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2.
Zhongguo Bingdubing Zazhi = Chinese Journal of Viral Diseases ; 12(6):463, 2022.
Article in Chinese | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2204246

ABSTRACT

It has been more than 2 years since the outbreak of corona virus disease 2019(COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2(SARS-CoV-2).SARS-CoV-2 is a member of positive single-stranded RNA viruses and could infect multiple mammals.Palmitoylation is a post-translational lipid modification of protein, which regulates protein localization and trafficking.Spike protein(S), envelope protein(E) and SARS-CoV-2 receptor ACE2 have been identified of being palmitoylated.This paper reviews the research progress on the palmitoylation of S, E and ACE2, including the sites of palmitoylation of S protein, the enzymes involved in this process, and their functions.Through the integrated review of these contents, which would provide mechanistic insights into the pathogenesis and treatment of COVID-19.

4.
Vaccines ; 11(1):33, 2023.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-2166999

ABSTRACT

Objective: To analyze the differences in efficacy and safety of different types of novel coronavirus pneumonia (COVID-19) vaccines in different age groups (young adults and elderly). Methods: Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on COVID-19 vaccine in PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and Cochrane library were searched by computer, and eight eligible studies were analyzed. Meta-analysis was performed using Stata 16.0 and RevMan5.4 software. Results: The mean geometric titer (GMT) of the virus in the elderly was significantly higher than that in the placebo group (SMD = 0.91, 95% CI (0.68, 1.15), p < 0.01), presenting no obvious difference compared with the young adults (SMD = 0.19, 95% CI (0.38, 0.01), p = 0.06). Meanwhile, the effect of multiple vaccinations was better than that of single vaccination (SMD = 0.83, 95% CI (0.33, 1.34), p < 0.01). However, the number of adverse events (AEs) in the elderly was lower than that in the young adults (OR = 0.35, 95% CI (0.29, 0.42), p < 0.01). Conclusions: The immunization effect of COVID-19 vaccine in the elderly is obvious, especially after multiple vaccinations, and the incidence of AEs in the elderly is low, which proves that the vaccination of the elderly is safe and effective.

5.
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health ; 20(1):476, 2023.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-2166474

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has revealed new features in terms of substantial changes in rates of infection, cure, and death as a result of social interventions, which significantly challenges traditional SEIR-type models. In this paper we developed a symmetry-based model for quantifying social interventions for combating COVID-19. We found that three key order parameters, separating degree (S) for susceptible populations, healing degree (H) for mild cases, and rescuing degree (R) for severe cases, all display logistic dynamics, establishing a novel dynamic model named SHR. Furthermore, we discovered two evolutionary patterns of healing degree with a universal power law in 23 areas in the first wave. Remarkably, the model yielded a quantitative evaluation of the dynamic back-to-zero policy in the third wave in Beijing using 12 datasets of different sizes. In conclusion, the SHR model constitutes a rational basis by which we can understand this complex epidemic and policymakers can carry out sustainable anti-epidemic measures to minimize its impact.

6.
Virologica Sinica ; 2023.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2165946

ABSTRACT

Homologous booster, heterologous booster, and Omicron variants breakthrough infection (OBI) could improve the humoral immunity against Omicron variants. Questions concerning about memory B cells (MBCs) and T cells immunity against Omicron variants, features of long-term immunity, after booster and OBI, needs to be explored. Here, comparative analysis demonstrate antibody and T cell immunity against ancestral strain, Delta and Omicron variants in Omicron breakthrough infected patients (OBIPs) are comparable to that in Ad5-nCoV boosted healthy volunteers (HVs), higher than that in inactivated vaccine (InV) boosted HVs. However, memory B cells (MBCs) immunity against Omicron variants was highest in OBIPs, followed by Ad5-nCoV boosted and InV boosted HVs. OBIPs and Ad5-nCoV boosted HVs have higher classical MBCs and activated MBCs, and lower naïve MBCs and atypical MBCs relative to both vaccine boosted HVs. Collectively, these data indicate Omicron breakthrough infection elicit higher MBCs and T cells against SARS-CoV-2 especially Omicron variants relative to homologous InV booster and heterologous Ad5-nCoV booster.

7.
Journal of Hazardous Materials ; : 130686, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2165550

ABSTRACT

The global pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 has lasted two and a half years and the infections caused by the viral contamination are still occurring. Developing efficient disinfection technology is crucial for the current epidemic or infectious diseases caused by other pathogenic microorganisms. Gas plasma can efficiently inactivate different microorganisms, therefore, in this study, a combination of water spray and plasma-activated air was established for the disinfection of pathogenic microorganisms. The combined treatment efficiently inactivated the Omicron-pseudovirus through caused the nitration modification of the spike proteins and also the pathogenic bacteria. The combined treatment was improved with a funnel-shaped nozzle to form a temporary relatively sealed environment for the treatment of the contaminated area. The improved device could efficiently inactivate the Omicron-pseudovirus and bacteria on the surface of different materials including quartz, metal, leather, plastic, and cardboard and the particle size of the water spray did not affect the inactivation effects. This study supplied a disinfection strategy based on plasma-activated air for the inactivation of contaminated pathogenic microorganisms.

8.
IEEE Sensors Journal ; 22(23):23529-23538, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2136428

ABSTRACT

The rising aging population, inequality of medical resources, and severe COVID-19 infection rate raise inevitable individual and social contradictions. One of the representative developing technologies, smart wearables, is dedicated to offering accurate personal healthcare. Nevertheless, energy constraints as well as unpredictable data transmission are critical in the development of wearable devices. In this regard, we investigate the key concerns of energy life and quality of service (QoS) for smart clothing. Unlike general wireless sensing networks (WSNs), the wireless body area network (WBAN) embedded in smart clothing is highly affected by human postural changes. In this article, we formulate the smart clothing with multiposture participated from two perspectives: 1) for energy life, we address the energy consumption, the energy harvested by the nodes, and the battery discharge and 2) the QoS involves the path loss and time delay. Moreover, five typical daily activity states have been discussed to model the impact of posture changes. Under the influence of the posture state, the tradeoff between the collected tribological electrical energy and the consumed energy is also presented in the article. We parameterize the path loss, transmission delay, energy consumption, and collection in each posture and integrally formulate the energy problem and QoS to a joint optimization problem. Particle swarm optimization (PSO), sine cosine algorithm (SCA), and Q-learning algorithm are adopted to optimize the overall cost, time delay, and energy consumption. In addition, a comparison of the battery power of the nodes is conducted. Simulation results show that each algorithm achieves certain optimization effects, for example, PSO, SCA, and Q-learning reduce total costs by 14%, 22%, and 30%, respectively. Q-learning is also effectively decreasing latency and energy consumption and improving battery life.

9.
Front Public Health ; 10: 1033351, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2142360

ABSTRACT

Background: HIV services were inevitably disrupted and affected due to COVID-19. There are many challenges in implementing appropriate HIV services, particularly in the provision of health care and the link between people living with HIV/AIDS and retention in care. The study investigated the impact of COVID-19 on HIV services and the anticipated benefit of the COVID-19 vaccination on HIV service restoration in North Shewa, Oromia, Ethiopia. Methods: A qualitative descriptive study approach was used to explore how healthcare delivery evolved during the outbreak of COVID-19 in Ethiopia. Sixteen antiretroviral therapy (ART) clinics were selected from 13 districts and one administrative town in Ethiopia. From them, 32 ART providers were purposively selected based on their experience in ART provision. Data were collected from June to July 2021 using in-depth interviews. A thematic analysis approach was used to analyze the data, based on themes and subthemes emerging from the data. ATLAS.ti software was used for coding. Results: Healthcare for people living with HIV was interrupted due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Medical appointments, HIV testing and counseling services, opportunistic infection treatment, medicine supply, and routine viral load and CD4 T-cell count tests were interrupted. Due to a shortage of healthcare staff, outreach testing services and home index testing were discontinued and HIV testing was limited only to hospitals and health centers. This has substantially affected accessibility to HIV testing and reduced the quality of HIV service delivery. Telehealth and less frequent visits to health facilities were used as alternative ways of delivering HIV services. The COVID-19 vaccination campaign is expected to restore healthcare services. Vaccination may also increase the confidence of healthcare providers by changing their attitudes toward COVID-19. Conclusions: The COVID-19 pandemic has substantially impacted HIV services and reduced the quality of HIV care in Ethiopia. Health facilities could not provide routine HIV services as they prioritize the fight against COVID-19, leading to an increase in service discontinuation and poor adherence.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Ethiopia/epidemiology , COVID-19 Vaccines , Pandemics , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/therapy , Vaccination
10.
Technol Health Care ; 2022 Nov 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2141631

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The imaging photoplethysmography (iPPG) method is a non-invasive, non-contact measurement method that uses a camera to detect physiological indicators. On the other hand, wearing a mask has become essential today when COVID-19 is rampant, which has become a new challenge for heart rate (HR) estimation from facial videos recorded by a camera. OBJECTIVE: The aim is to propose an iPPG-based method that can accurately estimate HR with or without a mask. METHODS: First, the facial regions of interest (ROI) were divided into two sub-ROIs, and the original signal was obtained through spatial averaging with different weights according to the result of judging whether wearing a mask or not, and the CDF, which emphasizes the main component signal, was combined with the improved POS suitable for real-time HR estimation to obtain the noise-removed BVP signal. RESULTS: For self-collected data while wearing a mask, MAE, RMSE, and ACC were 1.09 bpm, 1.44 bpm, and 99.08%, respectively. CONCLUSION: Experimental results show that the proposed framework can estimate HR stably in real-time in both cases of wearing a mask or not. This study expands the application range of HR estimation based on facial videos and has very practical value in real-time HR estimation in daily life.

11.
Translational Pediatrics ; 11(11):1864-1871, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2124170

ABSTRACT

Background: There has been an increase in research on the potential adverse effects on children's mental health, especially depression and anxiety, during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic over the past few months. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate depression and anxiety symptoms among children in shelter hospitals during the 2022 Shanghai lockdown.Methods: A total of 98 infected children aged 7-12 years were enrolled in this study between April 19 and June 4, 2022. The Children's Depression Inventory (CDI), Anxiety Scale for Children-Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASC-ASD), and Anxiety Scale or Children-Autism Spectrum Disorder Parent Form (ASC-ADS-P) were used to assess children's depression and anxiety symptoms. Children's guardians completed the survey by verbally asking their child/children the questions. The guardians additionally completed the ASC-ASD-P.Results: The prevalence of depression and anxiety was 12.2% and 13.3%, respectively. A total of 66 respondents reported no physical symptoms. Linear regression showed that myalgia [7.198, 95% confidence interval (CI): 3.163-11.232], headache (7.189, 95% CI: 3.842-10.535) coryza (5.362, 95% CI: 2.654-8.070), and number of quarantine days (4.378, 95% CI: 3.409-5.348) were significantly correlated with higher levels of depression, whereas chills (14.337, 95% CI: 9.799-18.875), coryza (9.309, 95% CI: 6.467-12.152), headache (7.193, 95% CI: 3.182-11.204), myalgia (5.571, 95% CI: 0.684-10.459), number of quarantine days (3.190, 95% CI: 1.796-4.584), and gender (male) (-4.137, 95% CI: -6.609 to 1.665) were associated with anxiety scores. Persistent fever was correlated with depression (P=0.007), whereas physical discomfort, such as persistent fever, cough, sore throat, headache, myalgia, and coryza were correlated with anxiety (all P<0.05).Conclusions: The findings of the present study indicated a moderate prevalence of depression and anxiety among infected children in a shelter hospital during the 2022 Shanghai lockdown. Therefore, the findings of this study could provide scientific basis for the development of targeted psychological intervention. It could be helpful for policy-makers to focus on psychological health among infected children and help to optimize future interventions.

12.
Eur J Med Res ; 27(1): 251, 2022 Nov 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2115714

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) may be more susceptible to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and even more likely to suffer from severe COVID-19. Whether there is a common molecular pathological basis for COVID-19 and NAFLD remains to be identified. The present study aimed to elucidate the transcriptional alterations shared by COVID-19 and NAFLD and to identify potential compounds targeting both diseases. METHODS: Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) for COVID-19 and NAFLD were extracted from the GSE147507 and GSE89632 datasets, and common DEGs were identified using the Venn diagram. Subsequently, we constructed a protein-protein interaction (PPI) network based on the common DEGs and extracted hub genes. Then, we performed gene ontology (GO) and pathway analysis of common DEGs. In addition, transcription factors (TFs) and miRNAs regulatory networks were constructed, and drug candidates were identified. RESULTS: We identified a total of 62 common DEGs for COVID-19 and NAFLD. The 10 hub genes extracted based on the PPI network were IL6, IL1B, PTGS2, JUN, FOS, ATF3, SOCS3, CSF3, NFKB2, and HBEGF. In addition, we also constructed TFs-DEGs, miRNAs-DEGs, and protein-drug interaction networks, demonstrating the complex regulatory relationships of common DEGs. CONCLUSION: We successfully extracted 10 hub genes that could be used as novel therapeutic targets for COVID-19 and NAFLD. In addition, based on common DEGs, we propose some potential drugs that may benefit patients with COVID-19 and NAFLD.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , MicroRNAs , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease , Humans , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/genetics , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/metabolism , Gene Regulatory Networks , Systems Biology , Gene Expression Profiling , Computational Biology , COVID-19/genetics , MicroRNAs/genetics
13.
Entropy (Basel) ; 24(11)2022 Nov 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2099401

ABSTRACT

In the context of the COVID-19 global epidemic, it is particularly important to use limited medical resources to improve the systemic control of infectious diseases. There is a situation where a shortage of medical resources and an uneven distribution of resources in China exist. Therefore, it is important to have an accurate understanding of the current status of the healthcare system in China and to improve the efficiency of their infectious disease control methods. In this study, the MP-SBM-Shannon entropy model (modified panel slacks-based measure Shannon entropy model) was proposed and applied to measure the disposal efficiency of the medical institutions responding to public health emergencies (disposal efficiency) in China from 2012 to 2018. First, a P-SBM (panel slacks-based measure) model, with undesirable outputs based on panel data, is given in this paper. This model measures the efficiency of all DMUs based on the same technical frontier and can be used for the dynamic efficiency analysis of panel data. Then, the MP-SBM model is applied to solve the specific efficiency paradox of the P-SBM model caused by the objective data structure. Finally, based on the MP-SBM model, undesirable outputs are considered in the original efficiency matrix alignment combination for the deficiencies of the existing Shannon entropy-DEA model. The comparative analysis shows that the MP-SBM-Shannon model not only solves the problem of the efficiency paradox of the P-SBM model but also improves the MP-SBM model identification ability and provides a complete ranking with certain advantages. The results of the study show that the disposal efficiency of the medical institutions responding to public health emergencies in China shows an upward trend, but the average combined efficiency is less than 0.47. Therefore, there is still much room for improvement in the efficiency of infectious disease prevention and control in China. It is found that the staffing problem within the Center for Disease Control and the health supervision office are two stumbling blocks.

15.
Research (Wash D C) ; 2022: 9767643, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2072476

ABSTRACT

Sepsis is a life-threatening organ dysfunction characterized by severe systemic inflammatory response to infection. Effective treatment of bacterial sepsis remains a paramount clinical challenge, due to its astonishingly rapid progression and the prevalence of bacterial drug resistance. Here, we present a decoy nanozyme-enabled intervention strategy for multitarget blockade of proinflammatory cascades to treat multi-drug-resistant (MDR) bacterial sepsis. The decoy nanozymes (named MCeC@MΦ) consist mesoporous silica nanoparticle cores loaded with CeO2 nanocatalyst and Ce6 photosensitizer and biomimetic shells of macrophage membrane. By acting as macrophage decoys, MCeC@MΦ allow targeted photodynamic eradication of MDR bacteria and realize simultaneous endotoxin/proinflammatory cytokine neutralization. Meanwhile, MCeC@MΦ possess intriguing superoxide dismutase and catalase-like activities as well as hydroxyl radical antioxidant capacity and enable catalytic scavenging of multiple reactive oxygen species (ROS). These unique capabilities make MCeC@MΦ to collaboratively address the issues of bacterial infection, endotoxin/proinflammatory cytokine secretion, and ROS burst, fully cutting off the path of proinflammatory cascades to reverse the progression of bacterial sepsis. In vivo experiments demonstrate that MCeC@MΦ considerably attenuate systemic hyperinflammation and rapidly rescue organ damage within 1 day to confer higher survival rates (>75%) to mice with progressive MDR Escherichia coli bacteremia. The proposed decoy nanozyme-enabled multitarget collaborative intervention strategy offers a powerful modality for bacterial sepsis management and opens up possibilities for the treatment of cytokine storm in the COVID-19 pandemic and immune-mediated inflammation diseases.

16.
Phytomedicine ; : 154496, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2069561

ABSTRACT

Background Jingyin granules (JY), one patented Chinese herbal formula, have been advised for treating coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in China. As of now, the safety and effectiveness of JY in treating COVID-19 patients were still to be evaluated. Purpose To investigate the safety and clinical effectiveness of JY in treating mild COVID-19 patients. Study design We carried out a prospective cohort study, as the highly infectious COVID-19 omicron variant ranged in Shanghai (ClinicalTrial.gov registration number: ChiCTR2200058692). Methods Participants infected with COVID-19, who were diagnosed as mild cases, were assigned to receive either JY (JY group) or traditional Chinese medicine placebo (placebo group) orally for 7 days. The primary clinical indicators were the RNA negative conversion rate (NCR) and the incidence of severe cases. The secondary clinical indicators were the negative conversion time (NCT), inpatient length of stay (ILOS), and the disappearance rates of clinical symptoms. Results Nine hundred participants were recruited in this clinical trial study, and 830 patients met the eligibility criteria. Seven hundred and ninety-one patients, accomplished the following-up assessment, including 423 cases of JY group and 368 cases of placebo group. NCR in JY group at 7-day posttreatment was considerably greater compared with placebo group (89.8% [380/423] vs 82.6% [304/368], P = 0.003). None of the patients with mild COVID-19 developed into severe cases. The median NCT of SARS-CoV-2 and ILOS in JY group were lesser than that in placebo group (4.0 [3.0,6.0]vs 5.0 [4.0,7.0] days, P < 0.001;6.0 [4.0, 8.0] vs 7.0 [5.0, 9.0] days, P < 0.001). In both groups, the obvious improvement in clinical symptoms was observed, but the difference was not significant. In the subgroup of age ≤ 60 years, JY promoted SARS-CoV-2 RNA negative conversion (HR=1.242;95% CI: 1.069-1.444, P<0.001). No patients in both groups were reported as the case of serious adverse event. Conclusion

17.
China CDC Wkly ; 4(40): 885-889, 2022 Oct 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2067699

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Minimizing the importation and exportation risks of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a primary concern for sustaining the "Dynamic COVID-zero" strategy in China. Risk estimation is essential for cities to conduct before relaxing border control measures. Methods: Informed by the daily number of passengers traveling between 367 prefectures (cities) in China, this study used a stochastic metapopulation model parameterized with COVID-19 epidemic characteristics to estimate the importation and exportation risks. Results: Under the transmission scenario (R0 =5.49), this study estimated the cumulative case incidence of Changchun City, Jilin Province as 3,233 (95% confidence interval: 1,480, 4,986) before a lockdown on March 14, 2022, which is close to the 3,168 cases reported in real life by March 16, 2022. In a total of 367 prefectures (cities), 127 (35%) had high exportation risks according to the simulation and could transmit the disease to 50% of all other regions within a period from 17 to 94 days. The average time until a new infection arrives in a location in 1 of the 367 prefectures (cities) ranged from 26 to 101 days. Conclusions: Estimating COVID-19 importation and exportation risks is necessary for preparedness, prevention, and control measures of COVID-19 - especially when new variants emerge.

18.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 2022 Sep 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2063935

ABSTRACT

The importation of COVID-19 cases in China is due to the returning of Chinese citizens abroad, where the majority of cases stand. This study aimed to evaluate the risk of importing COVID-19 into the Sichuan Province of China and conduct a short-term risk prediction assessment and analysis. Data on COVID-19 cases in each country and Sichuan were collected, as well as visitors to Sichuan, population, area, and medical resources in each city in Sichuan province. According to different control strategies of entry aviation and quarantine control, we built models of epidemic transmission to estimate the risk for imported COVID-19 cases in 21 cities of Sichuan. Within 140 days of the policy change's implementation, the number of susceptible, infected, and recovered people in all cities followed the same pattern over time: (1) the number of susceptible people declined slowly at first, then accelerated to reach a stable value; (2) the number of infections gradually increased to a peak, then decreased; and (3) the number of recovered patients gradually increased to a stable value. Under the four different scenarios, there were no significant differences between the risk peaks because the social distance did not change. However, the peak time would be delayed due to the implementation of flight control and nucleic acid detection measures. The improvement of foreign epidemics (reduction of attenuation factors) all delayed the arrival of the peak risk value in Chengdu by about 20 days; however, the size of the peak value did not change significantly. The improvement of nucleic acid detection accuracy delayed the arrival of the peak risk value in Chengdu, but the size of the peak value did not change significantly. Therefore, flight control and the improvement of nucleic acid detection accuracy and overseas epidemic situations have positively affected the prevention and control of the epidemic in Sichuan.

19.
J Nurs Scholarsh ; 2022 Oct 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2063822

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Telehealth's potential to improve access to specialty health care, increase favorable patient outcomes, and save money demands attention. Unfortunately, patients often fail to embrace telehealth. The COVID-19 pandemic fueled greater telehealth usage globally. Little is known about patient perceptions of telehealth in the context of a pandemic. Therefore, we sought to understand patient perceptions of telehealth during the COVID-19 pandemic and explore relevant policy implications. DESIGN: Researchers used a cross-sectional, non-experimental design to survey 366 patients across two telehealth programs at a Mississippi academic health sciences center between November 1, 2021 and November 15, 2021. METHODS: As part of a larger, psychometric study on patient acceptance of telehealth, participants rated the item, "The COVID-19 pandemic has made me more open to using telehealth" on a 5-point Likert scale (1 = strongly disagree; 5 = strongly agree). Means of the different groups were analyzed using independent t-test and one-way ANOVA with Bonferroni post-hoc multiple comparisons. RESULTS: Of the total participants, 73% (n = 366) either agreed or strongly agreed that the COVID-19 pandemic had made them more open to using telehealth. Significant differences existed by age (p = 0.016), race/ethnicity (p = 0.015), and sex (p < 0.001), however, groups did not differ by age during post-hoc analysis. A significant difference in the mean responses was observed between black participants (M = 4.29) and white participants (M = 3.91; p = 0.011). In addition, female participants (M = 4.11) rated the item higher than male participants (M = 3.65). CONCLUSION: As access to telehealth increased due to the COVID-19 pandemic, patients' perceptions to telehealth seem to have shifted in the positive direction as well. Findings may be used to support expansion of telehealth and advocacy for patients in a variety of settings. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Study findings indicate that participants of telehealth are more open to using telehealth due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Implementing telehealth should be a priority to increase access to care for those who have limited access to specialty care, and policymakers should advocate to decrease barriers to telehealth within their institutions.

20.
Int J Biol Sci ; 18(15): 5827-5848, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2056218

ABSTRACT

The rapid dissemination of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the causative agent of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), remains a global public health emergency. The host immune response to SARS-CoV-2 plays a key role in COVID-19 pathogenesis. SARS-CoV-2 can induce aberrant and excessive immune responses, leading to cytokine storm syndrome, autoimmunity, lymphopenia, neutrophilia and dysfunction of monocytes and macrophages. Pyroptosis, a proinflammatory form of programmed cell death, acts as a host defense mechanism against infections. Pyroptosis deprives the replicative niche of SARS-CoV-2 by inducing the lysis of infected cells and exposing the virus to extracellular immune attack. Notably, SARS-CoV-2 has evolved sophisticated mechanisms to hijack this cell death mode for its own survival, propagation and shedding. SARS-CoV-2-encoded viral products act to modulate various key components in the pyroptosis pathways, including inflammasomes, caspases and gasdermins. SARS-CoV-2-induced pyroptosis contriubtes to the development of COVID-19-associated immunopathologies through leakage of intracellular contents, disruption of immune system homeostasis or exacerbation of inflammation. Therefore, pyroptosis has emerged as an important mechanism involved in COVID-19 immunopathogenesis. However, the entangled links between pyroptosis and SARS-CoV-2 pathogenesis lack systematic clarification. In this review, we briefly summarize the characteristics of SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19-related immunopathologies. Moreover, we present an overview of the interplay between SARS-CoV-2 infection and pyroptosis and highlight recent research advances in the understanding of the mechanisms responsible for the implication of the pyroptosis pathways in COVID-19 pathogenesis, which will provide informative inspirations and new directions for further investigation and clinical practice. Finally, we discuss the potential value of pyroptosis as a therapeutic target in COVID-19. An in-depth discussion of the underlying mechanisms of COVID-19 pathogenesis will be conducive to the identification of potential therapeutic targets and the exploration of effective treatment measures aimed at conquering SARS-CoV-2-induced COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Pyroptosis , Inflammasomes , Caspases
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