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Brief Bioinform ; 2021 Sep 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1402354


After experiencing the COVID-19 pandemic, it is widely acknowledged that a rapid drug repurposing method is highly needed. A series of useful drug repurposing tools have been developed based on data-driven modeling and network pharmacology. Based on the disease module, we identified several hub proteins that play important roles in the onset and development of the COVID-19, which are potential targets for repositioning approved drugs. Moreover, different network distance metrics were applied to quantify the relationship between drug targets and COVID-19 disease targets in the protein-protein-interaction (PPI) network and predict COVID-19 therapeutic effects of bioactive herbal ingredients and chemicals. Furthermore, the tentative mechanisms of candidates were illustrated through molecular docking and gene enrichment analysis. We obtained 15 chemical and 15 herbal ingredient candidates and found that different drugs may play different roles in the process of virus invasion and the onset and development of the COVID-19 disease. Given pandemic outbreaks, our method has an undeniable immense advantage in the feasibility analysis of drug repurposing or drug screening, especially in the analysis of herbal ingredients.

Int J Nanomedicine ; 16: 4959-4984, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1334842


Antiviral drugs (AvDs) are the primary resource in the global battle against viruses, including the recent fight against corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Most AvDs require multiple medications, and their use frequently leads to drug resistance, since they have poor oral bioavailability and low efficacy due to their low solubility/low permeability. Characterizing the in vivo metabolism and pharmacokinetic characteristics of AvDs may help to solve the problems associated with AvDs and enhance their efficacy. In this review of AvDs, we systematically investigated their structure-based metabolic reactions and related enzymes, their cellular pharmacology, and the effects of metabolism on AvD pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics. We further assessed how delivery systems achieve better metabolism and pharmacology of AvDs. This review suggests that suitable nanosystems may help to achieve better pharmacological activity and pharmacokinetic behavior of AvDs by altering drug metabolism through the utilization of advanced nanotechnology and appropriate administration routes. Notably, such AvDs as ribavirin, remdesivir, favipiravir, chloroquine, lopinavir and ritonavir have been confirmed to bind to the severe acute respiratory syndrome-like coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) receptor and thus may represent anti-COVID-19 treatments. Elucidating the metabolic and pharmacokinetic characteristics of AvDs may help pharmacologists to identify new formulations with high bioavailability and efficacy and help physicians to better treat virus-related diseases, including COVID-19.

Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Antiviral Agents/pharmacokinetics , COVID-19/metabolism , Drug Delivery Systems , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Antiviral Agents/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans