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1.
Journal of Affective Disorders ; 324:600-606, 2023.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2165459

ABSTRACT

Background Studying the role of psychological resilience in self-perceived stress and mental disorders among family members of medical workers can help us understand its importance in mental health care and guide us to develop psychological intervention strategies for family members of medical workers. Methods A total of 671 family members of medical workers were enrolled. Self-perceived stress, resilience, depression symptoms, anxiety symptoms, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms were measured in our research. Results The prevalence of anxiety, depression, and PTSD symptoms among relatives of medical workers were 49.0 %, 12.2 %, and 20.3 % respectively during the COVID-19 epidemic. According to the Multivariate regression model, compared with family members of doctor, family members of nurse and medical technologists were more likely to report anxiety symptoms. Female members of medical staff were more likely to have PTSD symptoms than male counterparts;and family members of medical technologist appeared to less likely have PTSD symptoms than family members of either doctor or nurse. The mediation analysis confirmed that mental resilience mediated the relationship between self-perceived stress and anxiety symptoms. Limitations Single cross-sectional study design without the follow-up comparative analysis, only self-reported measurements were adopted, and inadequate pre-set demographic variables. Conclusions To the best of our knowledge, our study firstly demonstrated the risk of psychological distress present in the family members of medical providers during the COVID-19 epidemic. Meanwhile, our findings highlighted the importance of mental resilience in family members of frontline medical workers as it mediated the relationship between self-perceived stress and anxiety symptoms.

3.
Obesity ; 30:25, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2156774

ABSTRACT

Background: Social determinants of health (SDoH) contribute to disparities in obesity and diabetes yet relative contributions of SDoH and cardiometabolic disease on COVID-19 outcomes are unknown. We sought to determine the ability of SDoH and cardiometabolic disease staging (CMDS) data to predict subsequent COVID-19 outcomes, and to investigate the degree to which adding SDoH to the clinical CMDS improved prediction accuracy. Methods: Individual and neighborhood level SDoH and cardiometabolic disease staging (CMDS) data [BMI, glucose, blood pressure, HDL, triglycerides], collected at a medical encounter prior to a positive COVID-19 test, were extracted from the electronic medical record (EMR) at an academic medical center in the Southeastern US. We used Bayesian logistic regression to model each COVID-19 outcome [hospitalization, intensive care unit (ICU) admission, and mortality] using CMDS components, individual and neighborhood SDoH, controlling for age, race and gender. Models were cross-validated and areas under the curve (AUC) were compared using Delongs test. Results: A total of 2,873 patients were identified [mean age: 58 years (SD 13.2), 59% female, 45% non-Hispanic Black]. CMDS score, insurance status, male sex and higher glucose values were associated with increased odds of all outcomes;area level social vulnerability was associated with increased odds of hospitalization [odds ratio (OR): 1.84, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.38-2.45] and ICU admission [OR 1.98, 95 % CI: 1.45-2.85]. AUCs improved when SDoH were added to CMDS (p<0.001): hospitalization (AUC 0.78 vs. 0.82);ICU admission (AUC 0.77 vs. 0.81);and mortality (AUC 0.77 vs. 0.83). Conclusions: Clinical markers of cardiometabolic disease and SDoH, collected up to 3 years in advance of COVID-19 infection, were independently highly predictive of subsequent COVID-19 outcomes in our population. Both clinical and SDoH factors should be utilized to identify individuals at high risk for poor outcomes.

4.
Frontiers in endocrinology ; 13, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2147820

ABSTRACT

Aims The global COVID-19 pandemic has required a drastic transformation of prenatal care services. Whether the reformulation of the antenatal care systems affects maternal and infant outcomes remains unknown. Particularly, women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) are among those who bear the greatest brunt. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the impact of COVID-19 lockdown during late pregnancy on maternal and infant outcomes in women stratified by the GDM status in China. Study design The participants were women who experienced the COVID-19 lockdown during late pregnancy (3185 in the 2020 cohort) or not (2540 in the 2019 cohort) that were derived from the Beijing Birth Cohort Study. Maternal metabolic indicators, neonatal outcomes, and infant anthropometrics at 12 months of age were compared between the two cohorts, stratified by the GDM status. Results Participants who experienced COVID-19 lockdown in late pregnancy showed lower gestational weight gain than those in the control cohort. Nevertheless, they displayed a worse metabolic profile. COVID-19 lockdown during pregnancy was associated with higher glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) (β= 0.11, 95% CI = 0.05–0.16, q-value = 0.002) and lower high density lipoprotein cholesterol level (HDL-C) level (β=–0.09, 95% CI = –0.14 to –0.04, q-value = 0.004) in women with GDM, adjusted for potential confounders. In normoglycemic women, COVID-19 lockdown in late pregnancy was associated with higher fasting glucose level (β= 0.10, 95% CI = 0.08–0.12, q-value <0.0001), lower HDL-C level (β=–0.07, 95% CI = –0.08 to –0.04, q-value <0.0001), and increased risk of pregnancy-induced hypertension (adjusted OR=1.80, 95%CI=1.30–2.50, q-value=0.001). The fasting glucose level decreased less from early to late pregnancy in women who experienced COVID-19 lockdown than in the controls, regardless of the GDM status. The HDL-C has risen less with COVID-19 lockdown in the normoglycemic subgroup. In contrast, no significant differences regarding neonatal outcomes or infant weight were found between the two cohorts. Conclusion Experiencing the COVID-19 lockdown in pregnancy was associated with worse maternal metabolic status but similar neonatal outcomes and infant weight.

5.
Front Public Health ; 10: 993728, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2154846

ABSTRACT

Objectives: To investigate myopia progression and associated factors of refractive status among children and adolescents in Tibet and Chongqing in China during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted to compare rates of myopia and high myopia, axial length (AL), spherical equivalent (SE), outdoor activity time, digital device use, and frequency of visual examinations for children and adolescents affected by myopia in Chongqing and Tibet in 2021. Results: A total of 2,303 students from Chongqing and 1,687 students from Tibet were examined. The overall prevalence of myopia and high myopia in these two groups were 53.80 and 7.04% vs. 43.86 and 1.30%, respectively in each case. The Chongqing students had a longer AL than the group from Tibet (23.95 vs. 23.40 mm, respectively; p < 0.001). The mean SE of the students with myopic parents in Tibet was lower than that of the students in Chongqing with myopic parents (-2.57 ± 2.38 diopters (D) vs. -2.30 ± 2.34 D, respectively) (p < 0.001). Conversely, the mean SE of the students from urban areas in Chongqing was lower than that of the students in Tibet (-2.26 ± 2.25 D vs. -1.75 ± 1.96 D, respectively; p < 0.001). The Chongqing students exhibited lower SE (-2.44 ± 2.22 D) than their Tibetan counterparts (mean SE: -1.78 ± 1.65 D (p = 0.0001) when spending more than 2.5 h outdoors. For example, 61.35% of the students in Tibet spent more than 2.5 h outdoors daily, compared with 43.04% of the students in Chongqing. Correspondingly, the proportion of students using digital devices in Tibet (64.43%) was lower than that in Chongqing (100%). For the latter, 38.62% of the students in Chongqing spent more than 2.5 h online using digital devices compared to 10.49% of the students in Tibet. Greater monitoring of visual status was observed for the Chongqing students (mean SE: -1.90 ± 1.98 D) compared with students in Tibet (mean SE: -2.68 ± 1.85 D) (p = 0.0448), with the frequency of optimal examinations being every 6 months. Outdoor activity time was identified as a common risk factor for myopia in both of the populations examined, with odds ratios (ORs) of 1.84 (95% CI: 1.79-1.90) in Chongqing and 0.84 (95% CI: 0.73-0.96) in Tibet. Digital screen time was associated with myopia and high myopia in Chongqing, with ORs of 1.15 (95% CI: 1.08-1.22) and 1.06 (95% CI: 0.94-1.77), respectively. Digital screen time was also found to be a risk factor for high myopia in Tibet (OR: 1.21, 95% CI: 0.77-1.61). The type of digital devices used was also associated with myopia and high myopia in Tibet (OR: 1.33, 95% CI: 1.06-1.68 and OR: 1.49, 95% CI: 0.84-2.58, respectively). Finally, examination frequency was found to correlate with high myopia in the Tibet group (OR: 1.79, 95% CI: 0.66-2.71). Conclusion: Based on our data, we observed that the prevalence of refractive errors in children and adolescents was significantly lower in Tibet than in Chongqing. These results are potentially due to prolonged outdoor activity time, and the type and time of use for digital devices that characterize the group of children and adolescents from Tibet. It is recommended that parents and children in Chongqing would benefit from increased awareness regarding myopia progression and its prevention.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Myopia , Child , Humans , Adolescent , Tibet/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Myopia/epidemiology
6.
Brief Bioinform ; 23(6)2022 Nov 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2134850

ABSTRACT

Exiting computational models for drug-target binding affinity prediction have much room for improvement in prediction accuracy, robustness and generalization ability. Most deep learning models lack interpretability analysis and few studies provide application examples. Based on these observations, we presented a novel model named Molecule Representation Block-based Drug-Target binding Affinity prediction (MRBDTA). MRBDTA is composed of embedding and positional encoding, molecule representation block and interaction learning module. The advantages of MRBDTA are reflected in three aspects: (i) developing Trans block to extract molecule features through improving the encoder of transformer, (ii) introducing skip connection at encoder level in Trans block and (iii) enhancing the ability to capture interaction sites between proteins and drugs. The test results on two benchmark datasets manifest that MRBDTA achieves the best performance compared with 11 state-of-the-art models. Besides, through replacing Trans block with single Trans encoder and removing skip connection in Trans block, we verified that Trans block and skip connection could effectively improve the prediction accuracy and reliability of MRBDTA. Then, relying on multi-head attention mechanism, we performed interpretability analysis to illustrate that MRBDTA can correctly capture part of interaction sites between proteins and drugs. In case studies, we firstly employed MRBDTA to predict binding affinities between Food and Drug Administration-approved drugs and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) replication-related proteins. Secondly, we compared true binding affinities between 3C-like proteinase and 185 drugs with those predicted by MRBDTA. The final results of case studies reveal reliable performance of MRBDTA in drug design for SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , United States , Humans , Reproducibility of Results , Drug Delivery Systems , Proteins
7.
J Med Virol ; : e28287, 2022 Nov 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2103650

ABSTRACT

Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most important virus that causes lower respiratory tract disease in children; efficient viral identification is an important component of disease prevention and treatment. Here, we developed and evaluated a ready-to-use (RTU) nucleic acid extraction-free direct reagent for identification of RSV (RTU-Direct test) in clinical samples. The limit of detection (LOD) of the RSV RTU-Direct test was consistent with the LOD of the standard test using extracted nucleic acids. The virus inactivation ability of RTU-Direct reagent was confirmed by viral infectivity assays involving RTU-Direct-treated samples containing RSV and human coronavirus OC43. RSV RNA stability was significantly better in RTU-Direct reagent than in conventional virus transport medium (VTM) at room temperature and 4°C (p < 0.05). The clinical performance of the RTU-Direct test was evaluated using 155 respiratory specimens from patients with suspected RSV infection. Positive agreement between the RTU-Direct test and the VTM standard test was 100% (42/42); negative agreement was 99.1% (112/113), and the kappa statistic was 0.968 (p < 0.001). The distributions of Ct values did not significantly differ between the RTU-Direct test and the standard test (p > 0.05). Overall, the RTU-Direct reagent can improve the efficiency and biosafety of RSV detection, while reducing the cost of detection.

8.
Frontiers in public health ; 10, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2093141

ABSTRACT

Objectives To investigate myopia progression and associated factors of refractive status among children and adolescents in Tibet and Chongqing in China during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted to compare rates of myopia and high myopia, axial length (AL), spherical equivalent (SE), outdoor activity time, digital device use, and frequency of visual examinations for children and adolescents affected by myopia in Chongqing and Tibet in 2021. Results A total of 2,303 students from Chongqing and 1,687 students from Tibet were examined. The overall prevalence of myopia and high myopia in these two groups were 53.80 and 7.04% vs. 43.86 and 1.30%, respectively in each case. The Chongqing students had a longer AL than the group from Tibet (23.95 vs. 23.40 mm, respectively;p < 0.001). The mean SE of the students with myopic parents in Tibet was lower than that of the students in Chongqing with myopic parents (−2.57 ± 2.38 diopters (D) vs. −2.30 ± 2.34 D, respectively) (p < 0.001). Conversely, the mean SE of the students from urban areas in Chongqing was lower than that of the students in Tibet (−2.26 ± 2.25 D vs. −1.75 ± 1.96 D, respectively;p < 0.001). The Chongqing students exhibited lower SE (−2.44 ± 2.22 D) than their Tibetan counterparts (mean SE: −1.78 ± 1.65 D (p = 0.0001) when spending more than 2.5 h outdoors. For example, 61.35% of the students in Tibet spent more than 2.5 h outdoors daily, compared with 43.04% of the students in Chongqing. Correspondingly, the proportion of students using digital devices in Tibet (64.43%) was lower than that in Chongqing (100%). For the latter, 38.62% of the students in Chongqing spent more than 2.5 h online using digital devices compared to 10.49% of the students in Tibet. Greater monitoring of visual status was observed for the Chongqing students (mean SE: −1.90 ± 1.98 D) compared with students in Tibet (mean SE: −2.68 ± 1.85 D) (p = 0.0448), with the frequency of optimal examinations being every 6 months. Outdoor activity time was identified as a common risk factor for myopia in both of the populations examined, with odds ratios (ORs) of 1.84 (95% CI: 1.79–1.90) in Chongqing and 0.84 (95% CI: 0.73–0.96) in Tibet. Digital screen time was associated with myopia and high myopia in Chongqing, with ORs of 1.15 (95% CI: 1.08–1.22) and 1.06 (95% CI: 0.94–1.77), respectively. Digital screen time was also found to be a risk factor for high myopia in Tibet (OR: 1.21, 95% CI: 0.77–1.61). The type of digital devices used was also associated with myopia and high myopia in Tibet (OR: 1.33, 95% CI: 1.06–1.68 and OR: 1.49, 95% CI: 0.84–2.58, respectively). Finally, examination frequency was found to correlate with high myopia in the Tibet group (OR: 1.79, 95% CI: 0.66–2.71). Conclusion Based on our data, we observed that the prevalence of refractive errors in children and adolescents was significantly lower in Tibet than in Chongqing. These results are potentially due to prolonged outdoor activity time, and the type and time of use for digital devices that characterize the group of children and adolescents from Tibet. It is recommended that parents and children in Chongqing would benefit from increased awareness regarding myopia progression and its prevention.

9.
Future of Food: Journal on Food, Agriculture and Society ; 10(4), 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2081142

ABSTRACT

Rising environmental issues, animal welfare concerns and vulnerable food supply chain especially during pandemics, as COVID-19 demands an effective and long-term solution for food security in future. All of these challenges encourage the researchers to find more reliable and clean ways of food production such as cultured meat. This process involved the production of animal meat in lab using large bioreactors without raising animals. Cultured meat production is widely accepted among animal rights activists and it can solve the issues related to conventional farming such as excessive use of land resource, animal slaughter, foodborne diseases and antibiotic resistance. Despite of all these advantages, it is facing some serious challenges, which includes technical, social and ethical limitations. Extracting specific cell line, development of animal-free growth media, upgradation of bioreactors, development of desired scaffolds and changing the public perception towards lab grown meat are fundamental challenges that need to be discuss. This review intends to summarize both technical and social challenges that are halting the availability of cultured meat in market and suggests some feasible recommendations to overcome these obstacles.

10.
Chinese Veterinary Science / Zhongguo Shouyi Kexue ; 51(1):119-125, 2021.
Article in Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2081138

ABSTRACT

For exploring the histopathological changes of intestinal tissues and the mechanism of porcine deltacoronavirus(PDCo V) replication and leading to inflammatory lesions of piglets intestine which induced by PDCo V infection, 10-day-old piglets were infected by PDCo V strain TJ1 which isolated from Tianjin through oral route in this study. The piglets were necropsied at 4 days post-infection. Through histopathological observation, the main lesions of jejunum, ileum, colon and cecum were investigated. The diffuse inflammatory cell infiltration was found in mesenchyme, lamina propria and submucosa of intestinal mucosa, and the mucosal villi atrophy occurred in response to local tissues. The m RNA expression level of PDCo V M gene, innate immune genes including IFN-a, IFN-beta, DDX58 and STAT2 as well as the inflammatory cytoines including TNF-a and IL-6 in intestinal tissues were examined. The results showed that PDCo V replication was achieved by inhibiting host cell innate immune response, and the occurrence of inflammatory lesions in jejunum, ileum and colon were promoted through the enhancement of TNF-a and IL-6 expression. This study can provide a theoretical basis for the pathogenic mechanism study of porcine deltacoronavirus.

11.
Microorganisms ; 10(10)2022 Oct 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2071644

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic began in January 2020 in Wuhan, China, with a new coronavirus designated SARS-CoV-2. The principal cause of death from COVID-19 disease quickly emerged as acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). A key ARDS pathogenic mechanism is the "Cytokine Storm", which is a dramatic increase in inflammatory cytokines in the blood. In the last two years of the pandemic, a new pathology has emerged in some COVID-19 survivors, in which a variety of long-term symptoms occur, a condition called post-acute sequelae of COVID-19 (PASC) or "Long COVID". Therefore, there is an urgent need to better understand the mechanisms of the virus. The spike protein on the surface of the virus is composed of joined S1-S2 subunits. Upon S1 binding to the ACE2 receptor on human cells, the S1 subunit is cleaved and the S2 subunit mediates the entry of the virus. The S1 protein is then released into the blood, which might be one of the pivotal triggers for the initiation and/or perpetuation of the cytokine storm. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that the S1 spike protein is sufficient to activate inflammatory signaling and cytokine production, independent of the virus. Our data support a possible role for the S1 spike protein in the activation of inflammatory signaling and cytokine production in human lung and intestinal epithelial cells in culture. These data support a potential role for the SARS-CoV-2 S1 spike protein in COVID-19 pathogenesis and PASC.

12.
PLoS Biol ; 20(10): e3001805, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2065095

ABSTRACT

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection is mediated by the entry receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). Although attachment factors and coreceptors facilitating entry are extensively studied, cellular entry factors inhibiting viral entry are largely unknown. Using a surfaceome CRISPR activation screen, we identified human LRRC15 as an inhibitory attachment factor for SARS-CoV-2 entry. LRRC15 directly binds to the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of spike protein with a moderate affinity and inhibits spike-mediated entry. Analysis of human lung single-cell RNA sequencing dataset reveals that expression of LRRC15 is primarily detected in fibroblasts and particularly enriched in pathological fibroblasts in COVID-19 patients. ACE2 and LRRC15 are not coexpressed in the same cell types in the lung. Strikingly, expression of LRRC15 in ACE2-negative cells blocks spike-mediated viral entry in ACE2+ cell in trans, suggesting a protective role of LRRC15 in a physiological context. Therefore, LRRC15 represents an inhibitory attachment factor for SARS-CoV-2 that regulates viral entry in trans.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , COVID-19 , Humans , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , COVID-19/genetics , Protein Binding , Membrane Proteins/genetics , Membrane Proteins/metabolism
13.
Int J Disaster Risk Reduct ; 82: 103321, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2049278

ABSTRACT

The current study is to explore the associations between the threat to life and risk-taking behaviors across different domains during the coronavirus disease (COVID-19), and the role of the perceived threat and coping efficacy in these associations based on protection motivation theory. This study conducted an online survey on 2983 participants from 30 provinces in China. It found that people's risk-taking behaviors in the wake of the COVID-19 pandemic could be divided into stimulating risk-taking (SRT) behaviors and instrumental risk-taking (IRT) behaviors. The exposure level to the COVID-19 pandemic was negatively related to SRT behaviors in natural/physical, gambling, safety, moral, and reproductive domains, but not related to IRT behaviors in financial and corporation/competition domains. Two parallel routes were found in domain-specific risk-taking behaviors when people were faced with a life-threatening epidemic. Specifically, perceived threat consistently mediated the positive relationship between exposure level and risk-taking behaviors across domains. In contrast, coping efficacy mediated the negative relationship between exposure level and SRT behaviors but positive associations with IRT behaviors. These findings indicated that coping efficacy, rather than perceived threat is the factor that explains the people's domain-specific risk-taking behaviors in the context of the epidemic. The study holds implications for emergency policy-making that targets disaster risk reduction by increasing the public coping efficacy, which could prevent unnecessary SRT behaviors and improve necessary IRT behaviors in business and investment for economic recoveries.

14.
Clin Immunol ; 244: 109093, 2022 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2049018

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an infectious disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Emerging evidence indicates that the NOD-, LRR- and pyrin domain-containing protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome is activated, which results in a cytokine storm at the late stage of COVID-19. Autophagy regulation is involved in the infection and replication of SARS-CoV-2 at the early stage and the inhibition of NLRP3 inflammasome-mediated lung inflammation at the late stage of COVID-19. Here, we discuss the autophagy regulation at different stages of COVID-19. Specifically, we highlight the therapeutic potential of autophagy activators in COVID-19 by inhibiting the NLRP3 inflammasome, thereby avoiding the cytokine storm. We hope this review provides enlightenment for the use of autophagy activators targeting the inhibition of the NLRP3 inflammasome, specifically the combinational therapy of autophagy modulators with the inhibitors of the NLRP3 inflammasome, antiviral drugs, or anti-inflammatory drugs in the fight against COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pneumonia , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Autophagy , Cytokine Release Syndrome , Humans , Inflammasomes , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Energy ; : 125513, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2041728

ABSTRACT

The low-carbon development of air transport industry is of great significance for China to achieve the commitment of carbon peak and carbon neutrality goals. In order to improve the basic data of aviation CO2 emissions, this study continuously collected full flight information in China from January 2017 to December 2020, and established a flight information database and an aircraft-engine parameter database. On the basis of IPCC's Tier 3B accounting method, this study established a long-term aviation CO2 emissions inventory of China from 2017 to 2020 by calculating and accumulating CO2 emissions of each flight. And aviation CO2 emissions of various provinces and cities in China were calculated combined with spatial allocation method. The results showed that aviation CO2 emissions in China was 104.1, 120.1, 136.9, and 88.3 Mt in 2017, 2018, 2019, and 2020, respectively, with annual growth rates of 15.4%, 14.0%, and −35.3% in 2018, 2019, and 2020, respectively. Affected by the COVID-19 pandemic, aviation CO2 emissions in all 31 provinces and 93% of cities decreased in 2020 compared with 2019. China is in the stage of rapid development of air transport industry, and aviation fossil energy consumption and CO2 emissions have continued to grow in recent years.

16.
Zhongguo Bingdubing Zazhi = Chinese Journal of Viral Diseases ; - (4):304, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2040495

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019(COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus(SARS-CoV-2) at the end of 2019, results in a global rapid pandemic.The emerging infectious disease is life threaten and profoundly undermines the normal operation all over the world.Rapid and accurate detection of SARS-CoV-2 is an essential component of efforts to combat SARS-CoV-2 spread.Although many technologies for SARS-CoV-2 detection have been commercialized and have played a role in the control of COVID-19 epidemic to some extent yet, each of them is still with certain limitations.Recently, increasing number of teams attempt to detect SARS-CoV-2 by CRISPR-Cas(clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats-Cas) system.With excellent specificity and sensitivity, it has been believed to be a potential technology in COVID-19 diagnosis and therapy.The review provides an overview of CRISPR-Cas system for SARS-CoV-2 detection and COVID-19 therapy, along with its clinical translation potential.Hope it has some referential significance for the control of SARS-CoV-2 spread and COVID-19 epidemic.

17.
Jpn J Infect Dis ; 75(5): 511-518, 2022 Sep 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2040398

ABSTRACT

To estimate the effect of the corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) control measures taken to mitigate community transmission in many regions, we analyzed data from the influenza surveillance system in Beijing from week 27 of 2014 to week 26 of 2020. We collected weekly numbers of influenza-like illness (ILI) cases, weekly positive proportion of ILI cases, weekly ILI case proportion in outpatients, and the dates of implementation of COVID-19 measures. We compared the influenza activity indicators of the 2019/2020 season with the preceding five seasons and built two ARIMAX models to estimate the effectiveness of COVID-19 measures declared since January 24, 2020 by the emergency response. Based on the observed data, compared to the preceding five influenza seasons, ILIs, positive proportion of ILIs, and duration of the influenza epidemic period in 2019/2020 had increased from 13% to 54%; in particular, the number of weeks from the peak to the end of the influenza epidemic period had decreased from 12 to 1. According to ARIMAX model forecasting, after considering natural decline, weekly ILIs had decreased by 48.6%, weekly positive proportion had dropped by 15% in the second week after the emergency response was declared, and COVID-19 measures had reduced by 83%. We conclude that the public health emergency response can significantly interrupt the transmission of influenza.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza, Human , Virus Diseases , Beijing/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Public Health , Seasons
20.
BMJ Glob Health ; 7(8)2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2001828

ABSTRACT

While some sort of regulatory convergence and harmonisation are often needed for achieving regulatory reliance, in reality, regulatory reliance as a strategy towards convergence and harmonisation has never been more significant in Asia-Pacific (APAC). A sustained, rapid and large-scale provision of medical devices, including articles and apparatus used in diagnosis, care, treatment or prevention of disease and softwares, etc, across national boundaries, is the key to winning the fight against future pandemics and improving people's well-being in such a populous and geographically diverse region. The COVID-19 pandemic highlighted the value of regulatory reliance to enable easier access to medical devices that have gone through regulatory approvals in countries with mature regulatory systems based on the Quality Management System and product assessment guidelines of the International Medical Device Regulators Forum. This analysis focuses on why regulatory reliance is needed, how much has been achieved, its impact on the development of the medical device industry and challenges to be addressed in the region. By drawing on the experience from the Singapore Health Sciences Authority-Thai Food and Drug Administration regulatory reliance pilot and Vietnam's inclusion of Korea Ministry of Food and Drug Safety and China National Medical Products Administration as reference markets for fast review/approval, it aims to explore next viable steps and future trend of the APAC regional regulatory harmonisation mechanism through regulatory reliance in the post-COVID-19 era.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Asia , China , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Republic of Korea
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