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1.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-337739

ABSTRACT

Messenger RNA (mRNA) has recently emerged as a new drug modality with great therapeutic potential. However, linear mRNAs are relatively unstable and also require base modification to reduce their immunogenicity, imposing a limitation to the broad application. With improved stability, the circular RNA (circRNA) presents a better alternative for prolonged expression of the proteins, however the in vitro circularization of RNA at a large scale is technically challenging. Here we developed a new self-catalyzed system to efficiently produce circRNAs in a co-transcriptional fashion. By rational sequence design, we can efficiently produce scarless circRNAs that do not contain foreign sequences. The resulting circRNAs are very stable and have low immunogenicity, enabling prolonged protein translation in different cells without cellular toxicity. The circRNAs generated from this platform can be encapsulated in lipid nanoparticles and efficiently delivered into mice to direct robust protein expression. Finally, the circRNAs encoding RBD of SARS-CoV-2 S protein induced strong antibody productions, with neutralization antibody titers higher than the preclinical data from the linear mRNAs. Collectively, this study provided a general platform for efficient production of circRNAs, demonstrating the potential of circRNAs as the new generation of mRNA therapy.

2.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1368: 167-188, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1858954

ABSTRACT

Infectious diseases remain an essential global challenge in public health. For instance, novel coronavirus (COVID-19) has resulted in significant negative impacts on public health, infecting more than 214 million people and causing 4.47 million deaths worldwide as of August 2021. Geographic Information Systems have played an essential role in managing, storing, analyzing, and mapping disease and related risk information. This article provides an overview of a broad topic on applications of GIS into infectious disease research. Our review follows the framework of human-environment interactions, focusing on the environmental and social factors that cause the disease outbreak and the role of humans in disease control, including public health policies and interventions such as social distancing/face covering practice and mobility modeling. The work identifies key spatial decision-making issues where GIS becomes valued in the agenda for infectious disease research and highlights the importance of adopting science-based policies to protect the public during the current and future pandemics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Diseases , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Diseases/epidemiology , Geographic Information Systems , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 108: 108764, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1851316

ABSTRACT

The prevalence of avian infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is still one of causes inducing severe losses of production in the poultry industry worldwide. Vaccination does not completely prevent IBV infection and spread due to immune failure and viral mutations. ForsythiaeFructus and its compounds have been widely used in a lot of prescriptions of the traditional Chinese medicine for a long history, and it is well-known as safety and efficiency in heat-clearing and detoxifying. This study aims to investigate the anti-IBV activity and mechanism of phillygenin. The results showed that phillygenin inhibited IBV replication by disturbing multiple stages of the virus life cycle, including viral adsorption, invasion, internalization, and release in Vero cells. After being treated with 100, 125 and 150 µg/mL phillygenin, the expression of G3BP1 was significantly increased and the phosphorylation of PKR/eIF2α was activated, which increased stress granule, thereby triggering the antiviral response in Vero cells. The anti-virus activity of PHI was decreased when G3BP1 was interfered by si-RNA, and G3BP1 was down-regulated when PKR/eIF2α was interfered by si-RNA. In conclusion, our findings indicate that phillygenin activates PKR/eIF2α pathway and induces stress granule formation to exert anti-IBV, which holds promise to develop into a novel anti-IBV drug. Further study in vivo is needed to explore phillygenin as a potential and effective drug to prevent IB in poultry.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Infectious bronchitis virus , Poultry Diseases , Animals , Chlorocebus aethiops , DNA Helicases/metabolism , DNA Helicases/pharmacology , Eukaryotic Initiation Factor-2/metabolism , Eukaryotic Initiation Factor-2/pharmacology , Infectious bronchitis virus/physiology , Lignans , Poly-ADP-Ribose Binding Proteins , RNA , RNA Helicases/metabolism , RNA Helicases/pharmacology , RNA Recognition Motif Proteins , Vero Cells
4.
Int J Infect Dis ; 121: 195-202, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1851259

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Because of the spread of the Omicron variant, many countries have experienced COVID-19 case numbers unseen since the start of the pandemic. We aimed to compare the epidemiological characteristics of Omicron with previous variants and different strains of influenza to provide context for public health responses. METHODS: We developed transmission models for SARS-CoV-2 variants and influenza, in which transmission, death, and vaccination rates were taken to be time-varying. We fit our model based on publicly available data in South Africa, the United States, and Canada. We used this model to evaluate the relative transmissibility and mortality of Omicron compared with previous variants and influenza. RESULTS: We found that Omicron is more transmissible and less fatal than both seasonal and 2009 H1N1 influenza and the Delta variant; these characteristics make Omicron epidemiologically more similar to influenza than it is to Delta. We estimate that as of February 7, 2022, booster doses have prevented 4.29×107 and 1.14×106 Omicron infections in the United States and Canada, respectively. CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate that the high infectivity of Omicron will keep COVID-19 endemic, similar to influenza. However, because of Omicron's lower fatality rate, our work suggests that human populations living with SARS-CoV-2 are most likely.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , Influenza, Human , Mutation , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/genetics , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/pathogenicity , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Influenza, Human/virology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , United States/epidemiology
5.
Front Oncol ; 11: 785102, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1834497

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The present COVID-19 pandemic has tended toward normality. To provide convenient, safe, and effective home treatment programs for patients with recurrent ovarian cancer (ROC), the clinical efficacy and safety of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitor (PARPi) (including olaparib, niraparib, and rucaparib) monotherapy as a maintenance treatment for platinum-sensitive ROC were systematically evaluated. METHODS: Numerous electronic databases were systematically searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of PARPi maintenance treatment for ROC that were published before June 2021. The primary endpoints were overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS), and the secondary endpoint was grade 3-4 adverse effects (AEs). After data extraction and the quality evaluation of the included studies, Bayesian network meta-analysis (NMA) was performed using R software. The ability of each treatment was ranked using the surface under the cumulative ranking (SUCRA) curve. RESULTS: The analysis included five studies and 1390 patients. The NMA results demonstrated that compared with the placebo, olaparib and niraparib exhibited significant benefits in the gBRCA-mutated population, and respectively reduced the risk of death by 31% (HR = 0.69, 95% CI: 0.53-0.90) and 34% (HR = 0.66, 95% CI: 0.44-0.99). Olaparib, niraparib, and rucaparib were all found to be very effective in prolonging PFS in patients with ROC. All three PARPi treatments increased the number of grade 3-4 AEs in patients with ROC as compared with the placebo. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, olaparib and niraparib maintenance treatment can significantly prolong the OS of patients with gBRCA mutations. Furthermore, the three investigated PARPi monotherapy maintenance treatments can prolong PFS regardless of BRCA mutation status. Although the incidence of AEs in the treatment groups was found to be significantly higher than that in the placebo group, the patients in the treatment group tolerated the treatment. Home oral PARPi treatment can balance tumor treatment and pandemic prevention and control, and is the most convenient, safe, and effective home treatment method available against the background of the current COVID-19 pandemic. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: https://inplasy.com/inplasy-2021-6-0033/.

6.
J Biomed Inform ; 130: 104079, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1804425

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has overwhelmed the capacity of healthcare resources and posed a challenge for worldwide hospitals. The ability to distinguish potentially deteriorating patients from the rest helps facilitate reasonable allocation of medical resources, such as ventilators, hospital beds, and human resources. The real-time accurate prediction of a patient's risk scores could also help physicians to provide earlier respiratory support for the patient and reduce the risk of mortality. METHODS: We propose a robust real-time prediction model for the in-hospital COVID-19 patients' probability of requiring mechanical ventilation (MV). The end-to-end neural network model incorporates the Multi-task Gaussian Process to handle the irregular sampling rate in observational data together with a self-attention neural network for the prediction task. RESULTS: We evaluate our model on a large database with 9,532 nationwide in-hospital patients with COVID-19. The model demonstrates significant robustness and consistency improvements compared to conventional machine learning models. The proposed prediction model also shows performance improvements in terms of area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) and area under the precision-recall curve (AUPRC) compared to various deep learning models, especially at early times after a patient's hospital admission. CONCLUSION: The availability of large and real-time clinical data calls for new methods to make the best use of them for real-time patient risk prediction. It is not ideal for simplifying the data for traditional methods or for making unrealistic assumptions that deviate from observation's true dynamics. We demonstrate a pilot effort to harmonize cross-sectional and longitudinal information for mechanical ventilation needing prediction.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Attention , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Neural Networks, Computer , Retrospective Studies , Ventilators, Mechanical
7.
Environ Chem Lett ; : 1-7, 2022 Apr 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1787823

ABSTRACT

Biosensors based on nucleic acid-structured electrochemiluminescence are rapidly developing for medical diagnostics. Here, we build an automated DNA molecular machine on Ti3C2/polyethyleneimine-Ru(dcbpy)3 2+@Au composite, which alters the situation that a DNA molecular machine requires laying down motion tracks. We use this DNA molecular machine to transduce the target concentration information to enhance the electrochemiluminescence signal based on DNA hybridization calculations. Complex bioanalytical processes are centralized in a single nucleic acid probe unit, thus eliminating the tedious steps of laying down motion tracks required by the traditional molecular machine. We found a detection limit of 0.68 pM and a range of 1 pM to 1 nM for the analysis of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) specific DNA target. Recoveries range between 96.4 and 104.8% for the analysis of SARS-CoV-2 in human saliva. Supplementary Information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s10311-022-01434-9.

8.
Aerosol and Air Quality Research ; 22(1), 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1771485

ABSTRACT

Ultrafine particle (i.e., smaller than 100 nm) in the ambient air is a significant public health issue. The inhalation and deposition of ultrafine particles in the human airways can lead to various adverse health effects. Loose-fitting types of masks are commonly used by the general public in some developing countries for protecting against ultrafine particles in the ambient environment. This research conducted a series of laboratory chamber experiments using two sets of particle sizers and two mannequin heads to study the mask efficiency of selected loose-fitting masks. Results acquired demonstrated that the cloth mask showed a low mask efficiency against ultrafine particles with the mask efficiency generally less than 0.4. The KN95 presented a better mask efficiency among all tested masks with the mask efficiency overall larger than 0.5. In addition, the effect of mask-wearing on the change of ultrafine particle airway deposition efficiency was also investigated in this study. The ultrafine particle deposition efficiency in the airway section studied was found to decrease due to mask-wearing, and the decreases of the deposition efficiencies were similar among all loose-fitting masks tested.

9.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-331906

ABSTRACT

: The use of facemasks has played an important role in the prevention of COVID-19. However, inappropriate use of facemasks also brings people certain problems. Therefore, the reasonable use of facemasks is a necessary measure to protect oneself and others in the current epidemic prevention and control.

10.
Ann Palliat Med ; 2022 Mar 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1743090

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We aimed to identify studies systematically that describe the incidence and outcome of COVID-19-related pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA). METHODS: We searched ScienceDirect, PubMed, CNKI, and MEDLINE (OVID) from December 31, 2019 to November 20, 2021 for all eligible studies. Random-model was used to reported the incidence, allcause case fatality rate (CFR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). The meta-analysis was registered with PROSPERO (CRD42021242179). RESULTS: In all, thirty-one cohort studies were included in this study. A total of 3,441 patients with severe COVID-19 admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU) were investigated and 442 cases of CAPA were reported (30 studies). The pooled incidence rate of CAPA was 0.14 (95% CI: 0.11-0.17, I2=0.0%). Twenty-eight studies reported 287 deceased patients and 269 surviving patients. The pooled CFR of CAPA was 0.52 (95% CI: 0.47-0.56, I2=3.9%). Interestingly, patients with COVID19 would develop CAPA at 7.28 days after mechanical ventilation (range, 5.48-9.08 days). No significant publication bias was detected in this meta-analysis. DISCUSSION: Patients with COVID-19 admitted to an ICU might develop CAPA and have high all-cause CFR. We recommend conducting prospective screening for CAPA among patients with severe COVID-19, especially for those who receive mechanical ventilation over 7 days.

11.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 13: 801260, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1731767

ABSTRACT

Type 2 diabetes (T2D) patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection hospitalized develop an acute cardiovascular syndrome. It is urgent to elucidate underlying mechanisms associated with the acute cardiac injury in T2D hearts. We performed bioinformatic analysis on the expression profiles of public datasets to identify the pathogenic and prognostic genes in T2D hearts. Cardiac RNA-sequencing datasets from db/db or BKS mice (GSE161931) were updated to NCBI-Gene Expression Omnibus (NCBI-GEO), and used for the transcriptomics analyses with public datasets from NCBI-GEO of autopsy heart specimens with COVID-19 (5/6 with T2D, GSE150316), or dead healthy persons (GSE133054). Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and overlapping homologous DEGs among the three datasets were identified using DESeq2. Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes analyses were conducted for event enrichment through clusterProfile. The protein-protein interaction (PPI) network of DEGs was established and visualized by Cytoscape. The transcriptions and functions of crucial genes were further validated in db/db hearts. In total, 542 up-regulated and 485 down-regulated DEGs in mice, and 811 up-regulated and 1399 down-regulated DEGs in human were identified, respectively. There were 74 overlapping homologous DEGs among all datasets. Mitochondria inner membrane and serine-type endopeptidase activity were further identified as the top-10 GO events for overlapping DEGs. Cardiac CAPNS1 (calpain small subunit 1) was the unique crucial gene shared by both enriched events. Its transcriptional level significantly increased in T2D mice, but surprisingly decreased in T2D patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection. PPI network was constructed with 30 interactions in overlapping DEGs, including CAPNS1. The substrates Junctophilin2 (Jp2), Tnni3, and Mybpc3 in cardiac calpain/CAPNS1 pathway showed less transcriptional change, although Capns1 increased in transcription in db/db mice. Instead, cytoplasmic JP2 significantly reduced and its hydrolyzed product JP2NT exhibited nuclear translocation in myocardium. This study suggests CAPNS1 is a crucial gene in T2D hearts. Its transcriptional upregulation leads to calpain/CAPNS1-associated JP2 hydrolysis and JP2NT nuclear translocation. Therefore, attenuated cardiac CAPNS1 transcription in T2D patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection highlights a novel target in adverse prognostics and comprehensive therapy. CAPNS1 can also be explored for the molecular signaling involving the onset, progression and prognostic in T2D patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Computational Biology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/genetics , Diabetic Cardiomyopathies/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Animals , Calpain/genetics , Calpain/physiology , Comorbidity , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/physiopathology , Diabetic Cardiomyopathies/genetics , Diabetic Cardiomyopathies/physiopathology , Humans , Male , Membrane Proteins/metabolism , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Middle Aged , Mitochondria, Heart/ultrastructure , Muscle Proteins/metabolism , Myocardium/chemistry , Myocardium/metabolism , Myocardium/ultrastructure , Prognosis , Sequence Analysis, RNA , Transcriptome
12.
Brief Bioinform ; 23(3)2022 05 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1713565

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a global pandemic and there is an urgent need to discover the therapy for COVID-19. In our original article, we first obtained the target proteins of acupuncture and related target genes of COVID-19 by searching English and Chinese databases, then Gene Ontology biological processes and enrichment analysis were performed on the overlapping targets of acupuncture with COVID-19. Moreover, the compound-target and compound-disease-target network was constructed. This is an innovative attempt to predict the potential benefits of acupuncture treatment for COVID-19. In this letter, we answered reader Zheng's comments.


Subject(s)
Acupuncture Therapy , Acupuncture , COVID-19 , COVID-19/therapy , Computational Biology , Gene Ontology , Humans
13.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-325423

ABSTRACT

Previous studies have been focused primarily on modelling and predicting the transmission of COVID-19. While little research has been conducted to understand the impacts of different travel modes on the transmission of COVID-19, without an explicit understanding of the travel mode effects, many people intuitively perceive non-motorized travel modes to be safer than public transit as passengers in public transit are confined to small, enclosed spaces where the virus can transmit more easily. During the period when urban mobility gradually returns towards what was called ‘normal’ and transit systems and urban facilities reopen, new waves of the pandemic might be generated as travel mode choices significantly differ across cities and different travel behaviors are associated with diverse infectious sources. Thus, the current study focuses on understanding the impact of different travel modes on the transmission of COVID-19 in the long-term and at world-wide scales, aspects that have not received much attention in the research literature. Accordingly, a multivariate time series analysis has been developed to examine the impacts of daily confirmed cases and travel modes, based on driving, public transit, and walking as recorded in the Apple Mobility Trends Reports on COVID-19 transmission risks in 71 cities throughout the world from January to November 2020. The impact of population density in built-up areas and the degree to which the `wearing' of facemasks affects infections are also investigated. Among the three travel modes we examine, driving is the safest way to commute because drivers are physically separate from crowds. Unexpectedly, walking has a relatively low risk when the population density in built-up areas is high, which suggests that, globally, people have increased awareness of pandemic prevention. Although the general public is more worried about using public transit, this mode can still be safe in many large cities, a factor that is vital for informing policy making and developing trust among citizens so they will continue to commute using public transit when strict preventative measures are in place. From another perspective, infectious sources make the largest contribution to daily confirmed cases, thus demonstrating the importance of strict quarantine measures to block the source of infection. The results and conclusions presented herein are based on an analysis of spatio-temporal data that helps inform policy making and enable cities to be kept open when controlling the pandemic, which has become an urgent task for the international community when rebuilding the economy.

14.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-325077

ABSTRACT

We propose a robust in-time predictor for in-hospital COVID-19 patient's probability of requiring mechanical ventilation. A challenge in the risk prediction for COVID-19 patients lies in the great variability and irregular sampling of patient's vitals and labs observed in the clinical setting. Existing methods have strong limitations in handling time-dependent features' complex dynamics, either oversimplifying temporal data with summary statistics that lose information or over-engineering features that lead to less robust outcomes. We propose a novel in-time risk trajectory predictive model to handle the irregular sampling rate in the data, which follows the dynamics of risk of performing mechanical ventilation for individual patients. The model incorporates the Multi-task Gaussian Process using observed values to learn the posterior joint multi-variant conditional probability and infer the missing values on a unified time grid. The temporal imputed data is fed into a multi-objective self-attention network for the prediction task. A novel positional encoding layer is proposed and added to the network for producing in-time predictions. The positional layer outputs a risk score at each user-defined time point during the entire hospital stay of an inpatient. We frame the prediction task into a multi-objective learning framework, and the risk scores at all time points are optimized altogether, which adds robustness and consistency to the risk score trajectory prediction. Our experimental evaluation on a large database with nationwide in-hospital patients with COVID-19 also demonstrates that it improved the state-of-the-art performance in terms of AUC (Area Under the receiver operating characteristic Curve) and AUPRC (Area Under the Precision-Recall Curve) performance metrics, especially at early times after hospital admission.

15.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-325021

ABSTRACT

Chinese herbal formulas, notably the lung-cleaning and toxicity-excluding (LCTE) soup has played an important role in treating an ongoing and life-threating worldwide pandemic, COVID-19 (caused by SARS-CoV-2). Applying LCTE outside of China may be difficult for medical society to approach due to the unfamiliar rationale behind its application in terms of Traditional Chinese Medicine. To overcome this barrier, we illuminate the chemical and biological mechanisms behind LCTE’s effects, by exploring the chemical compounds contained in LCTE ingredients, the proteins targeted by these compounds as well as undertaking the network pharmacology analysis. The results disclosed that LCTE contains compounds with the potential to directly inhibit SARS-CoV-2 and inflammation, and that the compounds targeted proteins significantly related to the main symptoms seen in COVID-19. The general effect of LCTE was to affect the pathways involved in viral and other microbe infection, inflammation/cytokine response, and lung diseases. Our work provided chemical biological explanations for using LCTE to treat COVID-19.

16.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-324806

ABSTRACT

Recently, the recurrence of positive SARS-CoV-2 viral RNA in recovered COVID-19 patients get more attention. Here we report a cohort study on the follow up of 182 recovered patients under medical isolation observation. There are 20 (10.99 %) patients out of the 182 were detected SARS-CoV-2 RNA turned positive, but none of them shows any clinical symptomatic recurrence indicating that COVID-19 has a good prognosis. Females and young patients aged under 15 have higher re-positive rate than the average, and none of the severe patients turned re-positive. Notably, most of the re-positive cases turn negative in the followed tests, suggesting that the importance of dynamic surveillance of SARS-CoV-2 RNA for infectivity assessment.

17.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-323874

ABSTRACT

Background: To investigate the clinical characteristics and manifestations of older patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Methods: : In this retrospective study, 566 patients with confirmed COVID-19 were enrolled and the clinical characteristics, laboratory findings, complications and outcome data were collected and analyzed. Results: : Among the 566 patients (median age, 61.5 years) with COVID-19, 267 (47.2%) patients were male and 307 (54.2%) were elderly. Compared with younger patients, older patients had more underlying comorbidities and laboratory abnormalities. A higher rate of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), acute cardiac injury and heart failure was observed in the older group as compared with younger and middle-aged groups, particularly those oldest-old patients (>75 years) had more multi-organ damage. Older patients with COVID-19 were more likely to suffer from acute cardiac injury in cases with preexistenting cardiovascular diseases, while there was no difference among the three groups when patients had no history of cardiovascular diseases. Older patients present more severe with the mortality of 18.6%, which was higher than that in younger and middle-aged patients ( P <0.05). Multivariable analysis showed that age, lymphopenia, ARDS, acute cardiac injury, heart failure and skeletal muscle injury were associated with death in older patients, while glucocorticoids may be harmful. Conclusions: : Older patients, especially the oldest-old patients were more likely to exhibit significant systemic inflammation, pulmonary and extrapulmonary organ damage and a higher mortality. Advanced age, lymphopenia, ARDS, acute cardiac injury, heart failure and skeletal muscle injury were independent predictors of death in older patients with COVID-19 and glucocorticoids should be carefully administered in older patients.

18.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-322246

ABSTRACT

Background: Currently, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has spread worldwide and become a global health concern. Here, we report a familial cluster of COVID-19 infection in a northern Chinese region and share our local experience. Methods A familial cluster of six patients infected with severe acute respiratory coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) was included for analysis. The demographic data, clinical features, laboratory examinations, and epidemiological characteristics of enrolled cases were collected and analyzed. Results Two family members (Cases 1 and 2) had Hubei exposure history and were admitted to the hospital with a confirmed diagnosis of COVID-19;eight familial members who had contact with them during the incubation period were isolated in a hospital. Finally, the condition of four members (Cases 3, 4, 5, and 6) was as follows. Case 3 had negative SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR results but was suspected to have COVID-19 because of radiographic abnormalities. Cases 4 and 5 developed COVID-19. Due to positive SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR results, Case 6 was considered an asymptomatic carrier. In addition, four close contacts did not have evidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Conclusions Our findings suggest that COVID-19 has infectivity during the incubation period and preventive quarantine is effective for controlling an outbreak of COVID-19 infection.

19.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-318905

ABSTRACT

Objective: To analyze the dynamic of total, IgA, IgM and IgG antibody of the confirmed COVID-19 patients during convalescent phases to understand the kinetics of antibody response among recovered patients. Methods: From March 4 to April 29, 2020, a total of 143 recovered COVID-19 patients with clear date of illness onset available were enrolled in this study. Nasopharyngeal and anal swabs were collected for SARS-CoV-2 RNA testing. Blood samples were collected for antibodies testing. Results: A total of 275 blood samples up to 96 days after illness onset were collected from 143 recovered patients. High titers of total and IgG antibodies continued to persist for over 3 months, with 100% and 99.3% patients remaining positive for total and IgG antibody. IgM antibody declined rapidly with a median time to seronegative at 67 (95%CI: 59, 75) days after illness onset. Around 25% patients were seronegative for IgA antibody at month 3 after illness onset. No statistical significance difference was founded in the antibody kinetics between patients with and without re-detectable positive RT-PCR results during in convalescent phases. Conclusion: Similar high antibody titers of total and IgG antibody continued to persist for over 3 months among recovered COVID-19 patients with and without re-detectable positive RT-PCR results.

20.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-315493

ABSTRACT

Background: While most COVID-19 research has focused on older individuals with multi-comorbidities, few studies have assessed the predictors of fatality among health care workers (HCWs). This study evaluated if demographics and COVID-19 symptomatology predicted COVID-19 fatality and the temporal trends and spatial distribution among HCWs. Methods: We used a case-control design to compare HCW deaths related to COVID-19 (laboratory-confirmed) with three control groups (i.e., Non-HCW deaths, HCW non-deaths, and non-HCW non-deaths). Patient-level data with 33 variables, including COVID-19 confirmed cases, deaths, demographics, and various specific COVID symptoms reported by all states in the US, have been obtained from the Restricted Access Dataset by the US CDC since January 2020. A logistic regression model was used by regressing the outcome variable against each predictor while controlling for gender, age group, race, and ethnicity. Results: The percentages of 50-69 years old, Hispanics (8.7%), Black (32%), and Asian (23.1%) in HCW death were significantly higher than in their respective controls. The fatality and all severe indicators were higher among the deaths than non-deaths, but not different for HCWs than non-HCWs. Significantly increased risks for deaths were observed with pre-existing medical conditions (RR: 7.24, 95% CI: 5.40-9.70), shortness of breath (RR: 5.73, 95% CI:4.50-7.31), fever (RR:3.52, 95% CI: 2.71-4.56), cough (RR:2.02, 95% CI: 1.54-2.65), and diarrhea (RR: 1.57, 95% CI:1.20-2.05). Conclusion: Older and minority HCWs experienced relatively higher COVID-19 fatality. Severe symptoms are similarly prevalent among HCW deaths and non-HCW deaths. Pre-existing medical conditions, shortness of breath and fever symptoms may be critical COVID indicators for HCWs.

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