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International Journal of Online Pedagogy and Course Design ; 12(1), 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2121933


The most popular media of content delivery in online learning and education in the post-pandemic time has been learning management systems (LMS) or virtual learning environments (VLEs). Since few studies comprehensively presented the impact of gamification in the VLEs/LMS (GVLEs/GLMS) on learning outcomes, satisfaction, engagement, and motivation, this review aims to identify the effects of gamification in the contexts of VLEs/LMS. The authors adopted a systematic review method based on the preferred reporting items for systematic review and meta-analysis protocols (PRISMA-P). The results showed that the GLMS had positive influences on learning motivation, engagement, and satisfaction while it did not necessarily improve learning outcomes due to various factors. Implications and suggestions were given to researchers, developers, educators, and institutions based on the findings.

Chinese Journal of Disease Control and Prevention ; 26(1):112-115, 2022.
Article in Chinese | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1771919


Objective An epidemic of COVID-19 caused by an imported Delta variant strain in Guangzhou was investigated, and the transmission chain, transmission characteristics and infection of each case were analyzed, so as to provide a theoretical basis for predicting disease development and epidemic prevention and control. Methods By collecting the information released by Guangzhou government, the confirmed cases with a clear transmission chain were selected, and the infectious disease indicators such as serial interval (SI), basic reproduction number (Rq) and time-dependent reproduction number (Rt) were calculated to analyze the epidemiological characteristics. Results From May 21 to June 20, 2021, a total of 144 cases of indigenous COVID-19 were confirmed in Guangzhou, among which 67 pairs of cases with a clear transmission chain were selected. SI was calculated to follow the Gamma distribution, with a mean of 4. 27 d and a standard deviation of 2.65 d. Rq = 3. 18 (95% CI: 2. 1974.428), and Rt showed an obvious decreasing trend over time. On June 10, Rt = 0.97 (95% CI: 0. 751 -1. 214), which was lower than 1. Since then Rt had been less than 1, and it got smaller and smaller over time. Conclusion In this COVID-19 epidemic, the SI was shorter and the Rq was larger, which indicated that the Delta variant strain had a faster transmission rate and stronger transmissibility than the COVID-19 infected in Wuhan in 2020.