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1.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 212: 114379, 2022 Sep 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1850709

ABSTRACT

The development of rapid and ultra-sensitive detection technology of SARS-CoV-2 RNA for shortening the diagnostic window and achieving early detection of virus infections is a huge challenge to the efficient prevention and control of COVID-19. Herein, a novel ultra-sensitive surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) sensor powered by non-enzymatic signal amplification is proposed for rapid and reliable assay of SARS-CoV-2 RNA based on SERS-active silver nanorods (AgNRs) sensing chips and a specially designed smart unlocking-mediated target recycling signal amplification strategy. The SERS sensing was carried out by a one-pot hybridization of the lock probes (LPs), hairpin DNAs and SERS tags with SARS-CoV-2 RNA samples on an arrayed SERS sensing chip to achieve the recognition of SARS-CoV-2 RNA, the execution of nuclease-free unlocking-mediated target recycling signal amplification, and the combination of SERS tags to generate SERS signal. The SERS sensor for SARS-CoV-2 RNA can be achieved within 50 min with an ultra-high sensitivity low to 51.38 copies/mL, and has good selectivity in discriminating SARS-CoV-2 RNA against other respiratory viruses in representative clinical samples, which is well adapted for rapid, ultra-sensitive, multi-channel and point-of-care testing of viral nucleic acids, and is expected to achieve detection of SARS-CoV-2 infection in earlier detection windows for efficient COVID-19 prevention and control.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques , COVID-19 , Biosensing Techniques/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Humans , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/methods , Point-of-Care Systems , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
2.
Mikrochim Acta ; 189(3): 128, 2022 03 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1802751

ABSTRACT

This review focuses on critical scientific barriers that the field of point-of-care (POC) testing of SARS-CoV-2 is facing and possible solutions to overcome these barriers using functional nucleic acid (FNA)-based technology. Beyond the summary of recent advances in FNA-based sensors for COVID-19 diagnostics, our goal is to outline how FNA might serve to overcome the scientific barriers that currently available diagnostic approaches are suffering. The first introductory section on the operationalization of the COVID-19 pandemic in historical view and its clinical features contextualizes essential SARS-CoV-2-specific biomarkers. The second part highlights three major scientific barriers for POC COVID-19 diagnosis, that is, the lack of a general method for (1) designing receptors of SARS-CoV-2 variants; (2) improving sensitivity to overcome false negatives; and (3) signal readout in resource-limited settings. The subsequent part provides fundamental insights into FNA and technical tricks to successfully achieve effective COVID-19 diagnosis by using in vitro selection of FNA to overcome receptor design barriers, combining FNA with multiple DNA signal amplification strategies to improve sensitivity, and interfacing FNA with portable analyzers to overcome signal readout barriers. This review concludes with an overview of further opportunities and emerging applications for FNA-based sensors against COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing/methods , Nucleic Acids/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antigens, Viral/analysis , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Point-of-Care Systems , RNA, Viral/analysis , RNA, Viral/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
3.
Molecules ; 27(6)2022 Mar 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1763046

ABSTRACT

Lipid-based nanoparticles (LBNPs) are biocompatible and biodegradable vesicles that are considered to be one of the most efficient drug delivery platforms. Due to the prominent advantages, such as long circulation time, slow drug release, reduced toxicity, high transfection efficiency, and endosomal escape capacity, such synthetic nanoparticles have been widely used for carrying genetic therapeutics, particularly nucleic acids that can be applied in the treatment for various diseases, including congenital diseases, cancers, virus infections, and chronic inflammations. Despite great merits and multiple successful applications, many extracellular and intracellular barriers remain and greatly impair delivery efficacy and therapeutic outcomes. As such, the current state of knowledge and pitfalls regarding the gene delivery and construction of LBNPs will be initially summarized. In order to develop a new generation of LBNPs for improved delivery profiles and therapeutic effects, the modification strategies of LBNPs will be reviewed. On the basis of these developed modifications, the performance of LBNPs as therapeutic nanoplatforms have been greatly improved and extensively applied in immunotherapies, including infectious diseases and cancers. However, the therapeutic applications of LBNPs systems are still limited due to the undesirable endosomal escape, potential aggregation, and the inefficient encapsulation of therapeutics. Herein, we will review and discuss recent advances and remaining challenges in the development of LBNPs for nucleic acid-based immunotherapy.


Subject(s)
Nanoparticles , Nucleic Acids , Immunotherapy , Lipids , Nanoparticles/adverse effects , Nucleic Acids/therapeutic use , RNA, Small Interfering/genetics
4.
Bioelectrochemistry ; 146: 108105, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1748204

ABSTRACT

Serological antigen testing has emerged as an important diagnostic paradigm in COVID-19, but often suffers from potential cross-reactivity. To address this limitation, we herein report a label-free electrochemical aptamer-based sensor for the detection of SARS-CoV-2 antigen by integrating aptamer-based specific recognition with CRISPR-Cas12a-mediated signal amplification. The sensing principle is based on the competitive binding of antigen and the preassembled Cas12a-crRNA complex to the antigen-specific aptamer, resulting in a change in the collateral cleavage activity of Cas12a. To further generate an electrochemical signal, a DNA architecture was fabricated by in situ rolling circle amplification on a gold electrode, which serves as a novel substrate for Cas12a. Upon Cas12a-based collateral DNA cleavage, the DNA architecture was degraded, leading to a significant decrease in impedance that can be measured spectroscopically. Using SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid antigen as the model, the proposed CRISPR-Cas12a-based electrochemical sensor (CRISPR-E) showed excellent analytical performance for the quantitative detection of nucleocapsid antigen. Since in vitro selection can obtain aptamers selective for many SARS-CoV-2 antigens, the proposed strategy can expand this powerful CRISPR-E system significantly for quantitative monitoring of a wide range of COVID-19 biomarkers.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques , COVID-19 , Biosensing Techniques/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , CRISPR-Cas Systems , DNA , Humans , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/methods , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
5.
Fundamental Research ; 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1734398

ABSTRACT

The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a protective interface between the central nervous system (CNS) and the circulating blood, and is critical in controlling the movement of ions, molecules and cells to maintain CNS homeostasis. The disruption of BBB is a key event responsible for the pathology in a number of neurological diseases and has also been shown to be involved in the severe acute respiratory syndrome corona virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections recently. In this review, we discuss the cellular and molecular components orchestrating BBB formation and function maintenance across species. How this barrier can be modulated for efficient drug delivery into the brain, and how BBB breakdown participates in neurological diseases are discussed. Finally, we highlight the recent work identifying the possible mechanisms by which SARS-CoV-2 invades CNS by crossing BBB in Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients.

7.
J Nurs Manag ; 2022 Feb 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1714248

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This study aims to understand the current situation and multiple factors affecting the core competence specializing in the maternal, neonatal and under-five nursing in China. BACKGROUND: Highly skilled nurses and midwives are essential worldwide for achieving the Sustainable Development Goals, especially in low- and middle-income countries like China, due to the overwhelming COVID-19 crisis. METHOD: The 890 nurses and midwives from 12 hospitals were investigated in this cross-sectional study, with two questionnaires: the sociodemographic information and competency inventory for the registered nurses. RESULTS: The participants reported a mean total score of 193.78 (±42.19) out of 220 and lowest in critical thinking and research ability (3.01 ± 0.82). The professional title, level, marital status, relationship quality, highest qualification, experience in specialist nurse training, participation in scientific research projects and publishing papers were the influencing factors (P < .05). CONCLUSIONS: The respondents' core competence needs improvement, especially critical regarding thinking and research ability. In addition, marriage and good or excellent relationship quality are factors that can potentially improve competence. IMPLICATIONS FOR NURSING MANAGEMENT: Targeted interventions for higher core nursing competence need to be implemented, especially focusing on nurses' marital status and emotional support from partners.

8.
MAbs ; 14(1): 2031483, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1713454

ABSTRACT

Early humoral immune responses to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) are dominated by IgM and IgA antibodies, which greatly contribute to virus neutralization at mucosal sites. Given the essential roles of IgM and IgA in the control and elimination of SARS-CoV-2 infection, the mucosal immunity could be exploited for therapeutic and prophylactic purposes. However, almost all neutralizing antibodies that are authorized for emergency use and under clinical development are IgG antibodies, and no vaccine has been developed to boost mucosal immunity for SARS-CoV-2 infection. In addition to IgM and IgA, bispecific antibodies (bsAbs) combine specificities of two antibodies in one molecule, representing an important alternative to monoclonal antibody cocktails. Here, we summarize the latest advances in studies on IgM, IgA and bsAbs against SARS-CoV-2. The current challenges and future directions in vaccine design and antibody-based therapeutics are also discussed.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Bispecific/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Antibodies, Bispecific/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Viral/therapeutic use , Humans , Immunoglobulin A/immunology , Immunoglobulin A/therapeutic use , Immunoglobulin M/immunology , Immunoglobulin M/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Nat Immunol ; 23(3): 423-430, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1713201

ABSTRACT

The global severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic requires effective therapies against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), and neutralizing antibodies are a promising therapy. A noncompeting pair of human neutralizing antibodies (B38 and H4) blocking SARS-CoV-2 binding to its receptor, ACE2, have been described previously. Here, we develop bsAb15, a bispecific monoclonal antibody (bsAb) based on B38 and H4. bsAb15 has greater neutralizing efficiency than these parental antibodies, results in less selective pressure and retains neutralizing ability to most SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (with more potent neutralizing activity against the Delta variant). We also selected for escape mutants of the two parental mAbs, a mAb cocktail and bsAb15, demonstrating that bsAb15 can efficiently neutralize all single-mAb escape mutants. Furthermore, prophylactic and therapeutic application of bsAb15 reduced the viral titer in infected nonhuman primates and human ACE2 transgenic mice. Therefore, this bsAb is a feasible and effective strategy to treat and prevent severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Bispecific/immunology , Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Bispecific/chemistry , Antibodies, Bispecific/genetics , Antibodies, Monoclonal/chemistry , Antibodies, Monoclonal/genetics , Antibodies, Neutralizing/genetics , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/chemistry , Antibodies, Viral/genetics , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , Cloning, Molecular , Disease Models, Animal , Dose-Response Relationship, Immunologic , Epitopes , Humans , Macaca mulatta , Mice , Neutralization Tests , Protein Engineering/methods , Structure-Activity Relationship
10.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-307615

ABSTRACT

Background: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has led to global research with the aim of predicting which people are at greatest risk of developing severe disease and dying. The aim of this meta-analysis was to determine the associations between obesity and the severity of and mortality due to COVID-19. Methods: : We searched the PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library and Web of Science databases for studies evaluating the associations of obesity with COVID-19 . Odd risks (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using random- or fixed-effects models. Results: : Thirty-eight studies involving 621502 patients were included. Compared with nonobese patients, obese patients had a significantly increased risk of infection (OR 3.19, 95% CI 1.45-7.03;I 2 = 98.3%), hospitalization (OR 1.77, 95% CI 1.61-1.95;I 2 = 43.8%), clinically severe disease (OR 2.88, 95% CI 1.99-4.16;I 2 = 49.9%), mechanical ventilation (OR 1.66, 95% CI1.42-1.94;I 2 = 41.3%), intensive care unit (ICU) (OR 2.06, 95% CI1.49-2.85;I 2 = 71.4%), and mortality (OR 1.48, 95% CI 1.18-1.85;I 2 = 80.8%). Conclusion: Patients with obesity may have a greater risk of developing severe COVID-19 and dying. Therefore, it is important to increase awareness of these associations with obesity in COVID-19 patients.

11.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 12: 779692, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1643494

ABSTRACT

Objectives: Recently, a number of reports have described the potential relationship between COVID-19 and thyroid hormones, but the results were conflicting. We performed a meta-analysis to evaluate the effect of the severity of COVID-19 on thyroid-related hormones and the effect of thyroid-related hormones on the outcome of COVID-19 in order to try to confirm the association between the serum levels of free triiodothyronine (FT3), free thyroxine (FT4) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and the severity or mortality of coronavirus-19 patients. Methods: The methodology was already registered in the International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO) database, and the protocol number is CRD42021269246. Systematic searches were carried out on the Cochrane Library, Embase, PubMed and Web of Science databases on November 15, 2021. We set up the literature search strategy based on the following keywords: [(T3 OR FT3 OR triiodothyronine) or (T4 OR FT4 OR thyroxine) or (TSH or thyrotropin)] and (COVID-19 OR SARS-CoV-2), without time restrictions. Results: Twenty studies satisfied the inclusion/exclusion criteria and were included in the meta-analysis. A total of 3609 patients were enrolled in the study. From the analysis of the included studies, the incidence of thyroid-related hormone abnormalities was higher in patients with severe COVID-19, and the serum levels of FT3 and TSH were lower than those of patients with nonsevere COVID-19. However, the difference in the FT4 levels was not significant. Similar characteristics were shown between survivors and nonsurvivors. In addition, the outcomes of the meta-analysis showed that patients with abnormal thyroid-related hormones had greater mortality. Conclusions: Low FT3 serum levels, low FT4 serum levels and low TSH serum levels may increase the mortality of COVID-19 patients during admission. On the other hand, the higher the severity level of COVID-19, the higher the probability of decreases in the FT3, FT4, TSH levels.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/virology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Thyroxine/blood , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/mortality , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , Severity of Illness Index , Young Adult
12.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 201: 113944, 2022 Apr 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1588207

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), which poses an extremely serious global impact on human public healthcare, represents a high transmission and disease-causing viral infection caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) that is expanding at a rapid pace. Therefore, it is urgent for researchers to establish effective platforms for the assay and treatment of SARS-CoV-2. Functional nucleic acids (FNAs), comprising aptamers and nucleases, are of primary concern within the biological and medical communities owing of the distinctive properties of their target recognition and catalysis. This review will concentrate on the essential aspects of insights regarding FNAs and their technological expertise for the diagnostic and therapeutic utilization against COVID-19. We first offer a historical perspective of the COVID-19 pandemics, its clinical characteristics and potential biomarkers. Then, we briefly discuss the current diagnostic and therapeutic methodology towards COVID-19, highlighting the superiorities and existing shortcomings. After that, we introduce the key features of FNAs, and summarize recent progress of in vitro selection of FNAs for SARS-CoV-2 specific proteins and RNAs, followed by highlighting the general concept of translating FNAs into functional probes for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. Then, we critically review the emerging FNAs-based diagnostic and therapeutic strategies that are fast, precise, efficient, and highly specific to fight COVID-19. Finally, we identify remaining challenges and offer future outlook of this emerging field.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques , COVID-19 , Nucleic Acids , Humans , Nucleic Acids/genetics , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 11(1): 212-226, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1585243

ABSTRACT

The recent emergence of COVID-19 variants has necessitated the development of new vaccines that stimulate the formation of high levels of neutralizing antibodies against S antigen variants. A new strategy involves the intradermal administration of heterologous vaccines composed of one or two doses of inactivated vaccine and a booster dose with the mutated S1 protein (K-S). Such vaccines improve the immune efficacy by increasing the neutralizing antibody titers and promoting specific T cell responses against five variants of the RBD protein. A viral challenge test with the B.1.617.2 (Delta) variant confirmed that both administration schedules (i.e. "1 + 1" and "2 + 1") ensured protection against this strain. These results suggest that the aforementioned strategy is effective for protecting against new variants and enhances the anamnestic immune response in the immunized population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Immunity , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , CHO Cells , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Chlorocebus aethiops , Cricetulus , Female , Humans , Macaca mulatta , Mice , Mice, Transgenic , Vaccination , Vaccines, Inactivated/administration & dosage , Vaccines, Inactivated/immunology , Vero Cells
14.
Brain Sci ; 11(12)2021 Dec 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1572367

ABSTRACT

Nasal breathing is a dynamic cortical organizer involved in various behaviors and states, such as locomotion, exploration, memory, emotion, introspection. However, the effect of sensory deprivation of nasal respiratory breath (NRD) on behavior remain poorly understood. Herein, general locomotor activity, emotion, learning and memory, social interaction, and mechanical pain were evaluated using a zinc sulfate nasal irrigation induced nasal respiratory sensory deprivation animal model (ZnSO4-induced mouse model). In the open field test, the elevated O-maze test, and forced swim test, NRD mice exhibited depressive and anxiety-like behaviors. In memory-associated tests, NRD mice showed cognitive impairments in the hippocampal-dependent memory (Y maze, object recognition task, and contextual fear conditioning (CFC)) and amygdala-dependent memory (the tone-cued fear conditioning test (TFC)). Surprisingly, NRD mice did not display deficits in the acquisition of conditional fear in both CFC and TFC tests. Still, they showed significant memory retrieval impairment in TFC and enhanced memory retrieval in CFC. At the same time, in the social novelty test using a three-chamber setting, NRD mice showed impaired social and social novelty behavior. Lastly, in the von Frey filaments test, we found that the pain sensitivity of NRD mice was reduced. In conclusion, this NRD mouse model showed a variety of behavioral phenotypic changes, which could offer an important insight into the behavioral impacts of patients with anosmia or those with an impaired olfactory bulb (OB) (e.g., in COVID-19, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, etc.).

15.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-295297

ABSTRACT

The recent emergence of new variants in the COVID-19 pandemic has led to new requirements for vaccines, with a focus on the capacity of vaccines to elicit high levels of neutralizing antibodies with specific recognition of S antigen variants based on the characterized vaccines licensed for use. A new strategy involving a heterologous vaccine composed of one or two doses of inactivated vaccine and a boost with the S1 protein with mutations (K-S) administered via the intradermal route was designed in this work and was found to improve immune efficacy by increasing neutralizing antibody titers and promoting specific T cell responses against 5 variants of the RBD peptide. A viral challenge test with the B.1.617.2 (Delta) variant confirmed that the both schedules of “1+1” and “2+1” administration ensured a clinical protective effect against this strain. All of these results not only suggested the feasibility of our strategy for protecting against new variants but also provided a technical pathway to enhance the anamnestic immune response in the immunized population.

16.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 9(11)2021 Nov 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1538574

ABSTRACT

Vaccine hesitancy has become a significant issue. We aimed to elucidate the factors influencing vaccine hesitation in Chinese residents and to analyze and recommend promotional strategies and measures. In total, 92 Chinese residents from 10 provinces were interviewed using semi-structured face-to-face interviews following a predetermined survey framework in this qualitative study. We found trust in vaccine safety, access to professional advice, and vaccine price and effectiveness to be the main factors influencing vaccine hesitation. Additionally, residents in areas with a higher per capita GDP tend to receive more social support, believe that vaccination is beneficial and can prevent diseases, pay more attention to whether the vaccine is safe and has undergone various clinical trials, and are more likely to seek advice from individuals with vaccination experience as opposed to their counterparts in areas with a lower per capita GDP. Notably, as per capita GDP rises, individuals become more concerned about the price of vaccines. Measures such as clarifying vaccine safety and effectiveness, reducing self-funded vaccine prices, offering free vaccination for special groups, strengthening the publicity role of medical staff, and taking advantage of network platforms are essential to reduce vaccine hesitancy among Chinese residents.

17.
Traditional Medicine Research ; 6(3), 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1497916

ABSTRACT

Chinese minority traditional medicine is a traditional medicine formed during the long-term medical practice of various ethnic groups and is the crystallization of the wisdom of the people in all ethnic groups in China. The unique meaning carried by Chinese minority traditional medicine makes it an inseparable and important part of traditional Chinese medicine. The rich clinical experience and theoretical studies with different Chinese minority traditional medicine provide new ideas and new methods for Chinese medicine development. The pieces of literature published in 2020 on the traditional application analyzed the phytochemical composition, pharmacological effects, and mechanisms of the different ethnic groups including Tibetan, Mongolian, Zhuang, Dai, and Uyghur medicines, among others. This study found that some projects were stalled or delayed due to the coronavirus disease 2019 outbreak in 2020 compared with 2019, resulting in a decrease in the number of articles in certain fields. However, studied on Chinese minority traditional medicine have shown an overall upward trend this year with the Tibetan, Mongolian, and Dai medicines as the top three. In addition, the Chinese minority traditional medicine application under the coronavirus disease 2019 epidemic situation background was also summarized. Consequently, this study found that among the Chinese minority traditional medicine-related publications in 2020, publications using Chinese minority traditional medicine to treat coronavirus disease 2019 account for a certain percentage. Thus, this article systematically reviews and summarizes the related research of Chinese minority traditional medicine published in 2020 and provides references for future Chinese minority traditional medicine development.

18.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1505, 2021 08 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1477374

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has led to global research to predict those who are at greatest risk of developing severe disease and mortality. The aim of this meta-analysis was to determine the associations between obesity and the severity of and mortality due to COVID-19. METHODS: We searched the PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library and Web of Science databases for studies evaluating the associations of obesity with COVID-19. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using random- or fixed-effects models. Meta-regression analyses were conducted to estimate regression coefficients. RESULTS: Forty-six studies involving 625,153 patients were included. Compared with nonobese patients, obese patients had a significantly increased risk of infection. (OR 2.73, 95% CI 1.53-4.87; I2 = 96.8%), hospitalization (OR 1.72, 95% CI 1.55-1.92; I2 = 47.4%), clinically severe disease (OR 3.81, 95% CI 1.97-7.35; I2 = 57.4%), mechanical ventilation (OR 1.66, 95% CI 1.42-1.94; I2 = 41.3%), intensive care unit (ICU) admission (OR 2.25, 95% CI 1.55-3.27; I2 = 71.5%), and mortality (OR 1.61, 95% CI 1.29-2.01; I2 = 83.1%). CONCLUSION: Patients with obesity may have a greater risk of infection, hospitalization, clinically severe disease, mechanical ventilation, ICU admission, and mortality due to COVID-19. Therefore, it is important to increase awareness of these associations with obesity in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hospitalization , Humans , Obesity/epidemiology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
19.
Sustainability ; 13(17):9749, 2021.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1390751

ABSTRACT

In 2020, during the peak period of the COVID-19 outbreak in China, the scarcity of medical protective products significantly influenced consumers’ impulsive purchasing and affected the public order. It is important to identify the effect of scarcity on consumers’ impulsive purchasing during this difficult time. However, scant research has been conducted on the impact of scarcity of medical protective products on Chinese consumers’ impulsive purchasing. This paper investigates the impact of the scarcity of medical protective products on consumers’ impulsive purchasing during the pandemic in China based on the theories of scarcity, S-O-R and bandwagon effect. Simultaneously, this study identifies the different mediating mechanisms (fear of missing out and perception) and the moderation (bandwagon) in the relationship between scarcity and impulsive purchasing. Finally, 509 validity data were collected by using an online questionnaire, and SmartPLS was used for data analysis. The findings present that the fear of missing out, perception and bandwagon dominate the scarcity effect on impulsive purchasing. The findings provide more information on consumers’ impulsive purchasing in the context of scarcity of medical protective products. Marketers and the Chinese government can adopt measures to reduce their effect, which may help maintain the public order during the epidemic.

20.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 12: 696087, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1348473

ABSTRACT

Background and Objective: Recently, insulin treatment has been found to be associated with increased mortality and other adverse outcomes in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and diabetes, but the results remain unclear and controversial, therefore, we conducted this meta-analysis. Methods: Four databases, namely, PubMed, Web of Science, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library, were used to identify all studies concerning insulin treatment and the adverse effects of COVID-19, including mortality, incidence of severe/critical complications, in-hospital admission and hospitalization time. To assess publication bias, funnel plots, Begg's tests and Egger's tests were used. The odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to access the effect of insulin therapy on mortality, severe/critical complications and in-hospital admission. The association between insulin treatment and hospitalization time was calculated by the standardized mean difference (SMD) with 95% CIs. Results: Eighteen articles, involving a total of 12277 patients with COVID-19 and diabetes were included. Insulin treatment was significantly associated with an increased risk of mortality (OR=2.10; 95% CI, 1.51-2.93) and incidence of severe/critical COVID-19 complications (OR=2.56; 95% CI, 1.18-5.55). Moreover, insulin therapy may increase in-hospital admission in patients with COVID-19 and diabetes (OR=1.31; 95% CI, 1.06-1.61). However, there was no significant difference in the hospitalization time according to insulin treatment (SMD=0.21 95% CI, -0.02-0.45). Conclusions: Insulin treatment may increase mortality and severe/critical complications in patients with COVID-19 and diabetes, but more large-scale studies are needed to confirm and explore the exact mechanism.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus/drug therapy , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Insulin/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , Humans , Treatment Outcome
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