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1.
J Int Med Res ; 49(12): 3000605211062783, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1571589

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Secondary infection, especially bloodstream infection, is an important cause of death in critically ill patients with COVID-19. We aimed to describe secondary bloodstream infection (SBI) in critically ill adults with COVID-19 in the intensive care unit (ICU) and to explore risk factors related to SBI. METHODS: We reviewed all SBI cases among critically ill patients with COVID-19 from 12 February 2020 to 24 March 2020 in the COVID-19 ICU of Jingmen First People's Hospital. We compared risk factors associated with bloodstream infection in this study. All SBIs were confirmed by blood culture. RESULTS: We identified five cases of SBI among the 32 patients: three with Enterococcus faecium, one mixed septicemia (E. faecium and Candida albicans), and one C. parapsilosis. There were no significant differences between the SBI group and non-SBI group. Significant risk factors for SBI were extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, central venous catheter, indwelling urethral catheter, and nasogastric tube. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings confirmed that the incidence of secondary infection, particularly SBI, and mortality are high among critically ill patients with COVID-19. We showed that long-term hospitalization and invasive procedures such as tracheotomy, central venous catheter, indwelling urethral catheter, and nasogastric tube are risk factors for SBI and other complications.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coinfection , Sepsis , Adult , Critical Illness , Humans , Intensive Care Units , SARS-CoV-2
2.
PeerJ ; 8: e10497, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-948184

ABSTRACT

Background and objectives: The timing of invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) is controversial in COVID-19 patients with acute respiratory hypoxemia. The study aimed to develop a novel predictor called cumulative oxygen deficit (COD) for the risk stratification. Methods: The study was conducted in four designated hospitals for treating COVID-19 patients in Jingmen, Wuhan, from January to March 2020. COD was defined to account for both the magnitude and duration of hypoxemia. A higher value of COD indicated more oxygen deficit. The predictive performance of COD was calculated in multivariable Cox regression models. Results: A number of 111 patients including 80 in the non-IMV group and 31 in the IMV group were included. Patients with IMV had substantially lower PaO2 (62 (49, 89) vs. 90.5 (68, 125.25) mmHg; p < 0.001), and higher COD (-6.87 (-29.36, 52.38) vs. -231.68 (-1040.78, 119.83) mmHg·day) than patients without IMV. As compared to patients with COD < 0, patients with COD > 30 mmHg·day had higher risk of fatality (HR: 3.79, 95% CI [2.57-16.93]; p = 0.037), and those with COD > 50 mmHg·day were 10 times more likely to die (HR: 10.45, 95% CI [1.28-85.37]; p = 0.029). Conclusions: The study developed a novel predictor COD which considered both magnitude and duration of hypoxemia, to assist risk stratification of COVID-19 patients with acute respiratory distress.

3.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 7: 541, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-769242

ABSTRACT

Background: Lung mechanics during invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) for both prognostic and therapeutic implications; however, the full trajectory lung mechanics has never been described for novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients requiring IMV. The study aimed to describe the full trajectory of lung mechanics of mechanically ventilated COVID-19 patients. The clinical and ventilator setting that can influence patient-ventilator asynchrony (PVA) and compliance were explored. Post-extubation spirometry test was performed to assess the pulmonary function after COVID-19 induced ARDS. Methods: This was a retrospective study conducted in a tertiary care hospital. All patients with IMV due to COVID-19 induced ARDS were included. High-granularity ventilator waveforms were analyzed with deep learning algorithm to obtain PVAs. Asynchrony index (AI) was calculated as the number of asynchronous events divided by the number of ventilator cycles and wasted efforts. Mortality was recorded as the vital status on hospital discharge. Results: A total of 3,923,450 respiratory cycles in 2,778 h were analyzed (average: 24 cycles/min) for seven patients. Higher plateau pressure (Coefficient: -0.90; 95% CI: -1.02 to -0.78) and neuromuscular blockades (Coefficient: -6.54; 95% CI: -9.92 to -3.16) were associated with lower AI. Survivors showed increasing compliance over time, whereas non-survivors showed persistently low compliance. Recruitment maneuver was not able to improve lung compliance. Patients were on supine position in 1,422 h (51%), followed by prone positioning (499 h, 18%), left positioning (453 h, 16%), and right positioning (404 h, 15%). As compared with supine positioning, prone positioning was associated with 2.31 ml/cmH2O (95% CI: 1.75 to 2.86; p < 0.001) increase in lung compliance. Spirometry tests showed that pulmonary functions were reduced to one third of the predicted values after extubation. Conclusions: The study for the first time described full trajectory of lung mechanics of patients with COVID-19. The result showed that prone positioning was associated with improved compliance; higher plateau pressure and use of neuromuscular blockades were associated with lower risk of AI.

4.
Clin Chem Lab Med ; 58(8): 1172-1181, 2020 Jul 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-608457

ABSTRACT

Objective Recently, there have been several studies on the clinical characteristics of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19); however, these studies have mainly been concentrated in Wuhan, China; the sample sizes of each article were different; and the reported clinical characteristics, especially blood biochemical indices, were quite different. This study aimed to summarize the blood biochemistry characteristics of COVID-19 patients by performing a systemic review and meta-analysis of published studies. Methods Comprehensive studies were screened from PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library through March 11, 2020. The inclusion criteria included studies investigating the biochemical indexes of patients with COVID-19. The statistical software R3.6.3 was used for meta-analysis. Results Ten studies including 1745 COVID-19 patients met the inclusion criteria for our meta-analysis. Meta-analysis showed that 16% and 20% of patients with COVID-19 had alanine transaminase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels higher than the normal range, respectively. Thirty-four percent of patients showed albumin (ALB) levels lower than the normal range, and 6% of patients showed abnormal total bilirubin (TBil) levels. The levels of creatinine (CRE) were increased in 8% of patients. The creatine kinase (CK) level of 13% of patients exceeded the normal range, and 52% of patients had elevated lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels. In addition, six studies met the inclusion criteria for the systemic review evaluating the relevance between LDH levels and the severity of COVID-19, and all six studies showed a positive association between these two factors. Conclusions Some patients with COVID-19 had different degrees of blood biochemical abnormalities, which might indicate multiple organ dysfunction. Some biochemical indexes, such as abnormal ALB and LDH, could reflect the severity of the disease to a certain extent. These blood biochemical indicators should be considered in the clinical management of the disease.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Blood Chemical Analysis/statistics & numerical data , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/statistics & numerical data , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Humans , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/blood , Pandemics , Regression Analysis , SARS-CoV-2 , Serum Albumin, Human/analysis
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