than 70% of all deaths occurred in the population over 60 years old. Smoking, occupational asthmagens, and a high body mass index were the main risk factors for asthma-related mortality and DALYs, and their distributions varied between sexes. CONCLUSIONS: Globally, the asthma incidence has increased since 1990. The greatest asthma burden is borne by the low-middle SDI region. The 2 groups that need special attention are those under 9 years old and those over 60 years old. Targeted strategies are needed to reduce the asthma burden based on geographic and sex-age characteristics. Our findings also provide a platform for further investigation into the asthma burden in the era of COVID-19.

5.
Adv Sci (Weinh) ; : e2207474, 2023 May 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2316532

ABSTRACT

Vaccination is a cost-effective medical intervention. Inactivated whole virusor large protein fragments-based severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) vaccines have high unnecessary antigenic load to induce allergenicity and/orreactogenicity, which can be avoided by peptide vaccines of short peptide fragments that may induce highly targeted immune response. However, epitope identification and peptide delivery remain the major obstacles in developing peptide vaccines. Here, a multi-source data integrated linear B-cell epitope screening strategy is presented and a linear B-cell epitope enriched hotspot region is identified in Spike protein, from which a monomeric peptide vaccine (Epitope25) is developed and applied to subcutaneously immunize wildtype BALB/c mice. Indirect ELISA assay reveals specific and dose-dependent binding between Epitope25 and serum IgG antibodies from immunized mice. The neutralizing activity of sera from vaccinated mice is validated by pseudo and live SARS-CoV-2 wild-type strain neutralization assays. Then a dissolvable microneedle array (DMNA) is developed to pain-freely deliver Epitope25. Compared with intramuscular injection, DMNA and subcutaneous injection elicit neutralizing activities against SARS-CoV-2 wild-type strain as demonstrated by live SARS-CoV-2 virus neutralization assay. No obvious damages are found in major organs of immunized mice. This study may lay the foundation for developing linear B-cell epitope-based vaccines against SARS-CoV-2.

6.
Bioeng Transl Med ; 8(3): e10475, 2023 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2320823

ABSTRACT

In patients with mild osteoarthritis (OA), two to four monthly injections are required for 6 months due to the degradation of hyaluronic acid (HA) by peroxidative cleavage and hyaluronidase. However, frequent injections may lead to local infection and also cause inconvenience to patients during the COVID-19 pandemic. Herein, we developed a novel HA granular hydrogel (n-HA) with improved degradation resistance. The chemical structure, injectable capability, morphology, rheological properties, biodegradability, and cytocompatibility of the n-HA were investigated. In addition, the effects of the n-HA on the senescence-associated inflammatory responses were studied via flow cytometry, cytochemical staining, Real time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR), and western blot analysis. Importantly, the treatment outcome of the n-HA with one single injection relative to the commercial HA product with four consecutive injections within one treatment course in an OA mouse model underwent anterior cruciate ligament transection (ACLT) was systematically evaluated. Our developed n-HA exhibited a perfect unification of high crosslink density, good injectability, excellent resistance to enzymatic hydrolysis, satisfactory biocompatibility, and anti-inflammatory responses through a series of in vitro studies. Compared to the commercial HA product with four consecutive injections, a single injection of n-HA contributed to equivalent treatment outcomes in an OA mouse model in terms of histological analysis, radiographic, immunohistological, and molecular analysis results. Furthermore, the amelioration effect of the n-HA on OA development was partially ascribed to the attenuation of chondrocyte senescence, thereby leading to inhibition of TLR-2 expression and then blockade of NF-κB activation. Collectively, the n-HA may be a promising therapeutic alternative to current commercial HA products for OA treatment.

8.
Practical Geriatrics ; 36(12):1255-1258, 2022.
Article in Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2320834

ABSTRACT

Objective: To explore the distribution and correlation of pathogens in the elderly patients with AECOPD, so as to guide the rational use of antibiotics and hormones in clinic. Methods: A total of 111 patients with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) admitted to Nanjing First Hospital from January 2019 to January 2020 were retrospectively analyzed. The basic data such as eosinophil, neutrophil and lymphocyte count, the levels of C-reactive protein(CRP) and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR)in blood routine examination were collected. Further, the pathogens were qualified by sputum fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and the pathogens distribution was analyzed. Results: The level of ESR and the ratio of cardiovascular diseases showed significant differences between the pathogen-positive group and pathogen-negative group. In this study, the top five pathogens in AECOPD patients were EB virus (21.6%), Haemophilus influenzae (19.8%), Streptococcus pneumoniae (17.1%), herpes simplex virus(14.4%), influenza A virus(14.4%). The detection rate of influenza A virus was correlated with influenza B virus and Aspergillus (P < 0.05);The detection rate of respiratory syncytial virus was correlated with Candida, Moraxella catarrholis, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae (P < 0.05);The detection rate of Escherichia coli was correlated with rhinovirus, adenovirus, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Acinetobacter baumannii (P < 0.05);The detection rate of Candida was correlated with that of Moraxella catarrholis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa(P<0.05);The detection rate of human coronavirus was correlated with Haemophilus influenzae, herpes simplex virus and Streptococcus pneumoniae(P < 0.05). Conclusions: AECOPD are mostly induced by different pathogens, especially mixed infection of bacteria and virus. It is helpful to guide the rational use of antibiotics by analyzing the etiological characteristics in the elderly patients with AECOPD.

9.
Asia Pacific Journal of Education ; 43(2):623-625, 2023.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2320833
10.
J Psychiatr Res ; 162: 79-87, 2023 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2295339

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Currently, there is increasing evidence from clinic, epidemiology, as well as neuroimaging, demonstrating neuropsychiatric abnormalities in COVID-19, however, whether there were associations between brain changes caused by COVID-19 and genetic susceptibility of psychiatric disorders was still unknown. METHODS: In this study, we performed a meta-analysis to investigate these associations by combing single-cell RNA sequencing datasets of brain tissues of COVID-19 and genome-wide association study summary statistics of psychiatric disorders. RESULTS: The analysis demonstrated that among ten psychiatric disorders, gene expression perturbations implicated by COVID-19 in excitatory neurons of choroid plexus were significantly associated with schizophrenia. CONCLUSIONS: Our analysis might provide insights for the underlying mechanism of the psychiatric consequence of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mental Disorders , Humans , Genome-Wide Association Study/methods , Mental Disorders/genetics , Genetic Predisposition to Disease/genetics , Brain/diagnostic imaging , Brain/metabolism , Gene Expression , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide
11.
Front Psychol ; 14: 1120662, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2294457

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has significantly changed the teaching model, promoting educational institutions to initiate more explorations in online teaching. This study examines the factors influencing teachers' online teaching performance and satisfaction in universities during the COVID-19. We applied a model of technology acceptance (TAM), expectation confirmation (ECM), and computer self-efficacy (CSE) to develop a questionnaire. The survey was used to collect data from 347 teachers from 6 universities in eastern China to identify factors affecting teachers' performance and satisfaction during the COVID-19. The results indicated that teachers' performance of online teaching is significantly affected by satisfaction, perceived usefulness, and perceived ease of use of online teaching. Meanwhile, confirmation of online teaching expectations and computer self-efficacy significantly impacted teachers' satisfaction with online teaching. This work is an original empirical study guided by multiple theories. It contributes to the online education literature and provides advice regarding how teachers' online teaching satisfaction and performance can be developed in a situation like the one that occurred with COVID-19. This work also broadens the application of TAM and provides an alternative theoretical framework for future research on teachers' online teaching performance.

12.
World J Hepatol ; 15(3): 353-363, 2023 Mar 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2306255

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) poses an extremely serious global impact on public healthcare for individuals of all ages, including children. Increasing evidence has shown that liver abnormalities are commonly found in children with COVID-19, and age-related features in innate and adaptive response have been demonstrated. However, there are few reports and studies on COVID-19 related liver injury in children, and the data are scattered. So that many contradictions have arose. This situation is not only due to the serious ethical issues in studying pediatric patients with COVID-19, but also because of the short duration and wide coverage of the COVID-19 epidemic, the severity and complexity of clinical cases varied, as did the inclusion criteria for case reporting and patient outcomes. Therefore, we totaled the incidences, characteristics and pathomechanism of liver injury in children since the COVID-19 outbreak. The etiology of COVID-19-related liver injury is divided into three categories: (1) The direct mechanism involves severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 binding to angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 in the liver or bile duct to exert direct toxicity; (2) the indirect mechanisms include an inflammatory immune response and hypoxia; and (3) COVID-19-related treatments, such as mechanical ventilation and antiviral drugs, may cause liver injury. In summary, this minireview provides fundamental insights into COVID-19 and liver dysfunction in children.

13.
Emerging Markets, Finance & Trade ; 58(1):11-23, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2306489

ABSTRACT

One of the most serious risks from COVID-19 is a financial crisis for a company. Governments and central banks have used both fiscal and monetary tools on a large scale to alleviate the financial crises of companies. We build a cross-sectional model to explore who obtained more bank loans after the outbreak of COVID-19. Using data from China's listed companies, we find that real estate companies and state-owned companies obtained more bank loans. In addition, there is no evidence that industries more severely affected by the virus obtained more bank loans. Our findings demonstrate that the misallocation of credit in China worsened after the outbreak of COVID-19.

14.
J Med Virol ; 95(4): e28719, 2023 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2299549

ABSTRACT

The innate immune response is the first line of host defense against viral infections, but its role in immunity against SARS-CoV-2 remains unclear. By using immunoprecipitation coupled with mass spectroscopy, we observed that the E3 ubiquitin ligase TRIM21 interacted with the SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid (N) protein and ubiquitinated it at Lys375 . Upon determining the topology of the TRIM21-mediated polyubiquitination chain on N protein, we then found that polyubiquitination led to tagging of the N protein for degradation by the host cell proteasome. Furthermore, TRIM21 also ubiquitinated the N proteins of SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern, including Alpha, Beta, Gamma, Delta, and Omicron together with SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV variants. Herein, we propose that ubiquitylation and degradation of the SARS-CoV-2 N protein inhibited SARS-CoV-2 viral particle assembly, by which it probably involved in preventing cytokine storm. Eventually, our study has fully revealed the association between the host innate immune system and SARS-CoV-2 N protein, which may aid in developing novel SARS-CoV-2 treatment strategies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Immunity, Innate , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Ubiquitin/metabolism , Ubiquitination , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/metabolism
15.
Front Neurol ; 14: 1124540, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2298756

ABSTRACT

Anti-contactin-1 (CNTN1) IgG4 antibody-associated nodopathies is an autoimmune antibody-mediated peripheral neuropathy with a unique clinical presentation, pathophysiology, electrophysiology, and therapeutic response. The critical histopathological features are a dense lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate, a storiform pattern of fibrosis, and obliterative phlebitis. Here, a 62-year-old male patient presented with subacute unilateral limb onset, progressive exacerbation, marked weakness of the extremities, cranial, and autonomic nerve involvement. Neurophysiology showed slowed motor nerve conduction velocity (MCV), prolonged distal motor delay (DML), slowed sensory nerve conduction velocity (SCV), decreased sensory nerve activity potential (SNAP) amplitude, decreased amplitude of bilateral neuromotor conduction, abnormal cutaneous sympathetic response (SSR) in both lower extremities, axonal damage, prolonged F-wave latency, and discrete waves. In the initial phase, there was a response to intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG), and corticosteroids and rituximab were also effective. After 1 year follow-up, the patient improved significantly. This article reports on a patient with nodular disease with anti-contactin-1 (CNTN1) IgG4 antibodies and reviews the literature to improve clinicians' understanding of the disease.

16.
Int J Clin Pract ; 2023: 6746045, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2297221

ABSTRACT

Objective: COVID-19 has evolved into a major global public health event. The number of people reporting insomnia is growing exponentially during the pandemic. This study aimed to explore the relationship between aggravated insomnia and COVID-19-induced psychological impact on the public, lifestyle changes, and anxiety about the future. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, we used the questionnaires from 400 subjects who were obtained from the Department of Encephalopathy of the Wuhan Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine between July 2020 and July 2021. The data collected for the study included demographic characteristics of the participants and psychological scales consisting of the Spiegel Sleep Questionnaire, the Fear of COVID-19 Scale (FCV-19S), the Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS), and the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS). The independent sample t-test and one-way ANOVA were used to compare the results. Correlation analysis of variables affecting insomnia was performed using Pearson correlation analysis. The degree of influence of the variables on insomnia was determined using linear regression, and a regression equation was derived. Results: A total of 400 insomnia patients participated in the survey. The median age was 45.75 ± 15.04 years. The average score of the Spiegel Sleep Questionnaire was 17.29 ± 6.36, that of SAS was 52.47 ± 10.39, that of SDS was 65.89 ± 8.72, and that of FCV-19S was 16.09 ± 6.81. The scores of FCV-19S, SAS, and SDS were closely related to insomnia, and the influencing degree was in the following order: fear, depression, and anxiety (OR = 1.30, 0.709, and 0.63, respectively). Conclusion: Fear of COVID-19 can be one of the primary contributors to worsening insomnia.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders , Humans , Adult , Middle Aged , Linear Models , Sleep Quality , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/epidemiology , Pandemics , Cross-Sectional Studies , COVID-19/epidemiology , Regression Analysis , Anxiety/epidemiology , Depression/epidemiology
17.
Comput Struct Biotechnol J ; 19: 1933-1943, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2268879

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 is a kind of viral pneumonia caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). However, the mechanism whereby SARS-CoV-2 invades host cells remains poorly understood. Here we used SARS-CoV-2 pseudoviruses to infect human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) expressing HEK293T cells and evaluated virus infection. We confirmed that SARS-CoV-2 entry was dependent on ACE2 and sensitive to pH of endosome/lysosome in HEK293T cells. The infection of SARS-CoV-2 pseudoviruses is independent of dynamin, clathrin, caveolin and endophilin A2, as well as macropinocytosis. Instead, we found that the infection of SARS-CoV-2 pseudoviruses was cholesterol-rich lipid raft dependent. Cholesterol depletion of cell membranes with methyl-ß-cyclodextrin resulted in reduction of pseudovirus infection. The infection of SARS-CoV-2 pseudoviruses resumed with cholesterol supplementation. Together, cholesterol-rich lipid rafts, and endosomal acidification, are key steps of SARS-CoV-2 required for infection of host cells. Therefore, our finding expands the understanding of SARS-CoV-2 entry mechanism and provides a new anti-SARS-CoV-2 strategy.

18.
J Med Virol ; 95(4): e28680, 2023 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2256895

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 has developed a variety of approaches to counteract host innate antiviral immunity to facilitate its infection, replication and pathogenesis, but the molecular mechanisms that it employs are still not been fully understood. Here, we found that SARS-CoV-2 NSP8 inhibited the production of type I and III interferons (IFNs) by acting on RIG-I/MDA5 and the signaling molecules TRIF and STING. Overexpression of NSP8 downregulated the expression of type I and III IFNs stimulated by poly (I:C) transfection and infection with SeV and SARS-CoV-2. In addition, NSP8 impaired IFN expression triggered by overexpression of the signaling molecules RIG-I, MDA5, and MAVS, instead of TBK1 and IRF3-5D, an active form of IRF3. From a mechanistic view, NSP8 interacts with RIG-I and MDA5, and thereby prevents the assembly of the RIG-I/MDA5-MAVS signalosome, resulting in the impaired phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of IRF3. NSP8 also suppressed the TRIF- and STING- induced IFN expression by directly interacting with them. Moreover, ectopic expression of NSP8 promoted virus replications. Taken together, SARS-CoV-2 NSP8 suppresses type I and III IFN responses by disturbing the RIG-I/MDA5-MAVS complex formation and targeting TRIF and STING signaling transduction. These results provide new insights into the pathogenesis of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Adaptor Proteins, Vesicular Transport/genetics , Interferon-Induced Helicase, IFIH1/genetics , Interferons , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Signal Transduction
19.
Front Public Health ; 11: 1077075, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2258707

ABSTRACT

Background: The global epidemiological situation of COVID-19 remains serious. The rapid hunting of SARS-CoV-2 infection is the key means for preventing transmission. Methods: A total of 40,689 consecutive overseas arrivals were screened for SARS-CoV-2 infection based on PCR and serologic testing. The yield and efficiency of different screening algorithms were evaluated. Result: Among the 40,689 consecutive overseas arrivals, 56 (0.14%) subjects were confirmed to have SARS-CoV-2 infection. The asymptomatic rate was 76.8%. When the algorithm based on PCR alone was used, the identification yield of a single round of PCR (PCR1) was only 39.3% (95% CI: 26.1-52.5%). It took at least four rounds of PCR to achieve a yield of 92.9% (95% CI: 85.9-99.8%). Fortunately, an algorithm based on a single round of PCR combined with a single round of serologic testing (PCR1+ Ab1) greatly improved the screening yield to 98.2% (95% CI: 94.6-100.0%) and required 42,299 PCR and 40,689 serologic tests that cost 6,052,855 yuan. By achieving a similar yield, the cost of PCR1+ Ab1 was 39.2% of that of four rounds of PCR. For hunting one case in PCR1+ Ab1, 769 PCR and 740 serologic tests were required, costing 110,052 yuan, which was 63.0% of that of the PCR1 algorithm. Conclusion: Comparing an algorithm based on PCR alone, PCR combined with a serologic testing algorithm greatly improved the yield and efficiency of the identification of SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19 , Humans , Algorithms , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Microbiol Spectr ; : e0278322, 2023 Mar 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2282988

ABSTRACT

Inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccines have been deployed in a significant portion of the world population, who have widely varied responses to vaccination. Understanding this differential response would help the development of new vaccines for non-responders. Here, we conducted surveillance of anti-Spike receptor-binding domain (RBD) antibody levels in a large cohort of 534 healthy Chinese subjects vaccinated with two doses of inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccines. We show that the positive rate of antibodies among vaccinated subjects rapidly wanes as the interval between antibody testing and vaccination increases (14 to 119 days: 81.03%, 363 of 448 subjects; 120 to 149 days: 46.43%, 13 of 28 subjects; more than 150 days: 20%, 1 of 5 subjects). However, the antibodies were maintained at high levels in 16 convalescent COVID-19 patients at more than 150 days after recovery. We also found that increased age and body mass index are associated with decreased antibody levels. Vaccinated subjects who fail to produce antibodies display impaired B-cell activating humoral immunity, which was confirmed in COVID-19 patients without antibodies detected at 4 to 18 days after diagnosis. IMPORTANCE Our study illustrates the immune responses engaged by encountering antigen, highlighting the critical roles of B-cell activating humoral immunity in the body's antibody production.

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