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1.
Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi ; 30(4): 1286-1290, 2022 Aug.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35981400

ABSTRACT

Myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) are a heterogeneous group of hematological malignancies. Currently, in addition to demethylated chemotherapy and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, MDS patient-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MDS-MSC) play an important role in understanding the pathogenesis of MDS and related therapeutic targets. For example, abnormal expression of DICER1 gene, abnormalities of PI3K/AKT and Wnt/ß-catenin signaling pathways provide new therapeutic targets for MDS. In addition, MDS-MSC is also affected by abnormal microenvironment of the body, such as inflammatory factor S100A9, as well as hypercoagulation and iron overload. In this review, genes, signaling pathways, cytokines, hematopoietic microenvironment, and the effect of therapeutic drugs for MDS-MSC were briefly summarized.


Subject(s)
Hematologic Neoplasms , Mesenchymal Stem Cells , Myelodysplastic Syndromes , Cytokines/metabolism , DEAD-box RNA Helicases/metabolism , Hematologic Neoplasms/metabolism , Humans , Myelodysplastic Syndromes/genetics , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases/metabolism , Ribonuclease III/metabolism , Tumor Microenvironment
2.
Insects ; 13(7)2022 Jul 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35886796

ABSTRACT

Based on morphological characteristics to make species identification, the cryptic species of the Scutigeromorpha can be greatly underestimated. The mitochondrial genome provides a desirable tool for the biological identifications and the discovery of the cryptic species. The capacity to acquire mitochondrial genome sequences has substantially improved in recent years using next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology. On the basis of the next-generation sequencing, we obtained four complete mitochondrial genomes of Thereuonema tuberculata (Wood, 1862) from Nanyang, Henan Province (NY), Nanchang, Jiangxi Province (NC), Jinan, Shandong Province (JN), and Dali, Yunnan Province (DL) in China with GenBank numbers OK513221, OL449685, ON058988 and ON058989, respectively. The lengths of the four mitochondrial genomes ranged from 14,903 to 14,909 bp. The composition and order of genes of the four mitochondrial genomes were identical to the published mitochondrial genome of Scutigera coleoptrata (Linnaeus, 1758) (Scutigeromorpha: Scutigerdae). It was the first time that the tandem repeats in the control region were detected in Scutigeromorpha. We also calculated the corrected pairwise genetic distance of four complete mitochondrial genomes of T. tuberculata, ranging from 7.7 to 15.2%. The results showed that the T.tuberculata NC belonged to the typical sample of T. tuberculata, and T. tuberculata DL was hypothesized as a cryptic species of T. tuberculata. Meanwhile, T. tuberculata NY and T. tuberculata JN were hypothesized as potential cryptic species of T. tuberculata in this study. In both BI and ML trees, the monophyly of Scutigeromorpha, Scolopendromorpha, Geophilomorpha, and Lithobiomorpha was forcefully advocated. Moreover, Scutigeromorpha was recovered as the sister clade of (Scolopendromorpha + (Lithobiomorpha + Geophilomorpha)). Four specimens of T. tuberculata were clustered into one clade, which was the sister to the clade of S. coleoptrata.

4.
J Dermatolog Treat ; : 1-7, 2022 Apr 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35435114

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The purpose was to evaluate the efficacy of methylprednisolone combined with local anesthetics on the incidence or intensity of long-term Postherpetic neuralgia (PHN). METHODS: We have performed comprehensive literature research in PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane library, and China national knowledge infrastructure (CNKI) databases (inception through October 19 2021). Relevant randomized controlled trials (RCTs) with long-term duration were included, regardless of the injection method. The indicators were the incidence of PHN and the Visual Analog Scale (VAS) scores. RESULTS: Five RGTs with 980 patients were retrieved. Compared with standard treatment (antivirals) alone, the combination of methylprednisolone, local anesthetic, and standard treatment exhibited a significant decrease in the incidence of PHN in 1 month (RR = 0.38, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.19-0.76), 3 months (RR = 0.40, 95% CI: 0.19-0.84), and 6 months (RR = 0.37, 95% CI: 0.15-0.94) after zoster onset. In VAS scores, there was also a significant difference between the two groups in long-term PHN (3 months: WMD=-1.57, 95% CI: -2.84 to -0.30; 6 months: WMD=-0.72, 95% CI: -1.29 to -0.16). CONCLUSION: The combination of methylprednisolone, local anesthetic, and standard treatment appears to be an ideal option for patients with PHN. Further investigation is needed for the safety of this therapy.

5.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 1997, 2022 Apr 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35422054

ABSTRACT

Recognition of multifrequency microwave (MW) electric fields is challenging because of the complex interference of multifrequency fields in practical applications. Rydberg atom-based measurements for multifrequency MW electric fields is promising in MW radar and MW communications. However, Rydberg atoms are sensitive not only to the MW signal but also to noise from atomic collisions and the environment, meaning that solution of the governing Lindblad master equation of light-atom interactions is complicated by the inclusion of noise and high-order terms. Here, we solve these problems by combining Rydberg atoms with deep learning model, demonstrating that this model uses the sensitivity of the Rydberg atoms while also reducing the impact of noise without solving the master equation. As a proof-of-principle demonstration, the deep learning enhanced Rydberg receiver allows direct decoding of the frequency-division multiplexed signal. This type of sensing technology is expected to benefit Rydberg-based MW fields sensing and communication.

6.
Phytochemistry ; 194: 113000, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34794093

ABSTRACT

Eight undescribed polyhydroxylated bergamotane-type sesquiterpenoids with bicyclic, tricyclic and tetracyclic systems, namely sporulamides A-D, sporulosoic acids A-B and sporuloketals A-B, along with three known analogs were isolated from cultures of the marine mud-associated fungus Paraconiothyrium sporulosum YK-03. The chemical structures of these sesquiterpenoids were elucidated by the extensive spectroscopic techniques of NMR and HR-ESI-MS. Assisted by the X-ray crystallography analysis and electronic circular dichroism (ECD) spectroscopic calculation and comparison, their absolute configurations were established. Sporuloketals A-B represent two rare tetracyclic bergamotanes. It's the first time that ECD empirical rules have been successfully verified and applied for determining the absolute configurations of these bergamotane-type sesquiterpenoids.


Subject(s)
Sesquiterpenes , Ascomycota
7.
J Geriatr Cardiol ; 18(9): 728-738, 2021 Sep 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34659379

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To assess the association between beta-blockers and 1-year clinical outcomes in heart failure (HF) patients with atrial fibrillation (AF), and further explore this association that differs by left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) level. METHODS: We enrolled hospitalized HF patients with AF from China Patient-centered Evaluative Assessment of Cardiac Events Prospective Heart Failure Study. COX proportional hazard regression models were employed to calculate hazard ratio of beta-blockers. The primary outcome was all-cause death. RESULTS: Among 1762 HF patients with AF (756 women [41.4%]), 1041 (56%) received beta-blockers at discharge and 1272 (72.2%) had an LVEF > 40%. During one year follow up, all-cause death occurred in 305 (17.3%), cardiovascular death occurred in 203 patients (11.5%), and rehospitalizations for HF occurred in 622 patients (35.2%). After adjusting for demographic characteristics, social economic status, smoking status, medical history, anthropometric characteristics, and medications used at discharge, the use of beta-blockers at discharge was not associated with all-cause death [hazard ratio (HR): 0.86; 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 0.65-1.12; P = 0.256], cardiovascular death (HR: 0.76, 95% CI: 0.52-1.11; P = 0.160), or the composite outcome of all-cause death and HF rehospitalization (HR: 0.97, 95% CI: 0.82-1.14; P = 0.687) in the entire cohort. There were no significant interactions between use of beta-blockers at discharge and LVEF with respect to all-cause death, cardiovascular death, or composite outcome. In the adjusted models, the use of beta-blockers at discharge was not associated with all-cause death, cardiovascular death, or composite outcome across the different levels of LVEF: reduced (< 40%), mid-range (40%-49%), or preserved LVEF (≥ 50%). CONCLUSION: Among HF patients with AF, the use of beta-blockers at discharge was not associated with 1-year clinical outcomes, regardless of LVEF.

8.
J Gastrointest Oncol ; 12(4): 1558-1567, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34532110

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Adjuvant chemotherapy for 6 months following surgery is the standard treatment plan for stage III colon cancer. The aim of the present study was to determine whether the adjuvant chemotherapy completion time for stage III colon cancer had an effect on prognosis and cut-off time that affected the prognosis. METHODS: This was a retrospective study of stage III colon cancer patients who completed adjuvant chemotherapy at Guangzhou Red Cross Hospital from January 2010 to December 2017. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to determine the association between adjuvant chemotherapy completion time and the 3-year disease-free survival (DFS). The restricted cubic spline model was used to analyze the cut-off time that affected the 3-year DFS. RESULTS: A total of 431 patients were included in the study. The 3-year DFS was associated with a combination of obstruction or perforation, preoperative serum carcino-embryonic antigen (CEA) concentration, T stage, N stage, pathological stage, and adjuvant chemotherapy completion time in the univariate analysis (P<0.05). A combination of obstruction or perforation, preoperative serum CEA concentration, N stage, and adjuvant chemotherapy completion time were independent prognostic factors in the multivariate analysis (P<0.05). The cut-off time was 28 weeks for adjuvant chemotherapy completion time in the restricted cubic spline model analysis. For those whose adjuvant chemotherapy completion time was >28 weeks, the risk of 3-year recurrence was 1.428 times higher compared with those whose adjuvant chemotherapy completion time was ≤28 weeks. [P=0.032, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.034-2.055]. CONCLUSIONS: The 3-year DFS of stage III colon cancer was related to the adjuvant chemotherapy completion time. For those who completed adjuvant chemotherapy >28 weeks, the risk of 3-year recurrence increased.

9.
Anticancer Drugs ; 33(1): e434-e443, 2022 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34459459

ABSTRACT

Osimertinib is a third-generation epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitor used to treat non-small cell lung cancer. However, its off-targets are obscure, and systematic analysis of off-target activities remains to be performed. Here, we identified the off-targets of osimertinib using PharmMapper and DRAR-CPI and analyzed the intersected targets using the GeneMANIA and DAVID servers. A drug-target-pathway network was constructed to visualize the associations. The results showed that osimertinib is associated with 31 off-targets, 40 Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathways, and 9 diseases. Network analysis revealed that the targets were involved in cancer and other physiological processes. In addition to EGFR, molecular docking analysis showed that seven proteins, namely Janus kinase 3, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha, renin, mitogen-activated protein kinases, lymphocyte-specific protein tyrosine kinase, cell division protein kinase 2 and proto-oncogene tyrosine-protein kinase Src, could also be potential targets of osimertinib. In conclusion, osimertinib is predicted to target multiple proteins and pathways, resulting in the formation of an action network via which it exerts systematic pharmacological effects.


Subject(s)
Acrylamides/pharmacology , Aniline Compounds/pharmacology , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Proteins/drug effects , Molecular Docking Simulation , Protein Interaction Maps/physiology
10.
Autoimmunity ; 54(7): 430-438, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34435525

ABSTRACT

The dysregulated microRNAs (miRNAs) are implicated in the malignancy of lupus nephritis (LN). This work aims to analyse the effect and mechanism of miR-146b-5p in lipopolysaccharides (LPS)-induced model of LN in vitro. The serum samples of LN patients and normal volunteers were collected. HK-2 cells were challenged via LPS. miR-146b-5p and interferon-induced protein 35 (IFI35) abundances were detected via quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) or western blot. The inflammatory response was assessed via inflammatory cytokines levels via qRT-PCR and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Cell apoptosis was analysed via flow cytometry and apoptotic protein levels. The protein levels of JAK1/STAT1 signalling were detected via western blot. The relationship of miR-146b-5p and IFI35 was analysed via bioinformatics and dual-luciferase reporter assays. This study revealed that miR-146b-5p level was declined and IFI35 abundance was elevated in serum of LN patients and LPS-challenged HK-2 cells. Functionally, IFI35 overexpression promoted LPS-caused inflammatory response and cell apoptosis, and knockdown of IFI35 caused an opposite trend. Meanwhile, miR-146b-5p targeted IFI35 to suppress inflammatory response and cell inflammatory response and apoptosis via inactivating the JAK1/STAT1 pathway. MiR-146b-5p suppressed inflammatory response and cell apoptosis by IFI35 mediated-JAK1/STAT1 signalling in HK-2 cells, which provided a new mechanism for understanding the pathogenesis of LN.


Subject(s)
Lipopolysaccharides , MicroRNAs , Apoptosis/genetics , Humans , Interferons , Lipopolysaccharides/adverse effects , MicroRNAs/genetics , MicroRNAs/metabolism , Signal Transduction
11.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 42(9): 4527-4537, 2021 Sep 08.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34414753

ABSTRACT

Global climate change has significantly changed precipitation patterns. Soil respiration (SR), as an important pathway through which CO2 is released from the soil carbon pool into the atmosphere, may affect the carbon cycle process of terrestrial ecosystems and have a feedback effect on global climate change in response to precipitation change. However, at present there is limited understanding of how SR is affected by precipitation change. Field precipitation control experiments were conducted (with -40%, -20%, natural, 20%, and 40% precipitation) on desert grassland in the west of the Loess Plateau, to investigate the influence of precipitation change on SR dynamics and its relationship with soil water content, soil temperature, aboveground biomass, soil organic carbon, microbial biomass carbon, carbon-nitrogen ratio, and other factors. The results show that the diurnal variations of SR under different precipitation treatments were consistent in unimodal and bimodal models over three years. SR showed an increasing trend with added precipitation, relative to the control, and significant differences were observed between the second year (wetter) and the third year (drier) of the precipitation-manipulation experiment, indicating that precipitation changes had a legacy effect on SR. At the same time, SR was lowest under the -40% treatment and highest under the 40% treatment during the wetter year. The negative response of SR to precipitation exclusion treatments was stronger than the positive response to precipitation addition treatments. SR in drier years was significantly higher under precipitation addition treatments than the control, and the positive response of SR to increased precipitation treatment was significantly stronger than that under decreased precipitation treatment. In addition, soil water content, aboveground biomass, soil organic carbon, and carbon-nitrogen ratio were the environmental factors that obviously affected SR and increased with additional precipitation. SR increased with increases in soil water content, aboveground biomass, soil organic carbon, and carbon-nitrogen ratio, but decreased with increases in microbial biomass carbon. Among these factors, soil water content had the highest interpretation rate for SR, indicating that soil water content was the main environmental factor controlling SR in desert grassland. In both wetter and drier years, the amplitude of plant biomass input was lower than the amplitude of SR output under precipitation change, indicating that precipitation change may be unfavorable to soil carbon sequestration, especially in drier years, when precipitation change has a stronger influence on carbon pool output. Therefore, precipitation changes on SR in desert grassland in various dry and wet years may have different influences on the carbon cycle process of ecosystems, thus providing a reference for regional carbon budget assessment.


Subject(s)
Carbon , Soil , Ecosystem , Grassland , Respiration
12.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 280: 114446, 2021 Nov 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34339792

ABSTRACT

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The plants of the genus Nardostachys (Caprifoliaceae) have been used for a long history in different cultural systems of medicine, including Chinese, Ayurvedic, Korean folk medicine and Islamic, for treatments of disorders in nervous, digestive, cardiovascular and integumentary systems. AIM OF THE REVIEW: This review aims to provide comprehensive information on Nardostachys plants including botany update, traditional uses, data mining of uses in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and current Chinese medicinal patents, chemical constituents, pharmacological effects, toxicity and analytical method studies. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Studies of the genus Nardostachys were collected via Google Scholar and Baidu Scholar, ScienceDirect, SciFinder, Wiley Online Library, ACS Publications, NLM/NCBI, Web of Science, CNKI, WANFANG DATA, EMBASE, Huabeing database and Traditional Chinese Medicine Resource Network and libraries. Some local books, PhD or MS's dissertations were also included. The literatures cited in this review covered the period from 1962 to March 2021. The Plant List and Kew Herbarium Catalogue databases were used to authenticate the scientific name. RESULTS: Botany description of Nardostachys genus is updated. Analysis of the literatures indicates that Nardostachys species are valuable herbs with therapeutic potentials for various disorders. Data mining on ancient TCM prescriptions and current Chinese medicinal patents containing Nardostachys revealed its common compatibility with other herbs in China. Phytochemical studies identified terpenoids and phenolic compounds as the main constituents in the genus Nardostachys and sesquiterpenoids as the major bioactive components. Experimental studies demonstrated that crude extracts, major fractions and the main constituents from Nardostachys species mainly exhibited pharmacological activities on nervous, digestive, cardiovascular and skin systems. Further, in vivo and in vitro toxicological studies demonstrated that Nardostachys plants showed either no or low toxicities, except at high doses. Finally, methods of qualitative and quantitative analyses on chemical constituents of genus Nardostachys were summarized, including TLC/HPTLC, GC and HPLC/UPLC methods, combined with common detectors including PDA, DAD and MS. CONCLUSIONS: This review summarizes the progress on phytochemistry, pharmacology, toxicology and analytical methods of the genus Nardostachys. Studies demonstrate traditional uses of the genus Nardostachys, and reveal novel bioactive effects for clinical uses. These achievements expand our knowledge on the genus Nardostachys and its clinical value.


Subject(s)
Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Medicine, Chinese Traditional/methods , Nardostachys/chemistry , Animals , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/adverse effects , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/chemistry , Ethnopharmacology , Humans , Phytochemicals/adverse effects , Phytochemicals/chemistry , Phytochemicals/pharmacology , Phytotherapy/methods
13.
Am J Chin Med ; 49(6): 1449-1471, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34263719

ABSTRACT

Gut microbiota has been proven to play an important role in many metabolic diseases and cardiovascular disease, particularly atherosclerosis. Ophiopogonin D (OPD), one of the effective compounds in Ophiopogon japonicus, is considered beneficial to metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular diseases. In this study, we have illuminated the effect of OPD in ApoE knockout (ApoE[Formula: see text] mice on the development of atherosclerosis and gut microbiota. To investigate the potential ability of OPD to alleviate atherosclerosis, 24 eight-week-old male ApoE[Formula: see text] mice (C57BL/6 background) were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) for 12 weeks, and 8 male C57BL/6 mice were fed a normal diet, serving as the control group. ApoE[Formula: see text] mice were randomly divided into the model group, OPD group, and simvastatin group ([Formula: see text]= 8). After treatment for 12 consecutive weeks, the results showed that OPD treatment significantly decreased the plaque formation and levels of serum lipid compared with those in the model group. In addition, OPD improved oral glucose tolerance and insulin resistance as well as reducing hepatocyte steatosis. Further analysis revealed that OPD might attenuate atherosclerosis through inhibiting mTOR phosphorylation and the consequent lipid metabolism signaling pathways mediated by SREBP1 and SCD1 in vivo and in vitro. Furthermore, OPD treatment led to significant structural changes in gut microbiota and fecal metabolites in HFD-fed mice and reduced the relative abundance of Erysipelotrichaceae genera associated with cholesterol metabolism. Collectively, these findings illustrate that OPD could significantly protect against atherosclerosis, which might be associated with the moderation of lipid metabolism and alterations in gut microbiota composition and fecal metabolites.


Subject(s)
Atherosclerosis/drug therapy , Gastrointestinal Microbiome/drug effects , Lipid Metabolism/drug effects , Saponins/pharmacology , Spirostans/pharmacology , Animals , Diet, High-Fat , Disease Models, Animal , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Molecular Structure , Saponins/chemistry , Spirostans/chemistry
15.
Bioengineering (Basel) ; 8(5)2021 May 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34066902

ABSTRACT

Uncoordinated carbon-nitrogen ratio in raw materials will lead to excessive contents of higher alcohols in alcoholic beverages. The effect of GAT1 gene, the GATA transcription activator, on higher alcohol biosynthesis was investigated to clarify the mechanism of Saccharomyces cerevisiae regulating higher alcohol metabolism under high concentrations of free amino nitrogen (FAN). The availability of FAN by strain SDT1K with a GAT1 double-copy deletion was 28.31% lower than that of parent strain S17, and the yield of higher alcohols was 33.91% lower. The transcript levels of the downstream target genes of GAT1 and higher alcohol production in the double-copy deletion mutant suggested that a part of the effect of GAT1 deletion on higher alcohol production was the downregulation of GAP1, ARO9, and ARO10. This study shows that GATA factors can effectively regulate the metabolism of higher alcohols in S. cerevisiae and provides valuable insights into higher alcohol biosynthesis, showing great significance for the wheat beer industry.

16.
Iran J Pharm Res ; 19(4): 365-371, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33841549

ABSTRACT

This study aims to evaluate the clinical outcomes and the toxicities associated with intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) administered in combination with capecitabine for gastric cancer. This study was conducted between July 2009 and October 2011, and included 31 patients (23 female and eight male patients; mean age: 57 years old) with pathologically confirmed gastric cancer (pathological staging T3 or T4 or positive lymph node). All patients underwent D2 surgery and adjuvant chemoradiotherapy, followed by combined treatment with IMRT and capecitabine. All patients received follow-up examinations every 3-6 months by physical examination, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and assays for tumor markers. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to calculate the rates for locoregional control (LRC) and disease-free survival (DFS). Only two patients could not complete the planned treatment regimen. Patients treated with IMRT and capecitabine tolerated their treatment well, and displayed few significant side effects. The mean follow-up, disease-free survival (DFS) and survival times were 33.0, 27.5, and 32.9 months, respectively.This study confirmed that the combined administration of IMRT and capecitabine can be used as an adjuvant therapy for gastric cancer patients, with few toxic side effects.

17.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 42(2): 977-987, 2021 Feb 08.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33742894

ABSTRACT

Studying the influence of precipitation patterns on plant community diversity, soil C:N:P ecological stoichiometric characteristics, and the relationships between key soil factors and plant community diversity is of great significance for the protection of plant community diversity in desert grasslands. This paper was studied in the desert steppe of the west of Loess Plateau using a three-year precipitation manipulation experiment (40% reduction in precipitation, 20% reduction in precipitation, natural precipitation, 20% increase in precipitation, and 40% increase in precipitation), explored the influence of changes in precipitation in dry and wet years on the diversity of plant community and soil C:N:P ecological stoichiometric characteristics. And we also explored the relationship between soil C:N:P ecological stoichiometric characteristics and the key soil factors and the diversity of plant community under changes in precipitation. The results showed that in a normal year and the drier year (2013 and 2015), Patrick richness and Shannon-Wiener diversity index were significantly low under the 20% reduction treatment compared with the control and 40% increase treatments, respectively. During the wetter year, Patrick richness and Shannon-Wiener diversity index were no different between any of the precipitation treatments. In the normal year and the drier year, the soil organic carbon (SOC), total nitrogen (TN), and total phosphorus (TP) contents and the carbon-nitrogen ratio (C:N), carbon-phosphorus ratio (C:P), and nitrogen-phosphorus ratio (N:P) all decreased with an increase in precipitation (the decrease in the C:N ratio was statistically significant). During the wetter year, SOC, TN, C:P, and N:P increased with an increase in precipitation. During the normal year, precipitation treatments had no significant influence on soil water content, having a limited influence on the plant community. TN, N:P, SOC, C:N, and microbial biomass nitrogen (MBN) had a more prominent influence on plant community diversity. In the wetter year, precipitation was abundant leading to a rise in soil nutrients. Water was not the most important factor limiting to plant growth whereas soil water content, soil nutrients, and ecological stoichiometric characteristics jointly regulate plant community diversity. In the drier years, precipitation treatments had a significant impact on soil water content, whereby an increase in precipitation led to high losses of soil nutrients. Therefore, soil water content was the most important factor affecting plant community diversity during drier years. These observations indicate that under dry and wet years, plant community diversity and soil C:N:P ecological stoichiometric characteristics have variable responses to precipitation and soil C:N:P effect on plant community were also different. These results provide a theoretical basis for the protection and management of desert steppe systems under future projected changes in precipitation.


Subject(s)
Carbon , Soil , Carbon/analysis , China , Grassland , Nitrogen/analysis , Plants , Soil Microbiology
18.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 9(2)2021 Feb 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33670249

ABSTRACT

Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) poses massive economic losses in the global poultry industry. Here, we firstly report the construction and immunogenicity comparison of virus-like particles (VLPs) carrying the S, M and E proteins (SME-VLPs); VLPs carrying the S and M proteins (SM-VLPs); and VLPs carrying the M and E proteins (ME-VLPs) from the dominant serotype representative strain GX-YL5 in China. The neutralizing antibody response induced by the SME-VLPs was similar to that induced by the inactivated oil vaccine (OEV) of GX-YL5, and higher than those induced by the SM-VLPs, ME-VLPs and commercial live vaccine H120. More importantly, the SME-VLPs elicited higher percentages of CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes than the SM-VLPs, ME-VLPs and OEV of GX-YL5. Compared with the OEV of GX-YL5, higher levels of IL-4 and IFN-γ were also induced by the SME-VLPs. Moreover, the mucosal immune response (sIgA) induced by the SME-VLPs in the tear and oral swabs was comparable to that induced by the H120 vaccine and higher than that induced by the OEV of GX-YL5. In the challenge experiment, the SME-VLPs resulted in significantly lower viral RNA levels in the trachea and higher protection scores than the OEV of GX-YL5 and H120 vaccines, and induced comparable viral RNA levels in the kidneys, and tear and oral swabs to the OEV of GX-YL5. In summary, among the three VLPs, the SME-VLPs carrying the S, M and E proteins of IBV could stimulate the strongest humoral, cellular and mucosal immune responses and provide effective protection, indicating that it would be an attractive vaccine candidate for IB.

19.
Neurologist ; 26(1): 22-23, 2020 Dec 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33394908

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Carotid free-floating thrombus (FFT) is an unusual finding in acute ischemic stroke. Atherosclerosis is the most common etiology of FFT formation. CASE REPORT: Here we report a 42-year-old male patient admitted to our department with left temporal and parietal lobe ischemic stroke with normal magnetic resonance angiography. A huge FFT in the left internal carotid artery were found by duplex ultrasound. Acute thrombosis based on atherosclerotic plaque were considered as the reason of this embolization. The thrombus shrunk significantly under anticoagulation and antiplatelet treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Evaluation of the intracranial vessel in the emergency is not enough and early carotid duplex ultrasound can help find of the FFT in time, which help to choose the early intervene by neurosurgeon. Early antithrombotic treatment can be a safe treatment option for reducing huge thrombus based on the nature of thrombus formation. Computed tomography angiography and high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging to certify the character of the plaque are recommended for plaque evaluation.


Subject(s)
Carotid Artery Thrombosis/diagnostic imaging , Carotid Artery, Internal/diagnostic imaging , Ischemic Stroke/diagnostic imaging , Adult , Anticoagulants/pharmacology , Carotid Artery Thrombosis/complications , Carotid Artery Thrombosis/drug therapy , Humans , Ischemic Stroke/drug therapy , Ischemic Stroke/etiology , Male , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/pharmacology , Ultrasonography, Doppler, Duplex
20.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 268: 113601, 2021 Mar 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33220358

ABSTRACT

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Nardostachys jatamansi (D.Don) DC. (family Caprifoliaceae, NJ) is well-documented and commonly used in the systems of traditional medicine in China, Tibet, Nepal, Bhutan, India and Japan for curing digestive and neuropsychiatric disorders with a long history of medication. However, the possible action mechanisms of antidepressant effects of NJ remain unraveled. AIM OF THE STUDY: The aim of this study was to systematically investigate chemical substances of NJ and their effects on serotonin transporter (SERT) in antidepressant activity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Antidepressant effects of total methanol extract of NJ were evaluated by tail suspension test (TST) and open field test (OFT). Then the total extract was analyzed by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) method, and its effect on SERT activity was evaluated by high content assay (HCA) to determine half maximal effective concentration (EC50). This total extract was subfractioned into twenty subfractions by preparative high-performance liquid chromatography (p-HPLC) method, and 'subfraction-SERT activity' relationship curve was fitted with medians of the retention time of those subfractions and their SERT activity values. Then, the fraction NJFr.01 enriched with SERT enhancers was optimized, prepared and analyzed by UHPLC method. Antidepressant effects of the fraction NJFr.01 were evaluated by TST and OFT. Further, major constituents of the total extract and fraction NJFr.01 were isolated by p-HPLC and identified by extensive nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analyses and comparisons with those reported data, and their SERT activities were also evaluated. Finally, antagonistic effects of chlorogenic acid and desoxo-narchinol A against fluoxetine on SERT were evaluated. RESULTS: Results of TST and OFT demonstrated antidepressant effects of toatal extract of NJ. The EC50 of total extract on SERT enhancement was 31.63 µg/mL. The fitted 'subfraction-SERT activity' relationship curve revealed that fraction NJFr.01 was enriched with SERT enhancing constituents. Both total extract and fraction NJFr.01 significantly enhanced SERT activity, while the rest fraction NJFr.02 didn't show any SERT activity. Then, antidepressant effects of fraction NJFr.01 were demonstrated by TST and OFT. Further, phytochemistry investigation and UHPLC analyses confirmed the identification of fourteen constituents in the total extract of NJ, including 7-oxonardinoperoxide (1), desoxo-narchinol A (2), kanshone B (3), narchinol B (4), nardosinonediol (5), kanshone A (6), 1-hydroxylaristolone (7), debilon (8), nardosinone (9), kanshone H (10), 1,8,9,10-tetradehydroaristolan-2-one (11), (-)-aristolone (12), 1(10)-aristolene-2-one (13) and jatamol A (14), and seven constituents in the fraction NJFr.01, including chlorogenic acid (15), 8α-dihydrogeniposide (16), 7-deoxy-8-epi-loganic acid (17), adoxosidic acid (18), 8-epi-loganic acid (19), 8α-6,7-dihydroapodantheroside acetate (20) and 6″-acetylpatrinalloside (21). Their structures were established by NMR analyses and comparisons with those reported data. HCA results of these constituents demonstrated the major components of fraction NJFr.01 enhanced SERT activity. Antagonistic results showed that chlorogenic acid and desoxo-narchinol A reversed inhibition effect of fluoxetine on SERT activity. CONCLUSION: This study first systematically expatiated the roles of SERT activity in antidepressant effects of NJ, including total methanol extract and the water-soluble fraction NJFr.01 enriched with SERT enhancing constituents. This is the first report of natural SERT enhancing extract and fractions with antidepressant potential in NJ.


Subject(s)
Antidepressive Agents/therapeutic use , Depression/drug therapy , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Nardostachys , Serotonin Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins/metabolism , Animals , Antidepressive Agents/isolation & purification , Antidepressive Agents/pharmacology , Depression/metabolism , Depression/psychology , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/isolation & purification , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Hindlimb Suspension/adverse effects , Hindlimb Suspension/physiology , Hindlimb Suspension/psychology , Locomotion/drug effects , Locomotion/physiology , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred ICR
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