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1.
J Virol ; 95(16): e0018721, 2021 07 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1486048

ABSTRACT

Subversion of the host cell cycle to facilitate viral replication is a common feature of coronavirus infections. Coronavirus nucleocapsid (N) protein can modulate the host cell cycle, but the mechanistic details remain largely unknown. Here, we investigated the effects of manipulation of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) N protein on the cell cycle and the influence on viral replication. Results indicated that PEDV N induced Vero E6 cell cycle arrest at S-phase, which promoted viral replication (P < 0.05). S-phase arrest was dependent on the N protein nuclear localization signal S71NWHFYYLGTGPHADLRYRT90 and the interaction between N protein and p53. In the nucleus, the binding of N protein to p53 maintained consistently high-level expression of p53, which activated the p53-DREAM pathway. The key domain of the N protein interacting with p53 was revealed to be S171RGNSQNRGNNQGRGASQNRGGNN194 (NS171-N194), in which G183RG185 are core residues. NS171-N194 and G183RG185 were essential for N-induced S-phase arrest. Moreover, small molecular drugs targeting the NS171-N194 domain of the PEDV N protein were screened through molecular docking. Hyperoside could antagonize N protein-induced S-phase arrest by interfering with interaction between N protein and p53 and inhibit viral replication (P < 0.05). The above-described experiments were also validated in porcine intestinal cells, and data were in line with results in Vero E6 cells. Therefore, these results reveal the PEDV N protein interacts with p53 to activate the p53-DREAM pathway, and subsequently induces S-phase arrest to create a favorable environment for virus replication. These findings provide new insight into the PEDV-host interaction and the design of novel antiviral strategies against PEDV. IMPORTANCE Many viruses subvert the host cell cycle to create a cellular environment that promotes viral growth. PEDV, an emerging and reemerging coronavirus, has led to substantial economic loss in the global swine industry. Our study is the first to demonstrate that PEDV N-induced cell cycle arrest during the S-phase promotes viral replication. We identified a novel mechanism of PEDV N-induced S-phase arrest, where the binding of PEDV N protein to p53 maintains consistently high levels of p53 expression in the nucleus to mediate S-phase arrest by activating the p53-DREAM pathway. Furthermore, a small molecular compound, hyperoside, targeted the PEDV N protein, interfering with the interaction between the N protein and p53 and, importantly, inhibited PEDV replication by antagonizing cell cycle arrest. This study reveals a new mechanism of PEDV-host interaction and also provides a novel antiviral strategy for PEDV. These data provide a foundation for further research into coronavirus-host interactions.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/chemistry , Host-Pathogen Interactions/drug effects , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/drug effects , Quercetin/analogs & derivatives , Tumor Suppressor Protein p53/chemistry , Amino Acid Sequence , Animals , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Binding Sites , Cell Line , Chlorocebus aethiops , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/metabolism , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/genetics , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/metabolism , Epithelial Cells/drug effects , Epithelial Cells/virology , Gene Expression Regulation , High-Throughput Screening Assays , Host-Pathogen Interactions/genetics , Molecular Docking Simulation , Nuclear Localization Signals , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/genetics , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/metabolism , Protein Binding , Protein Conformation , Protein Interaction Domains and Motifs , Quercetin/chemistry , Quercetin/pharmacology , S Phase Cell Cycle Checkpoints/drug effects , S Phase Cell Cycle Checkpoints/genetics , Signal Transduction , Swine , Swine Diseases/drug therapy , Swine Diseases/genetics , Swine Diseases/metabolism , Swine Diseases/virology , Tumor Suppressor Protein p53/antagonists & inhibitors , Tumor Suppressor Protein p53/genetics , Tumor Suppressor Protein p53/metabolism , Vero Cells , Virus Replication/drug effects
2.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 9(1): 439-456, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-124861

ABSTRACT

Swine acute diarrhea syndrome coronavirus (SADS-CoV), a newly discovered enteric coronavirus, is the aetiological agent that causes severe clinical diarrhea and intestinal pathological damage in piglets. To understand the effect of SADS-CoV on host cells, we characterized the apoptotic pathways and elucidated mechanisms underlying the process of apoptotic cell death after SADS-CoV infection. SADS-CoV-infected cells showed evidence of apoptosis in vitro and in vivo. The use of a pan-caspase inhibitor resulted in the inhibition of SADS-CoV-induced apoptosis and reduction in SADS-CoV replication, suggestive of the association of a caspase-dependent pathway. Furthermore, SADS-CoV infection activated the initiators caspase-8 and -9 and upregulated FasL and Bid cleavage, demonstrating a crosstalk between the extrinsic and intrinsic pathways. However, the proapoptotic proteins Bax and Cytochrome c (Cyt c) relocalized to the mitochondria and cytoplasm, respectively, after infection by SADS-CoV. Moreover, Vero E6 and IPI-2I cells treated with cyclosporin A (CsA), an inhibitor of mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP) opening, were completely protected from SADS-CoV-induced apoptosis and viral replication, suggesting the involvement of cyclophilin D (CypD) in these processes. Altogether, our results indicate that caspase-dependent FasL (extrinsic)- and mitochondria (intrinsic)- mediated apoptotic pathways play a central role in SADS-CoV-induced apoptosis that facilitates viral replication. In summary, these findings demonstrate mechanisms by which SADS-CoV induces apoptosis and improve our understanding of SADS-CoV pathogenesis.


Subject(s)
Alphacoronavirus/physiology , Apoptosis , Caspases/metabolism , Coronavirus Infections/metabolism , Cyclophilin D/metabolism , Animals , Chlorocebus aethiops , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Cyclophilin D/genetics , Swine , Vero Cells , Virus Replication
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