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1.
Viruses ; 15(1):96, 2023.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-2166949

ABSTRACT

From July-November 2020, mink (Neogale vison) on 12 Utah farms experienced an increase in mortality rates due to confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection. We conducted epidemiologic investigations on six farms to identify the source of virus introduction, track cross-species transmission, and assess viral evolution. Interviews were conducted and specimens were collected from persons living or working on participating farms and from multiple animal species. Swabs and sera were tested by SARS-CoV-2 real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) and serological assays, respectively. Whole genome sequencing was attempted for specimens with cycle threshold values <30. Evidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection was detected by rRT-PCR or serology in ≥1 person, farmed mink, dog, and/or feral cat on each farm. Sequence analysis showed high similarity between mink and human sequences on corresponding farms. On farms sampled at multiple time points, mink tested rRT-PCR positive up to 16 weeks post-onset of increased mortality. Workers likely introduced SARS-CoV-2 to mink, and mink transmitted SARS-CoV-2 to other animal species;mink-to-human transmission was not identified. Our findings provide critical evidence to support interventions to prevent and manage SARS-CoV-2 in people and animals on mink farms and emphasizes the importance of a One Health approach to address emerging zoonoses.

2.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 12: 935280, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2154687

ABSTRACT

The use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has raised great concerns. The effect of NSAIDs on the clinical status of COVID-19 remains in question. Therefore, we performed a post-hoc analysis from the ORCHID trial. Patients with COVID-19 from the ORCHID trial were categorized into two groups according to NSAID use. The 28-day mortality, hospitalized discharge, and safety outcomes with NSAIDs for patients with COVID-19 were analyzed. A total of 476 hospitalized patients with COVID-19 were included; 412 patients (86.5%) did not receive NSAIDs, while 64 patients (13.5%) took NSAIDs as regular home medication. Patients who took NSAIDs did not have a significant increase in the risk of 28-day mortality (fully adjusted: hazard ratio [HR]: 1.12, 95% CI: 0.52-2.42) in the Cox multivariate analysis. Moreover, NSAIDs did not decrease hospital discharge through 28 days (fully adjusted: HR: 1.02, 95% CI: 0.75-1.37). The results of a meta-analysis including 14 studies involving 48,788 patients with COVID-19 showed that the use of NSAIDs had a survival benefit (summary risk ratio [RR]: 0.70, 95% CI: 0.54-0.91) and decreased the risk of severe COVID-19 (summary: RR: 0.79, 95% CI: 0.71-0.88). In conclusion, the use of NSAIDs is not associated with worse clinical outcomes, including 28-day mortality or hospital discharge in American adult hospitalized patients with COVID-19. Based on current evidence, the use of NSAIDs is safe and should not be cautioned against during the COVID-19 pandemic. Ongoing trials should further assess in-hospital treatment with NSAIDs for patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Humans , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Hospitalization , Pandemics , Meta-Analysis as Topic
3.
Journal of combinatorial optimization ; 45(1), 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2125415

ABSTRACT

Green stocks are companies environmental protective and friendly. We test Green stock index in Shanghai Stock Exchange and China Securities Index as safe-havens for global investors. Suitable multivariate-SV model and Bayesian method are used to estimate the spillover effect between different assets among local and global markets. We choose multivariate volatility model because it can efficiently simulate the spillover effect by using machine learning MCMC method. The results show that the Environmental Protection Index (EPI) of Shanghai Stock Exchange (SSE) and China Securities Index (CSI) have no significant volatility spillover from Shanghai Stock index, S &P index, gold price, oil future prices of USA and China. During COVID-19 pandemic, we find Green stock index is a suitable safe-haven with low volatility spillover. Green stock indexes has a strongly one-way spillover to the crude oil future price. Environmentally friendly investor can use diversity green assets to provide a low risk investment portfolio in EPI stock market. The DCGCt-MSV model using machine learning of MCMC method is accurate and outperform others in Bayes parameter estimation.

4.
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health ; 19(23):15977, 2022.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-2143147

ABSTRACT

Job role ambiguity is becoming more and more common due to the increase in telecommuting caused by the COVID-19 epidemic. In order to understand the internal mechanism of the association between role ambiguity and creativity, this study examined it in the context of the Demands-Resources-Individual Effects (DRIVE) model. Participants were employees from all walks of life in mainland China, with a total of 437 valid data. The results showed that role ambiguity had no significant direct effect on creativity but exerted a negative effect on creativity through the chain mediating effect of affective rumination and perceived stress. A good relationship with a supervisor helped employees reduce their affective rumination when faced with the pressure of role ambiguity. The results show that how employees perceive role ambiguity plays an essential role in determining the potency of the after-effect of role ambiguity. Resources from supervisors can help reduce the negative perception of ambiguous roles.

5.
Infect Drug Resist ; 15: 6695-6701, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2141130

ABSTRACT

Background: "Pneumonia Prevention No.1" belongs to 'traditional Chinese medicine prescription for prevention of viral pneumonia and influenza' was urgently formulated by Notice on Printing the Novel Coronavirus Diagnosis and Treatment Scheme for COVID-19 (Trial Version 3) and Traditional Chinese Medicine Prevention and Treatment Scheme for COVID-19 in Hubei Province (Trial). Because the prescription drug has the bidirectional regulation function of human immune function, moderate improvement of immune function can effectively resist virus invasion, while excessive immune function will produce immune overresponse. Excessive immune response will aggravate the condition of patients with COVID-19, resulting in the death of severe patients. Methods: Twenty medical workers aged 20-60 years old, who had no immune disease, no current disease and healthy physical examination, were selected as participants. The participants took Hubei "Pneumonia Prevention No.1" decoction, one dosage each day, twice a day, for 7 consecutive days. With the before-after control method, blood samples were collected from the median cubital veins before and after medication. Immunoglobulin IgA, IgG and IgM were measured by immunoturbidimetry, and T lymphocyte subsets CD3, CD4, CD8 and CD4/CD8 were measured by flow cytometry. The changes of indexes before and after medication were compared with SPPS 13.0 statistical software. The data were expressed by (mean ± standard deviation). T-test was adopted, and P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant (P < 0.05). Results: The results of this study show that in healthy participants, the immunoglobulin and T lymphocyte subsets did not differ significantly before and after drug administration (P > 0.05). Conclusion: Under normal drug administration circumstances, "Pneumonia Prevention No. 1" had no significant regulating effect on the immune system in a healthy population and did not increase the immune system capacity beyond a reasonable range. It is safe to be used as a prophylactic measure in healthy populations.

6.
Virol J ; 19(1): 192, 2022 11 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2139349

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a respiratory disorder caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which had rapidly spread all over the world and caused public health emergencies in the past two years. Although the diagnosis and treatment for COVID-19 have been well defined, the immune cell characteristics and the key lymphocytes subset alterations in COVID-19 patients have not been thoroughly investigated. METHODS: The levels of immune cells including T cells, B cells, and natural killer (NK) cells in 548 hospitalized COVID-19 patients, and 30 types of lymphocyte subsets in 125 hospitalized COVID-19 patients admitted to Wuhan Huoshenshan Hospital of China were measured using flow cytometry. The relationship between lymphocytes subsets with the cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6) and the characteristics of lymphocyte subsets in single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) data obtained from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were also analysed in COVID-19 patients. RESULTS: In this study, we found that patients with critical COVID-19 infection exhibited an overall decline in lymphocytes including CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells, total T cells, B cells, and NK cells compared to mild and severe patients. However, the number of lymphocyte subsets, such as CD21low CD38low B cells, effector T4 cells, and PD1+ depleted T8 cells, was moderately increased in critical COVID-19 patients compared to mild cases. Notably, except for effector memory T4 cells, plasma blasts and Tregs, the number of all lymphocyte subsets was markedly decreased in COVID-19 patients with IL-6 levels over 30-fold higher than those in healthy cases. Moreover, scRNA-seq data showed obvious differences in the distribution and numbers of lymphocyte subsets between COVID-19 patients and healthy persons, and subsets-specific marker genes of lymphocyte subsets including CD4, CD19, CCR7, and IL7R, were markedly decreased in COVID-19 patients compared with those in healthy cases. CONCLUSION: A comprehensive decrease in immune cell and lymphocyte subsets in critical COVID-19 patients, and peripheral lymphocyte subset alterations showed a clear association with clinical characteristics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes , Leukocytes, Mononuclear , Interleukin-6 , SARS-CoV-2 , Lymphocyte Subsets , Severity of Illness Index
7.
Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Management ; 53:208-213, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2122599

ABSTRACT

This study aims to examine whether and how COVID-19 has changed the effects of consumer evaluations of hotel attributes on customer satisfaction. We extracted positive and negative evaluations of hotel attributes from online reviews both pre- and post-COVID-19 and examined their effects on customer satisfaction. Using a sample of 1,947,391 reviews of 35,022 Chinese hotels collected from ctrip.com, we conducted a fine-grained sentiment analysis based on sentiment triples to identify important positive and negative evaluations of hotel attributes. Subsequently, we applied regression analyses to examine how these evaluations of hotel attributes influenced customer satisfaction. The results revealed that positive and negative evaluations of hotel attributes had differentiated effects on customer satisfaction. We classified these attributes into basic, excitement, and performance attributes, from which management implications can be derived.

8.
International Journal of Information Management ; 69:102600, 2023.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2122521

ABSTRACT

Requesting personal information in frontline service encounters raises privacy concerns among customers. The proximity contact tracing that occurred during the COVID-19 pandemic provides an intriguing context of information requests. Hospitality venues required contact tracing details from customers, and customer cooperation varied with concerns about privacy. Drawing on gossip theory, we investigate the roles of businesses’ data privacy practices and government support in driving customers’ responses to contact tracing. Our findings show that perceived transparency of a business’s privacy practices has a positive effect on customers’ commitment to the business, while perceived control exerts a negative effect on commitment. These effects are mediated by customers’ information falsification rather than disclosure, because the former is a sensitive behavioral indicator of privacy concerns. The results also reveal the moderating roles of government support. This research contributes to the customer data privacy literature by demonstrating the distinct effects of perceived transparency and control on commitment and revealing the underlying mechanism. Moreover, the research extends the conceptual understanding of privacy practices from online contexts to face-to-face contexts of frontline service. The findings offer implications for the management of customer data privacy.

9.
Frontiers in psychology ; 13, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1842483

ABSTRACT

Innovation is the soul of a nation’s progress and the inexhaustible driving force for a country’s prosperity. Cultivating students’ innovative abilities is an inevitable requirement for China to rejuvenate the country through science and education and build an innovative country, and it is also an important goal of the current education reform. In the internet era and the background of global epidemic prevention, the blended teaching model integrating online and offline will become a new normal mode. By comparing the advantages and disadvantages of online teaching and 8 traditional offline teachings, this paper discusses how to make full use of the online and offline blended teaching modes to better promote the cultivation of students’ ability for creative idea generation .

10.
Zhongguo Bingdubing Zazhi = Chinese Journal of Viral Diseases ; - (5):390, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2118538

ABSTRACT

Herpes zoster is a cluster blister disease that often occurs on the skin of the elderly, immunocompromised individuals and patients with chronic diseases, which is caused by the reactivation of varicella zoster virus dormant in neurons.The persistent pain of herpes zoster tortures patients and is responsible for serious mental and economic burden.With no effective drug treatment for patients, vaccination becomes more important in disease prevention.Now live attenuated vaccine and recombinant protein vaccine with adjuvant are clinically available abroad.Based on the clinical data, recombinant protein vaccine with adjuvant is the preferred one recommended by CDC.In China, many enterprises perform clinical studies on the two vaccines.However, due to the limitation of adjuvant supply, recombinant protein vaccines have not been widely provided.With the global pandemic of COVID-19, mRNA vaccine becomes a hotspot worldwide.Domestic biological enterprises should actively develop new herpes zoster vaccine to fill the vaccine vacancies in China and to enhance market competitiveness.This article briefly reviews the research progress and development of herpes zoster vaccine in various vaccine platforms.

11.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 18(10): e1010636, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2112639

ABSTRACT

Early and accurate detection of viruses in clinical and environmental samples is essential for effective public healthcare, treatment, and therapeutics. While PCR detects potential pathogens with high sensitivity, it is difficult to scale and requires knowledge of the exact sequence of the pathogen. With the advent of next-gen single-cell sequencing, it is now possible to scrutinize viral transcriptomics at the finest possible resolution-cells. This newfound ability to investigate individual cells opens new avenues to understand viral pathophysiology with unprecedented resolution. To leverage this ability, we propose an efficient and accurate computational pipeline, named Venus, for virus detection and integration site discovery in both single-cell and bulk-tissue RNA-seq data. Specifically, Venus addresses two main questions: whether a tissue/cell type is infected by viruses or a virus of interest? And if infected, whether and where has the virus inserted itself into the human genome? Our analysis can be broken into two parts-validation and discovery. Firstly, for validation, we applied Venus on well-studied viral datasets, such as HBV- hepatocellular carcinoma and HIV-infection treated with antiretroviral therapy. Secondly, for discovery, we analyzed datasets such as HIV-infected neurological patients and deeply sequenced T-cells. We detected viral transcripts in the novel target of the brain and high-confidence integration sites in immune cells. In conclusion, here we describe Venus, a publicly available software which we believe will be a valuable virus investigation tool for the scientific community at large.


Subject(s)
HIV Infections , Liver Neoplasms , Viruses , Humans , RNA-Seq , Sequence Analysis, RNA , Software
12.
Transl Cancer Res ; 11(10): 3774-3779, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2111303

ABSTRACT

Background: The 2019 novel coronavirus (COVID-19) global pandemic has greatly changed the mode of hospital admissions. This study summarized and analyzed the incidence of severe diarrhea and anastomotic leakage during different periods for colorectal cancer surgery. Methods: From January 2017 to September 2020, 2,619 colorectal operations were performed in Peking Union Medical College Hospital. In contrast with previous years, enhanced hand hygiene training, more frequent ventilation of the wards, and separate bed treatments for patients were implemented in 2020. Data on incidence of severe diarrhea and anastomotic leakage were retrieved and collected. Results: The number of cases of severe diarrhea after colorectal surgery was 32 (4.60%), 24 (3.33%), 32 (3.83%), and 11 (2.99%) in 2017, 2018, 2019, and 2020 respectively, while the incidence of anastomotic leakage was 3.30% (23/696), 3.75% (27/720), 2.87% (24/835), and 2.17% (8/368), respectively. There was no significant difference in the incidence of postoperative severe diarrhea or anastomotic leakage across the various years. Conclusions: The number of colorectal surgeries in 2020 was significantly decreased due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Among the different years, no difference was observed regarding the incidence of postoperative flora disorder or anastomosis leakage. Enhanced hygiene measures during the COVID-19 epidemic partially contributed to the decrease of severe diarrhea and anastomotic leakage.

13.
Front Immunol ; 13: 954177, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2109763

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 vaccination has been recommended for liver transplant (LT) recipients. However, our understanding of inactivated vaccine stimulation of the immune system in regulating humoral and cellular immunity among LT recipients is inadequate. Forty-six LT recipients who received two-dose inactivated vaccines according to the national vaccination schedule were enrolled. The clinical characteristics, antibody responses, single-cell peripheral immune profiling, and plasma cytokine/chemokine/growth factor levels were recorded. Sixteen (34.78%) LT recipients with positive neutralizing antibody (nAb) were present in the Type 1 group. Fourteen and 16 LT recipients with undetected nAb were present in the Type 2 and Type 3 groups, respectively. Time from transplant and lymphocyte count were different among the three groups. The levels of anti-RBD and anti-S1S2 decreased with decreasing neutralizing inhibition rates. Compared to the Type 2 and Type 3 groups, the Type 1 group had an enhanced innate immune response. The proportions of B, DNT, and CD3+CD19+ cells were increased in the Type 1 group, whereas monocytes and CD4+ T cells were decreased. High CD19, high CD8+CD45RA+ cells, and low effector memory CD4+/naïve CD4+ cells of the T-cell populations were present in the Type 1 group. The Type 1 group had higher concentrations of plasma CXCL10, MIP-1 beta, and TNF-alpha. No severe adverse events were reported in all LT recipients. We identified the immune responses induced by inactivated vaccines among LT recipients and provided insights into the identification of immunotypes associated with the responders.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Liver Transplantation , Viral Vaccines , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibody Formation , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , Vaccines, Inactivated
14.
STAR Protoc ; 3(4): 101794, 2022 12 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2106167

ABSTRACT

Discovery of efficacious antiviral agents targeting SARS-CoV-2 main protease (Mpro) is of the highest importance to fight against COVID-19. Here, we describe a simple protocol for high-throughput screening of Mpro inhibitors using a robust fluorescence polarization (FP) assay. Candidate Mpro inhibitors from large compound libraries could be rapidly identified by monitoring the change of millipolarization unit value. This affordable FP assay can be modified to screen antiviral agents targeting virus protease. For complete details on the use and execution of this protocol, please refer to Li et al. (2022), Yan et al. (2021), and Yan et al. (2022c).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , High-Throughput Screening Assays , Humans , COVID-19/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Nonstructural Proteins , Cysteine Endopeptidases , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Fluorescence Polarization
15.
Ann Transl Med ; 10(20): 1142, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2100656

ABSTRACT

Background and Objective: Aging refers to a progressive decrease in functional performance, leading to increased mortality risk. At present, life expectancy is increasing worldwide and is expected to exceed 80 years by 2040. However, this increase in life expectancy also indicates a rise in the incidence and prevalence of diseases, such as cardiovascular, neurological, musculoskeletal, and oncological diseases, which are associated with aging. The exact underlying mechanisms of aging remain unknown, and whether it is a programmed process or the consequence of an accumulation of stress events remains unclear. Thus, more scientific research is needed to improve the management of complex and frail patients. Methods: Several databases were searched with the following key words: immunosenescence, inflamm-aging, frailty, sarcopenia and skeletal muscle, etc. Key Content and Findings: Skeletal muscle is the core phenotype of frailty and sarcopenia. Immune aging and skeletal muscle decline interplay with each other and form a vicious circle. Maintaining muscle health is beneficial for immune function and delays the onset of frailty. Particularly, in the context of the ongoing corona virus disease (COVID)-19 pandemic, studies have shown that the elderly are more prone to the consequences of the SARS-CoV-2 virus. It has been reported that the rates of hospitalization in the 65-74, 75-84, and ≥85 years old group were 5×, 8×, and 10× greater than the 18-29 years old group, with corresponding COVID-19-related deaths being 60×, 140×, and 330× that of the younger reference group, respectively. Considering the above, this review aims to discuss the relationship between immunosenescence, skeletal muscle, and frailty, and to explore immunosenescence as a potential therapeutic target to prevent frailty and extend healthspan, with some emphasis on the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on the elderly. Conclusions: Immunosenescence is a promising potential therapeutic target for frailty and is worthy of further investigation.

16.
Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology ; 12, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2093196

ABSTRACT

The use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has raised great concerns. The effect of NSAIDs on the clinical status of COVID-19 remains in question. Therefore, we performed a post-hoc analysis from the ORCHID trial. Patients with COVID-19 from the ORCHID trial were categorized into two groups according to NSAID use. The 28-day mortality, hospitalized discharge, and safety outcomes with NSAIDs for patients with COVID-19 were analyzed. A total of 476 hospitalized patients with COVID-19 were included;412 patients (86.5%) did not receive NSAIDs, while 64 patients (13.5%) took NSAIDs as regular home medication. Patients who took NSAIDs did not have a significant increase in the risk of 28-day mortality (fully adjusted: hazard ratio [HR]: 1.12, 95% CI: 0.52–2.42) in the Cox multivariate analysis. Moreover, NSAIDs did not decrease hospital discharge through 28 days (fully adjusted: HR: 1.02, 95% CI: 0.75–1.37). The results of a meta-analysis including 14 studies involving 48,788 patients with COVID-19 showed that the use of NSAIDs had a survival benefit (summary risk ratio [RR]: 0.70, 95% CI: 0.54–0.91) and decreased the risk of severe COVID-19 (summary: RR: 0.79, 95% CI: 0.71–0.88). In conclusion, the use of NSAIDs is not associated with worse clinical outcomes, including 28-day mortality or hospital discharge in American adult hospitalized patients with COVID-19. Based on current evidence, the use of NSAIDs is safe and should not be cautioned against during the COVID-19 pandemic. Ongoing trials should further assess in-hospital treatment with NSAIDs for patients with COVID-19.

17.
Frontiers in psychology ; 13, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2084318

ABSTRACT

To help optimize online learning platforms for in-service teachers’ professional development, this study aims to develop an instrument to assess the quality of this type of platforms on teacher satisfaction. After reliability and validity tests and expert empowerment, the 27-item instrument was formed. Based on the information systems (IS) success model, this instrument was designed to measure teacher perceptions of the quality of online learning platforms from three dimensions, namely, content quality, technical quality, and service quality. Moreover, the developed instrument was used to analyze the effects of the National Teacher Training Platform amid the COVID-19 outbreak in China. The findings revealed that the improvement of the platform’s style, tool function, operating efficiency, and teaching methods could enhance teachers’ experience of online training.

18.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(10)2022 Oct 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2082011

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Real-world evidence on the effectiveness of inactivated vaccines against the Delta and Omicron (BA.2.38) variants remains scarce. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted to estimate the adjusted vaccine effectiveness (aVE) of one, two, and three doses of inactivated vaccines in attenuating pneumonia, severe COVID-19, and the duration of viral shedding in Delta and Omicron cases using modified Poisson and linear regression as appropriate. RESULTS: A total of 561 COVID-19 cases were included (59.2% Delta and 40.8% Omicron). In total, 56.4% (184) of Delta and 12.0% (27) of Omicron cases had COVID-19 pneumonia. In the two-dose vaccinated population, 1.4% of Delta and 89.1% of Omicron cases were vaccinated for more than 6 months. In Delta cases, the two-dose aVE was 52% (95% confidence interval, 39-63%) against pneumonia and 61% (15%, 82%) against severe disease. Two-dose vaccination reduced the duration of viral shedding in Delta cases, but not in booster-vaccinated Omicron cases. In Omicron cases, three-dose aVE was 68% (18%, 88%) effective against pneumonia, while two-dose vaccination was insufficient for Omicron. E-values were calculated, and the E-values confirmed the robustness of our findings. CONCLUSIONS: In Delta cases, two-dose vaccination within 6 months reduced pneumonia, disease severity, and the duration of viral shedding. Booster vaccination provided a high level of protection against pneumonia with Omicron and should be prioritized.

19.
Viruses ; 14(10)2022 09 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2066542

ABSTRACT

Zoonotic transmission of SARS-CoV-2 from infected humans to other animals has been documented around the world, most notably in mink farming operations in Europe and the United States. Outbreaks of SARS-CoV-2 on Utah mink farms began in late July 2020 and resulted in high mink mortality. An investigation of these outbreaks revealed active and past SARS-CoV-2 infections in free-roaming and in feral cats living on or near several mink farms. Cats were captured using live traps, were sampled, fitted with GPS collars, and released on the farms. GPS tracking of these cats show they made frequent visits to mink sheds, moved freely around the affected farms, and visited surrounding residential properties and neighborhoods on multiple occasions, making them potential low risk vectors of additional SARS-CoV-2 spread in local communities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Cats , Animals , Humans , Mink , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/veterinary , Farms , Utah/epidemiology
20.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 219: 114772, 2022 Oct 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2060461

ABSTRACT

Creating a biomimetic in vitro lung model to recapitulate the infection and inflammatory reactions has been an important but challenging task for biomedical researchers. The 2D based cell culture models - culturing of lung epithelium - have long existed but lack multiple key physiological conditions, such as the involvement of different types of immune cells and the creation of connected lung models to study viral or bacterial infection between different individuals. Pioneers in organ-on-a-chip research have developed lung alveoli-on-a-chip and connected two lung chips with direct tubing and flow. Although this model provides a powerful tool for lung alveolar disease modeling, it still lacks interactions among immune cells, such as macrophages and monocytes, and the mimic of air flow and aerosol transmission between lung-chips is missing. Here, we report the development of an improved human lung physiological system (Lung-MPS) with both alveolar and pulmonary bronchial chambers that permits the integration of multiple immune cells into the system. We observed amplified inflammatory signals through the dynamic interactions among macrophages, epithelium, endothelium, and circulating monocytes. Furthermore, an integrated microdroplet/aerosol transmission system was fabricated and employed to study the propagation of pseudovirus particles containing microdroplets in integrated Lung-MPSs. Finally, a deep-learning algorithm was developed to characterize the activation of cells in this Lung-MPS. This Lung-MPS could provide an improved and more biomimetic sensory system for the study of COVID-19 and other high-risk infectious lung diseases.

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