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1.
Front Pharmacol ; 14: 1195364, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20244842

ABSTRACT

With the introduction of various subjects, such as clinical epidemiology and evidence-based medicine, the qualities and levels of Traditional Chinese Herbal Medicine (TCHM) in China improved substantially, and the processes of internationalization of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) are further accelerated. Since, a variety of drug products in China have been approved for marketing in other countries, and approximately 10 products have submitted the IND application to FDA of United States, of which various Chinese herbal preparations such as compound Danshen dripping pills, Xingling granules, and HMPL-004 have been approved to be investigated in phase III clinical trials. In general, multi-center studies of TCHM are increasing with years, but most of the studies are performed in some certain country, and the actual international multi-center clinical trials are very rare. Number of SCI literatures on multi-center clinical trials of TCHM that published in the recent decade also showed increasing tendency with years, despite the evident reduction in the past 2 years due to the influence of COVID-19 pandemic. Of the multi-center clinical trials of TCHM that performed by mainland China and other oversees regions, except for Taiwan, China, nearly 70% were focused on classic Chinese medicinal formulae and Chinese patent medicine, while the other 30% were on dietary supplements and plant extracts. Facing the future, the "human experience" has attracted close attentions from researchers throughout the world. Effectively utilizing the historic "human experience" is an important method to vitalize potential of original scientific and technological resources of TCHM. Performing multi-center clinical trials with high qualities is still an essential method for TCHM in accessing the mainstream medicine market. In addition, it is also required to further improve the evaluation techniques and methods that not only meet the international standards but also meet the characteristics of TCHM. Furthermore, we should also focus on the TCHM specific clinical values and scientific reports.

2.
Clin Microbiol Infect ; 2023 Apr 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2295341

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The effects of molnupiravir in treating patients with non-severe COVID-19 remain uncertain. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of molnupiravir in adult patients with mild or moderate COVID-19. DATA SOURCES: PubMed, Embase, CENTRAL, Web of Science, and WHO COVID-19 database up to 27 December 2022. STUDY ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: Randomized controlled trials with no language restrictions. PARTICIPANTS: Adults with mild or moderate COVID-19. INTERVENTIONS: Molnupiravir against standard care or placebo. ASSESSMENT OF RISK OF BIAS: We used a revision of RoB-2 criteria. METHODS OF DATA SYNTHESIS: Outcomes were mortality, hospital admission, viral clearance, time to viral clearance, time to symptom resolution or clinical improvement, any adverse events, and serious adverse events. We performed DerSimonian-Laird random-effects meta-analyses to summarize the evidence and evaluated the certainty of evidence using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation approach. RESULTS: Nine randomized controlled trials enrolling 30 472 patients proved eligible. Majority of patients were outpatients, with a mean age ranging from 35 to 56.6 years. In adult patients with mild or moderate COVID-19, molnupiravir probably reduces mortality (relative risk [RR], 0.43; 95% CI, 0.20-0.94; risk difference [RD], 0.1% fewer; moderate certainty) and the risk of hospital admission (RR, 0.67; 95% CI, 0.45-0.99; RD, 1.4% fewer; moderate certainty) and may reduce time to viral clearance (mean difference, -1.81 days; 95% CI, -3.31 to -0.31; low certainty) and time to symptom resolution or clinical improvement (mean difference, -2.39 days; 95% CI, -3.71 to -1.07; low certainty). Molnupiravir probably increases the rate of viral clearance (RR, 3.47; 95% CI, 2.43-4.96; RD 16.1% more; moderate certainty) at 7 days (±3 days) and likely does not increase serious adverse events (RR, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.61-1.15; RD 0.1% fewer; moderate certainty). CONCLUSIONS: In adult patients with mild or moderate COVID-19, molnupiravir likely reduces mortality and risk of hospital admission probably without increasing serious adverse events.

3.
Engineering (Beijing) ; 2021 Oct 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2268751

ABSTRACT

Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been successfully applied worldwide in the treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). However, the pharmacological mechanisms underlying this success remain unclear. Hence, the aim of this review is to combine pharmacological assays based on the theory of TCM in order to elucidate the potential signaling pathways, targets, active compounds, and formulas of herbs that are involved in the TCM treatment of COVID-19, which exhibits combatting viral infections, immune regulation, and amelioration of lung injury and fibrosis. Extensive reports on target screening are elucidated using virtual prediction via docking analysis or network pharmacology based on existing data. The results of these reports indicate that an intricate regulatory mechanism is involved in the pathogenesis of COVID-19. Therefore, more pharmacological research on the natural herbs used in TCM should be conducted in order to determine the association between TCM and COVID-19 and account for the observed therapeutic effects of TCM against COVID-19.

4.
Am J Chin Med ; 50(4): 883-925, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2264676

ABSTRACT

To compare the efficacy of different traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) therapies for the treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and provide a higher level of evidence in the form of network meta-analysis (NMA) and systematic review. We searched the studies from the following databases: CNKI, VIP, WanFang, SinoMed, PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science from the establishment of the respective database until December 2021. Relevant studies were screened according to the pre-established inclusion criteria. The quality of the included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and controlled clinical trials (CCTs) were assessed using the risk of bias (ROB) tool and the Methodological Index for Non-Randomized Studies (MINORS), respectively. R software 4.1.1 and Stata 13.1 were used for data analysis and mapping. A total of 34 studies were included in this network meta-analysis that tested 24 TCM interventions and included 3443 patients. Using cluster analysis of time to negative SARS-CoV-2 reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), the length of hospital stay and composite events, we found that Jinyinhua oral liquid (JYH, 120 mL) + conventional Western medicine (CWM) has the highest SUCRA value at 88.64%, 85.61% and 84.24%. The traditional meta-analysis results revealed that Qingfei Paidu decoction + CWM were significantly different compared with CWM alone for the score of clinical symptoms (MD =-0.75, 95% CI [-1.04, -0.47]). Nine studies reported 57 adverse reactions (ADRs) and 3 adverse events (ADEs) in TCM + CWM groups, and eight studies reported 33 ADRs and 8 ADEs in CWM groups. In conclusion, the combination of TCM and CWM approaches may enhance the efficacy of CWM in COVID-19 patients. Based on the NMA result, JYH (120 mL) + CWM may be a more effective treatment and deserves further investigation. However, the differences in many comparisons between TCM interventions did not reach statistical significance; therefore, further high-quality studies are required to validate these findings.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Drug Treatment , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Humans , Medicine, Chinese Traditional/methods , Network Meta-Analysis , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
5.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 10: 1118269, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2288780

ABSTRACT

Objective: To assess the main characteristics and result reporting of registered COVID-19 interventional trials of traditional Chinese medicine and traditional Indian medicine. Materials and methods: We assessed design quality and result reporting of COVID-19 trials of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and traditional Indian medicine (TIM) registered before 10 February 2021, respectively, on Chinese Clinical Trial Registry (ChiCTR) and Clinical Trial Registry-India (CTRI). Comparison groups included registered COVID-19 trials of conventional medicine conducted in China (WMC), India (WMI), and in other countries (WMO). Cox regression analysis was used to assess the association between time from trial onset to result reporting and trial characteristics. Results: The proportion of COVID-19 trials investigating traditional medicine was 33.7% (130/386) among trials registered on ChiCTR, and 58.6% (266/454) on CTRI. Planned sample sizes were mostly small in all COVID-19 trials (median 100, IQR: 50-200). The proportion of trials that were randomized was 75.4 and 64.8%, respectively, for the TCM and TIM trials. Blinding measures were used in 6.2% of the TCM trials, and 23.6% of the TIM trials. Cox regression analysis revealed that planned COVID-19 clinical trials of traditional medicine were less likely to have results reported than trials of conventional medicine (hazard ratio 0.713, 95% confidence interval: 0.541-0.939; p = 0.0162). Conclusion: There were considerable between-country and within-country differences in design quality, target sample size, trial participants, and reporting of trial results. Registered COVID-19 clinical trials of traditional medicine were less likely to report results than trials of conventional medicine.

6.
Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr ; : 1-19, 2023 Feb 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2246451

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Micronutrients are clinically important in managing COVID-19, and numerous studies have been conducted, but inconsistent findings exist. OBJECTIVE: To explore the association between micronutrients and COVID-19. METHODS: PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, Cochrane Library and Scopus for study search on July 30, 2022 and October 15, 2022. Literature selection, data extraction and quality assessment were performed in a double-blinded, group discussion format. Meta-analysis with overlapping associations were reconsolidated using random effects models, and narrative evidence was performed in tabular presentations. RESULTS: 57 reviews and 57 latest original studies were included. 21 reviews and 53 original studies were of moderate to high quality. Vitamin D, vitamin B, zinc, selenium, and ferritin levels differed between patients and healthy people. Vitamin D and zinc deficiencies increased COVID-19 infection by 0.97-fold/0.39-fold and 1.53-fold. Vitamin D deficiency increased severity 0.86-fold, while low vitamin B and selenium levels reduced severity. Vitamin D and calcium deficiencies increased ICU admission by 1.09 and 4.09-fold. Vitamin D deficiency increased mechanical ventilation by 0.4-fold. Vitamin D, zinc, and calcium deficiencies increased COVID-19 mortality by 0.53-fold, 0.46-fold, and 5.99-fold, respectively. CONCLUSION: The associations between vitamin D, zinc, and calcium deficiencies and adverse evolution of COVID-19 were positive, while the association between vitamin C and COVID-19 was insignificant.REGISTRATION: PROSPERO CRD42022353953.

7.
Phytomedicine ; 109: 154551, 2023 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2182294

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The significant clinical efficacy of Xuanfei Baidu Decoction (XFBD) is proven in the treatment of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in China. However, the mechanisms of XFBD against acute lung injury (ALI) are still poorly understood. METHODS: In vivo, the mouse model of ALI was induced by IgG immune complexes (IgG-IC), and then XFBD (4g/kg, 8g/kg) were administered by gavage respectively. 24 h after inducing ALI, the lungs were collected for histological and molecular analysis. In vitro, alveolar macrophages inflammation models induced by IgG-IC were performed and treated with different dosage of XFBD-containing serum to investigate the protective role and molecular mechanisms of XFBD. RESULTS: The results revealed that XFBD mitigated lung injury and significantly downregulated the production of pro-inflammatory mediators in lung tissues and macrophages upon IgG-IC stimulation. Notably, XFBD attenuated C3a and C5a generation, inhibited the expression of C3aR and C5aR and suppressed the activation of JAK2/STAT3/SOCS3 and NF-κB signaling pathway in lung tissues and macrophages induced by IgG-IC. Moreover, in vitro experiments, we verified that Colivelin TFA (CAF, STAT3 activator) and C5a treatment markedly elevated the IgG-IC-triggered inflammatory responses in macrophages and XFBD weakened the effects of CAF or C5a. CONCLUSION: XFBD suppressed complement overactivation and ameliorated IgG immune complex-induced acute lung injury by inhibiting JAK2/STAT3/SOCS3 and NF-κB signaling pathway. These data contribute to understanding the mechanisms of XFBD in COVID-19 treatment.


Subject(s)
Acute Lung Injury , COVID-19 , Animals , Humans , Mice , Acute Lung Injury/drug therapy , Acute Lung Injury/metabolism , Antigen-Antibody Complex/metabolism , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19 Drug Treatment , Immunoglobulin G , Janus Kinase 2/metabolism , Lipopolysaccharides , Lung/pathology , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Signal Transduction , Suppressor of Cytokine Signaling 3 Protein/metabolism , Suppressor of Cytokine Signaling Proteins/metabolism
8.
Phytomedicine : international journal of phytotherapy and phytopharmacology ; 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2125358

ABSTRACT

Background The significant clinical efficacy of Xuanfei Baidu Decoction (XFBD) is proven in the treatment of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in China. However, the mechanisms of XFBD against acute lung injury (ALI) are still poorly understood. Methods In vivo, the mouse model of ALI was induced by IgG immune complexes (IgG-IC), and then XFBD (4g/kg, 8g/kg) were administered by gavage respectively. 24h after inducing ALI, the lungs were collected for histological and molecular analysis. In vitro, alveolar macrophages inflammation models induced by IgG-IC were performed and treated with different dosage of XFBD-Containing Serum to investigate the protective role and molecular mechanisms of XFBD. Results The results revealed that XFBD mitigated lung injury and significantly downregulated the production of pro-inflammatory mediators in lung tissues and macrophages upon IgG-IC stimulation. Notably, XFBD attenuated C3a and C5a generation, inhibited the expression of C3aR and C5aR and suppressed the activation of JAK2/STAT3/SOCS3 and NF-κB signaling pathway in lung tissues and macrophages induced by IgG-IC. Moreover, in vitro experiments, we verified that Colivelin TFA (CAF, STAT3 activator) and C5a treatment markedly elevated the IgG-IC-triggered inflammatory responses in macrophages and XFBD weakened the effects of CAF or C5a. Conclusion XFBD suppressed complement overactivation and ameliorated IgG immune complex-induced acute lung injury by inhibiting JAK2/STAT3/SOCS3 and NF-κB Signaling Pathway. These data contribute to understanding the mechanisms of XFBD in COVID-19 treatment. Graphical Image, graphical Schematic representation of proposed mechanism underlying the protective effects of XFBD on the IgG-IC-induced ALI. XFBD suppressed complement overactivation and protected against IgG immune complex-induced acute lung injury by inhibiting JAK2/STAT3/SOCS3 and NF-κB Signaling Pathway.

9.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 9: 1020286, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2099180

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Shufeng Jiedu capsule (SFJD) is a commonly used Chinese patent medicine in China. Some studies have reported that SFJD has therapeutic effects in patients diagnosed with COVID-19. This systematic review aimed to critically evaluate the efficacy and safety of SFJD combined with western medicine (WM) for treating COVID-19. Methods: A literature search by using WHO COVID-19 database, PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, the Web of Science, CKNI, Wanfang, VIP, SinoMed, and clinical trial registries was conducted, up to 1 August 2022. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs), non-RCTs, cohort studies and case series of SFJD combined with WM for COVID-19 were included. Literature screening, data extraction, and quality assessment were performed independently by two reviewers in line with the same criteria. We used the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluations (GRADE) to assess the certainty of evidence. Meta-analyses were performed with Revman 5.3 if possible. The descriptive analysis was conducted when the studies could not be meta-analyzed. Results: Totally 10 studies with 1,083 patients were included. Their methodological quality were moderate. The results demonstrated that compared to WM group, SFJD + WM group remarkably increased the nucleic acid negative conversion rate (RR = 1.40, 95%CI: 1.07-1.84), total effective rate (RR = 1.18, 95%CI: 1.07-1.31), cure rate (RR = 4.06, 95%CI: 2.19-7.53), and the chest CT improvement rate (RR = 1.19, 95%CI: 1.08-1.31), shorten nucleic acid negative conversion time (MD = -0.70, 95%CI: -1.14 to -0.26), reduced the clinical symptom disappearance time (fever, diarrhea, cough, fatigue, pharyngalgia, nasal congestion, and rhinorrhea), as well as improved the levels of laboratory outcomes (CRP, IL-6, Lym, and Neu). Additionally, the incidence of adverse reactions did not exhibit any statistically significant difference between SFJD + WM group and WM group. Conclusion: SFJD combined with WM seems more effective than WM alone for the treatment of COVID-19. However, more well-designed RCTs still are warranted. Systematic review registration: [https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/PROSPERO/], identifier [CRD42022306307].

10.
BMJ Glob Health ; 7(10)2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2064138

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: In recent years, the concept of living systematic review (LSR) has attracted the attention of many scholars and institutions. A growing number of studies have been conducted based on LSR methodology, but their focus direction is unclear. The objective of this study was to provide a comprehensive review of existing LSR-related studies and to analyse their whole picture and future trends with bibliometrics. METHODS: A comprehensive search strategy was used to construct a representative dataset of LSRs up to October 2021. GraphPad V.8.2.1 and Mindmaster Pro presented the basic information of the included studies and the timeline of LSR development, respectively. The author and country cooperation network, hotspot distribution clustering, historical citation network and future development trend prediction related to LSR were visualised by VOSviewer V.1.6.16 and R-Studio V.1.4. RESULTS: A total of 213 studies were eventually included. The concept of LSR was first proposed in 2014, and the number of studies has proliferated since 2020. There was a closer collaboration between author teams and more frequent LSR research development and collaboration in Europe, North America and Australia. Numerous LSR studies have been published in high-impact journals. COVID-19 is the predominant disease of concern at this stage, and the rehabilitation of its patients and virological studies are possible directions of research in LSR for a long time to come. A review of existing studies found that more than half of the LSR series had not yet been updated and that the method needed to be more standardised in practice. CONCLUSION: Although LSR has a relatively short history, it has received much attention and currently has a high overall acceptance. The LSR methodology was further practised in COVID-19, and we look forward to seeing it applied in more areas.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Bibliometrics , Europe , Humans , North America , Research Design
11.
Front Pharmacol ; 13: 922642, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2039698

ABSTRACT

Xuanfei Baidu granule (XFBD) is a recommended patented drug for the prevention and treatment of Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), which is approved by the National Medical Products Administration. XFBD suppresses the over-activated immune response caused by inflammatory factor storms in COVID-19 infection. The intestine plays a crucial role in the immune system. The mass spectrometry based fecal metabolomics with 16S rDNA sequencing were combined to evaluate the effects of XFBD on host metabolism and gut microbiome. Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) contents in fecal matter were quantified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Plasma samples were used to detect immune and inflammatory levels. The results were verified with a rat model of intestinal disorder. Results indicated that XFBD could increase the immune level of Immunoglobulin A (IgA), Immunoglobulin G (IgG) and Immunoglobulin M (IgM) (p < 0.05). The OPLS-DA analysis results showed that a total of 271 differential metabolites (178 up-regulated and 93 down-regulated) were identified based on the VIP ≥1, p < 0.05, FC ≥ 2 and FC ≤ 0.5. The metabolic pathways mainly involved D-Glutamine and D-glutamate metabolism, Arginine biosynthesis, Biotin metabolism, et al. XFBD modified the gut bacteria structure according to the principal component analysis (PCA), that is, 2 phyla, 3 classes, 5 orders, 11 families and 14 genera were significantly different based on taxonomic assignment. In addition, it could partially callback the relative abundance of intestinal microflora in bacterial disorder rats caused by antibiotics. It is suggested that the intervention mechanism of XFBD might be related to the regulation of intestinal flora composition. The evidence obtained in the study provides a useful reference for understanding the mechanism of XFBD.

12.
Front Public Health ; 10: 923485, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2022950

ABSTRACT

Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) causes life-threatening with the high-fatality rates and spreads with high-infectious disease worldwide. We aimed to systematically review the comorbidities and complications of COVID-19 that are associated with various disease severity, progression, and mortality in China, to provide contemporary and reliable estimates in settings with centralized isolation and hospitalization. Methods: In this systematic review and meta-analysis, we searched four main English language databases, and four main Chinese language databases for observational studies published from inception to January 2022, to identify all the related comorbidities and complications of COVID-19, in the China region with centralized isolation and hospitalization, with disease severity, progression, and mortality. Literature search, data extraction, and quality assessment were independently conducted by two reviewers. We used the generalized linear mixed model to estimate pooled effect sizes for any comorbidities and complications, and subgroup in gender ratio was done to further address the potential heterogeneity. Results: Overall, 187 studies describing 77,013 patients, namely, 54 different comorbidities and 46 various complications of COVID-19, were identified who met our inclusion criteria. The most prevalent comorbidities were hypertension [20.37% 95% CI (15.28-26.63), 19.29% (16.17-22.85), 34.72% (31.48-38.10), and 43.94% (38.94-49.06)] and diabetes [7.84% (5.78-10.54), 8.59% (7.25-10.16), 17.99% (16.29-19.84), and 22.68% (19.93-25.69)] in mild, moderate, severe, and critical cases. The most prevalent complications were liver injury [10.00% (1.39-46.72), 23.04% (14.20-35.13), and 43.48% (39.88-47.15)] in mild, moderate, and severe cases, and acute respiratory distress syndrome [ARDS; 94.17% (20.78-99.90)] and respiratory failure [90.69% (28.08-99.59)] in critical cases. Renal insufficiency [odds ratio (OR) 17.43 (6.69-45.43)] in comorbidities and respiratory failure [OR 105.12 (49.48-223.33)] in complications were strongly associated in severe/critical than in mild/moderate cases. The highest estimated risk in intensive care unit (ICU) admission, progression, and mortality was an autoimmune disease, nervous system disease, and stroke in comorbidities, shock, and ARDS in complications. Conclusion: Comorbidities and complications in inpatients with COVID-19 were positively associated with increased risk in severe and critical cases, ICU admission, exacerbation, and death during centralized isolation and hospitalization. Prompt identification of comorbidities and complications in inpatients with COVID-19 can enhance the prevention of disease progression and death and improve the precision of risk predictions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Respiratory Insufficiency , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Hospitalization , Humans , Observational Studies as Topic , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
13.
Land ; 11(7):990, 2022.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1917591

ABSTRACT

Urban green spaces (UGSs) can meet the spiritual and cultural needs of citizens and provide various ecosystem services. In the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, the utilization of UGSs has been affected in various countries worldwide. This study considered 13 UGSs in Guangzhou, China, as examples. It obtained user check-in data by sampling the check-in pages of Sina Weibo locations using a Python-based web crawler program. The study was conducted for 731 days from 1 October 2019 to 30 September 2021, during different phases of the pandemic. Based on automated Chinese corpus recognition technology, statistical results were obtained after periodization and sentiment calculation. The study assessed the pandemic's impact on the use of UGSs by analyzing the time, frequency, and emotions of residents visiting UGSs. The study concluded that the emotions of UGS users during COVID-19 tended to be positive. They tended to choose UGSs with low expected population density and visited UGSs on weekdays. Additionally, the religious attributes of UGSs also influenced their utilization.

14.
Phytomedicine ; 102: 154136, 2022 Jul 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1804982

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: As coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) continues to spread throughout countries, researchers and scientific groups have published a large number of scientific papers examining effective treatments and prevention strategies for COVID-19, including herbal medicine. It has become difficult to navigate the increasing volume of scientific material on the pandemic, and critical appraisal of these outcomes is needed. This overview of systematic reviews (SRs) aims to synthesize evidence from SRs and summarize the effects of herbal medicine interventions in the treatment of COVID-19. METHODS: Four databases were searched from inception up to October 20, 2021. SRs analyzing primary studies of the efficacy of herbal medications for treating COVID-19 were included. Two reviewers selected the studies and retrieved the data independently. The AMSTAR 2 (A Measurement Tool to Assess Systematic Reviews) was used to assess the methodological quality of the included SRs. RESULTS: A total of 21 SRs on herbal medicine treatments for COVID-19 were included. All SRs were published between May 2020 and September 2021. Thirteen of the SRs included only randomized controlled trials (RCTs), whereas the remaining eight included evidence from nonrandomized trials in addition to RCTs, with a significant overlap identified across the RCTs. Twelve SRs concluded that existing evidence was insufficient to form a definite judgment, nine found that herbal therapy was useful, and none indicated that herbal medicine had no benefit. The AMSTAR 2 tool revealed that the methodological quality of the included SRs was generally low. CONCLUSION: In this overview of SRs, we reviewed herbal medicine-related evidence from 21 SRs that were published after the outbreak of COVID-19. This study shows that while there is considerable evidence demonstrating the advantages of herbal medicine interventions, the quality of the evidence is inadequate to provide solid and accurate judgments about the effectiveness of herbal medicine therapies for COVID-19. Despite the crisis caused by the pandemic, clinical studies and SRs should comply with established methodological standards.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Drug Treatment , Herbal Medicine , Humans , Pandemics , Phytotherapy , Systematic Reviews as Topic
15.
J Evid Based Med ; 15(1): 30-38, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1784678

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of Qingjin Yiqi granules (QJYQ) on post-COVID-19 condition (PCC). METHOD: Patients who met the inclusion criteria were randomly assigned to two groups, the QJYQ group received QJYQ combined with standard rehabilitation treatments (SRTs) and the control group only received SRTs. The treatment course was 14 days. The primary outcomes were modified Medical Research Council (mMRC) scale and Borg scale, while the secondary outcomes included symptoms score and 6-minute walking distance (6MWD). The safety outcome was the incidence of adverse events. RESULTS: A total of 388 patients with PCC were enrolled and randomly assigned to the QJYQ group (n = 194) and the control group (n = 194). Compared to the controls, the mMRC scale was improved in the QJYQ group, which was better than that of the control group [ß (95%CI): -0.626 (-1.101, -0.151), p = 0.010]. A significant improvement in Borg scale was also observed in the QJYQ group compared to the control group [ß (95%CI): -0.395(-0.744, -0.046), p = 0.026]. There was no statistically significant difference in symptoms score and 6MWD between the two groups (p = 0.293, p = 0.724). No treatment-related adverse events were observed in either group. CONCLUSIONS: QJYQ can bring benefits to patients with PCC, mainly in the improvement of breathlessness and fatigue.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Drug Treatment , Humans , Treatment Outcome
16.
Frontiers in pharmacology ; 12, 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1695095

ABSTRACT

Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has already spread around the world. The modality of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) combined with Western medicine (WM) approaches is being used to treat COVID-19 patients in China. Several systematic reviews (SRs) are available highlighting the efficacy and safety of TCM combined with WM approaches in COVID-19 patients. However, their evidence quality is not completely validated. Purpose: We aimed to assess the methodological quality and the risk of bias of the included SRs, assess the evidence quality of outcomes, and present their trends and gaps using the evidence mapping method. Methods: PubMed, Cochrane Library, Embase, CNKI, CBM, and Wanfang Data were searched from inception until March 2021 to identify SRs pertaining to the field of TCM combined with WM approaches for COVID-19. The methodological quality of the SRs was assessed using the Assessment of Multiple Systematic Reviews 2 (AMSTAR 2), the risk of bias of the included SRs was assessed with the Risk of Bias in Systematic Review (ROBIS) tool, and the evidence quality of outcomes was assessed using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) system. Results: In total, 23 SRs were found eligible. Twenty-one were rated of moderate confidence by AMSTAR 2, while 12 were rated at low risk using the ROBIS tool. In addition, most outcomes were graded as having moderate quality using the GRADE system. We found that the combined use of TCM and WM approaches could improve the CT recovery rate, effective rate, viral nucleic acid negative conversion rate, and the disappearance rate of fever, cough, and shortness of breath. Also, these approaches could decrease the conversion rate from mild to critical, white blood cell counts, and lymphocyte counts and shorten the time to viral assay conversion and the length of hospital stay. Conclusion: TCM combined with WM approaches had advantages in efficacy, laboratory, and clinical symptom outcomes of COVID-19, but the methodological deficiencies of SRs should be taken into consideration. Therefore, to better guide clinical practice in the future, the methodological quality of SRs should still be improved, and high-quality randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and observational studies should also be carried out.

17.
J Ment Health ; 31(4): 524-533, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1604963

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic has seen a global surge in anxiety, depression, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and stress. AIMS: This study aimed to describe the perspectives of patients with COVID-19, their family, health professionals, and the general public on the impact of COVID-19 on mental health. METHODS: A secondary thematic analysis was conducted using data from the COVID-19 COS project. We extracted data on the perceived causes and impact of COVID-19 on mental health from an international survey and seven online consensus workshops. RESULTS: We identified four themes (with subthemes in parenthesis): anxiety amidst uncertainty (always on high alert, ebb and flow of recovery); anguish of a threatened future (intense frustration of a changed normality, facing loss of livelihood, trauma of ventilation, a troubling prognosis, confronting death); bearing responsibility for transmission (fear of spreading COVID-19 in public; overwhelming guilt of infecting a loved one); and suffering in isolation (severe solitude of quarantine, sick and alone, separation exacerbating grief). CONCLUSION: We found that the unpredictability of COVID-19, the fear of long-term health consequences, burden of guilt, and suffering in isolation profoundly impacted mental health. Clinical and public health interventions are needed to manage the psychological consequences arising from this pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/psychology , Depression/psychology , Family , Humans , Mental Health , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Front Pharmacol ; 11: 614024, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1542362

ABSTRACT

Sepsis-induced myocardial dysfunction is a major contributor to the poor outcomes of septic shock. As an add-on with conventional sepsis management for over 15 years, the effect of Xuebijing injection (XBJ) on the sepsis-induced myocardial dysfunction was not well understood. The material basis of Xuebijing injection (XBJ) in managing infections and infection-related complications remains to be defined. A murine cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) model and cardiomyocytes in vitro culture were adopted to study the influence of XBJ on infection-induced cardiac dysfunction. XBJ significantly improved the survival of septic-mice and rescued cardiac dysfunction in vivo. RNA-seq revealed XBJ attenuated the expression of proinflammatory cytokines and related signalings in the heart which was further confirmed on the mRNA and protein levels. Xuebijing also protected cardiomyocytes from LPS-induced mitochondrial calcium ion overload and reduced the LPS-induced ROS production in cardiomyocytes. The therapeutic effect of XBJ was mediated by the combination of paeoniflorin and hydroxysafflor yellow A (HSYA) (C0127-2). C0127-2 improved the survival of septic mice, protected their cardiac function and cardiomyocytes while balancing gene expression in cytokine-storm-related signalings, such as TNF-α and NF-κB. In summary, Paeoniflorin and HSYA are key active compounds in XBJ for managing sepsis, protecting cardiac function, and controlling inflammation in the cardiac tissue partially by limiting the production of IL-6, IL-1ß, and CXCL2.

19.
Acta Pharm Sin B ; 11(11): 3337-3363, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1499623

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has spread across the globe, posing an enormous threat to public health and safety. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), in combination with Western medicine (WM), has made important and lasting contributions in the battle against COVID-19. In this review, updated clinical effects and potential mechanisms of TCM, presented in newly recognized three distinct phases of the disease, are summarized and discussed. By integrating the available clinical and preclinical evidence, the efficacies and underlying mechanisms of TCM on COVID-19, including the highly recommended three Chinese patent medicines and three Chinese medicine formulas, are described in a panorama. We hope that this comprehensive review not only provides a reference for health care professionals and the public to recognize the significant contributions of TCM for COVID-19, but also serves as an evidence-based in-depth summary and analysis to facilitate understanding the true scientific value of TCM.

20.
J Evid Based Med ; 14(4): 313-332, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1462829

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has turned into a pandemic and resulted in huge death tolls and burdens. Integrating Chinese and western medicine has played an important role in the fight against the COVID-19 pandemic. PURPOSE: We aimed to develop a living evidence-based guideline of integrating Chinese and western medicine for COVID-19. STUDY DESIGN: Living evidence-based guideline. METHODS: This living guideline was developed using internationally recognized and accepted guideline standards, dynamically monitoring the release of new clinical evidence, and quickly updating the linked living systematic review, evidence summary tables, and recommendations. Modified Delphi method was used to reach consensus for all recommendations. The certainty of the evidence, resources, and other factors were fully considered, and the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) approach was used to rate the certainty of evidence and the strength of recommendations. RESULTS: The first version of this living guidance focuses on patients who are mild or moderate COVID-19. A multidisciplinary guideline development panel was established. Ten clinical questions were identified based on the status of evidence and a face-to-face experts' consensus. Finally, nine recommendations were reached consensus, and were formulated from systematic reviews of the benefits and harms, certainty of evidence, public accessibility, policy supports, feedback on proposed recommendations from multidisciplinary experts, and consensus meetings. CONCLUSION: This guideline panel made nine recommendations, which covered five traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) prescription granules/decoction (MXXFJD, QFPD, XFBD, TJQW, and JWDY), three Chinese patent medicines (LHQW granules/capsule, JHQG granules, and LHQK granules), and one Chinese herbal injection (XBJ injection). Of them, two were strongly recommended (LHQW granules/capsule and QFPD decoction), and five were weakly recommended (MXXFJD decoction, XFBD decoction, JHQG granules, TJQW granules, and JWDY decoction) for the treatment of mild and moderate COVID-19; two were weakly recommended against (XBJ injection and LHQK granules) the treatment of mild and moderate COVID-19. The users of this living guideline are most likely to be clinicians, patients, governments, ministries, and health administrators.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , China , Humans , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Pandemics , Practice Guidelines as Topic , SARS-CoV-2
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