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1.
Immunol Invest ; : 1-19, 2022 Mar 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1764344

ABSTRACT

Previous studies have implicated that the transplantation of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (hUC-MSCs) effectively alleviates systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) primarily due to immunomodulatory effects. However, little is known about the role of hUC-MSC-derived exosomes in SLE. This study is carried out to investigate the modifying effects of hUC-MSC-exosomes on the differentiation and function of immune cells in SLE. hUC-MSC-derived exosomes were extracted from the cultural supernatant of hUC-MSCs by ultrahigh speed centrifugation. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, western blot, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and flow cytometry were performed to estimate the effect of hUC-MSC-derived exosomes on macrophage and regulatory T cell (Treg) polarization. In vivo, hUC-MSC-exosomes were injected intravenously into 28-week-old MRL/lpr mice. We had found that exosomes derived from hUC-MSC restrained the proliferation and inflammation of macrophages in vitro. Besides, MSC-exosomes inhibited CD68+M1 and HLA-DR+M1 but promoted CD206+M2 and CD163+M2 in vitro. Moreover, MRL/lpr mice administrated by intravenous injection of MSC-exosomes had less infiltration of CD14+CD11c+M1 cells but more CD14+CD163+M2 cells as well as Tregs in spleens compared with those in MRL/lpr mice treated by PBS. Additionally, MSC-exosomes could alleviate nephritis, liver and lung injuries of MRL/lpr mice. The survival of lupus mice could be improved after MSC-exosome treatment. This study has suggested that MSC-derived exosomes exert anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects in SLE. MSC-exosomes ameliorate nephritis and other key organ injuries by inducing M2 macrophages and Tregs polarization. As natural nanocarriers, MSC-exosomes may serve as a promising cell-free therapeutic strategy for SLE.Abbreviations: SLE: Systemic lupus erythematosus; hUC-MSCs: Human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells; MSCs: Mesenchymal stem cells; qRT-PCR: Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction; ELISA: Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; Tregs: Regulatory cells; TNF-α: Tumor necrosis factor alfa; IL: Interleukin; COVID-19: Coronavirus disease 2019; pTHP-1: PMA-induced THP-1 macrophages; TEM: Transmission electron microscopy; LPS: Lipopolysaccharide; EVs: Extracellular vesicles; TRAF1: Tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 1; IRAK1: Interferon-α-interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase 1; NF-κB: Nuclear factor-κB; BLyS: B lymphocyte stimulator; APRIL: A proliferation-inducing ligand.

2.
JAMA Neurol ; 79(5): 509-517, 2022 May 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1729079

ABSTRACT

Importance: Determining the long-term impact of COVID-19 on cognition is important to inform immediate steps in COVID-19 research and health policy. Objective: To investigate the 1-year trajectory of cognitive changes in older COVID-19 survivors. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study recruited 3233 COVID-19 survivors 60 years and older who were discharged from 3 COVID-19-designated hospitals in Wuhan, China, from February 10 to April 10, 2020. Their uninfected spouses (N = 466) were recruited as a control population. Participants with preinfection cognitive impairment, a concomitant neurological disorder, or a family history of dementia were excluded, as well as those with severe cardiac, hepatic, or kidney disease or any kind of tumor. Follow-up monitoring cognitive functioning and decline took place at 6 and 12 months. A total of 1438 COVID-19 survivors and 438 control individuals were included in the final follow-up. COVID-19 was categorized as severe or nonsevere following the American Thoracic Society guidelines. Main Outcomes and Measures: The main outcome was change in cognition 1 year after patient discharge. Cognitive changes during the first and second 6-month follow-up periods were assessed using the Informant Questionnaire on Cognitive Decline in the Elderly and the Telephone Interview of Cognitive Status-40, respectively. Based on the cognitive changes observed during the 2 periods, cognitive trajectories were classified into 4 categories: stable cognition, early-onset cognitive decline, late-onset cognitive decline, and progressive cognitive decline. Multinomial and conditional logistical regression models were used to identify factors associated with risk of cognitive decline. Results: Among the 3233 COVID-19 survivors and 1317 uninfected spouses screened, 1438 participants who were treated for COVID-19 (691 male [48.05%] and 747 female [51.95%]; median [IQR] age, 69 [66-74] years) and 438 uninfected control individuals (222 male [50.68%] and 216 female [49.32%]; median [IQR] age, 67 [66-74] years) completed the 12-month follow-up. The incidence of cognitive impairment in survivors 12 months after discharge was 12.45%. Individuals with severe cases had lower Telephone Interview of Cognitive Status-40 scores than those with nonsevere cases and control individuals at 12 months (median [IQR]: severe, 22.50 [16.00-28.00]; nonsevere, 30.00 [26.00-33.00]; control, 31.00 [26.00-33.00]). Severe COVID-19 was associated with a higher risk of early-onset cognitive decline (odds ratio [OR], 4.87; 95% CI, 3.30-7.20), late-onset cognitive decline (OR, 7.58; 95% CI, 3.58-16.03), and progressive cognitive decline (OR, 19.00; 95% CI, 9.14-39.51), while nonsevere COVID-19 was associated with a higher risk of early-onset cognitive decline (OR, 1.71; 95% CI, 1.30-2.27) when adjusting for age, sex, education level, body mass index, and comorbidities. Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study, COVID-19 survival was associated with an increase in risk of longitudinal cognitive decline, highlighting the importance of immediate measures to deal with this challenge.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cognitive Dysfunction , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cognition , Cognitive Dysfunction/epidemiology , Cognitive Dysfunction/etiology , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Survivors
3.
Microb Pathog ; 164: 105442, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1701213

ABSTRACT

In 2019, the world faced a serious health challenge, the rapid spreading of a life-threatening viral pneumonia, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by a betacoronavirus severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). As of January 2022 WHO statistics shows more than 5.6 million death and about 350 million infection by SARS-CoV-2. One of the life threatening aspects of COVID-19 is secondary infections and reduced efficacy of antibiotics against them. Since the beginning of COVID-19 many researches have been done on identification, treatment, and vaccine development. Bacterial viruses (bacteriophages) could offer novel approaches to detect, treat and control COVID-19. Phage therapy and in particular using phage cocktails can be used to control or eliminate the bacterial pathogen as an alternative or complementary therapeutic agent. At the same time, phage interaction with the host immune system can regulate the inflammatory response. In addition, phage display and engineered synthetic phages can be utilized to develop new vaccines and antibodies, stimulate the immune system, and elicit a rapid and well-appropriate defense response. The emergence of SARS-CoV-2 new variants like delta and omicron has proved the urgent need for precise, efficient and novel approaches for vaccine development and virus detection techniques in which bacteriophages may be one of the plausible solutions. Therefore, phages with similar morphology and/or genetic content to that of coronaviruses can be used for ecological and epidemiological modeling of SARS-CoV-2 behavior and future generations of coronavirus, and in general new viral pathogens. This article is a comprehensive review/perspective of potential applications of bacteriophages in the fight against the present pandemic and the post-COVID era.


Subject(s)
Bacteriophages , COVID-19 , Pneumonia, Viral , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
4.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-321362

ABSTRACT

Background: Previous studies on the impact of corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) on the mental health of the patients has been limited by the lack of relevant data. With the rapid and sustained growth of the publications on COVID-19 research, we will perform a living systematic review (LSR) to provide comprehensive and continuously updated data to explore the prevalence of delirium, depression, anxiety, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among COVID-19 patients. Methods: We will perform a comprehensive search of the following databases: Cochrane Library, PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, and Chinese Biomedicine Literature to identify relevant studies. We will include peer-reviewed cross-sectional studies published in English and Chinese. Two reviewers will independently assess the methodological quality of included studies using the Joanna Briggs Institute Prevalence Critical Appraisal tool and perform data extraction. In the absence of clinical heterogeneity, the prevalence estimates with a 95% confidence interval (CI) of delirium, depression, anxiety, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) will be calculated by using random-effects model to minimize the effect of between-study heterogeneity separately. The literature searches will be updated every three months. We will perform meta-analysis if any new eligible studies or data are obtained. We will resubmit an updated review when there were relevant changes in the results, i.e. when outcomes became statistically significant (or not statistically significant anymore) or when heterogeneity became substantial (or not substantial anymore). Discussion: This LSR will provide an in-depth and up-to-date summary of whether the common neuropsychiatric conditions observed in patients hospitalized for severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS-CoV) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) are also prevalent in a different stage of COVID-19 patients. Systematic review registration PROSPERO CRD42020196610

5.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-315710

ABSTRACT

Background: Understanding the long-term effects of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) on cognitive function is essential for the prevention of cognitive decline in elderly population. This study aims to assess cognitive status and longitudinal decline at 6 months post-infection in elderly patients recovered from COVID-19.Methods: This cross-sectional study recruited 1013 COVID-19 inpatients aged over 60 years who were discharged from three COVID-19-designated hospitals in Wuhan, China, from February 10 to March 13, 2020. In total, 262 uninfected living spouses of COVID-19 patients were selected as controls. Subjects were examined for their current cognitive status using a Chinese version of the Telephone Interview of Cognitive Status-40 (TICS-40) and longitudinal cognitive decline using an Informant Questionnaire on Cognitive Decline in the Elderly (IQCODE). Cognitive assessments were performed 6 months after patient discharge.Findings: COVID-19 patients had significantly lower TICS-40 scores (patients: 29.73±6.13;controls: 30.74±5.95, p=0.016) and higher IQCODE scores (patients: 3.40±0.81;controls: 3.15±0.39, p<0.001) than the controls. Severe COVID-19 patients had lower TICS-40 scores and higher IQCODE scores than non-severe COVID-19 patients (TICS-40: 22.98±7.12 vs. 30.46±5.53, p<0.001;IQCODE: 4.06±1.39 vs. 3.33±0.68, p<0.001) and controls (TICS-40: 22.98±7.12 vs. 30.74±5.95, p<0.001;IQCODE: 4.06±1.39 vs. 3.15±0.39, p<0.001). Severe COVID-19 patients had a higher proportion of cases with a current cognitive impairment and longitudinal cognitive decline than non-severe COVID-19 patients and controls. COVID-19 severity (OR: 8.142, 95% CI: 5.007-13.239) was associated with worse current cognitive function. Older age (OR: 1.024, 95% CI: 1.003 to 1.046), COVID-19 severity (OR: 2.277, 95% CI: 1.308 to 3.964), mechanical ventilation (OR: 5.388, 95% CI: 3.007 to 9.656), and hypertension (OR: 1.866, 95% CI: 1.376 to 2.531) were associated with an increased risk of longitudinal cognitive decline.Interpretation: SARS-CoV-2 infection is associated with delayed cognitive decline in elderly population. COVID-19 patients with risk factors, including severe disease, older age, mechanical ventilation, and hypertension, should be intensively monitored for delayed cognitive decline. Funding: National Natural Science Foundation of China.Conflict of Interest: We declared no conflict of interests.Ethical Approval: The study protocols were approved by the institutional review boards of the hospitals. Verbal informed consent was obtained from all participants prior to the survey.

6.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-315258

ABSTRACT

Background: During the COVID-19 pandemic, the transition to online-course learning mode has put school-aged children at an increased risk of asthenopia. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the prevalence of asthenopia in relation to the total screen or online-course time and other related risk factors among school-aged children during this period. Methods: A total of 25 781 children aged 8-20 from one municipality and four provinces in eastern China were recruited for this cross-sectional study. An online version of a validated computer vision syndrome questionnaire (CVS-Q) was used to collect the frequency and intensity of 16 visual fatigue-related eye symptoms from March 28 to May 1, 2020. Additional information, including demographic features, eye care habits, visual disorders, lifestyle factors, psychological and environmental factors, was also collected. Findings: The overall prevalence of asthenopia in the 21 966 participants included in the final analysis was 12 · 1%. A 100-hour increment of total screen and online-course time was associated with an increase of 9% (95% CI 7-12%) and 11% (6-17%) risk of asthenopia, respectively, which were partially mediated by psychological stress. Age, female sex, having myopia or astigmatism, bad habits when watching screens were also risk factors. Conversely, keeping a distance of 34-65 cm between individual’s eyes and the screen, increased rest time between classes, and increased eye exercise frequency was associated with a decreased risk. Interpretation: Long total screen or online-course time, having eye disease, bad eye care habits, and keeping eyes a greater distance from the screen were significant risk factors for asthenopia. Scheduling the frequency and duration of online courses properly and incorporating these into educational policies are essential for protecting children’s eye health. Funding: National Natural Science Foundation for Young Scholars of China, National Natural Science Foundation of China, Shanghai Youth Eastern Scholar Grant, and Science and Technology Commission of Shanghai.Declaration of Interests: The authors declare no competing interests.Ethics Approval Statement: This study protocol was reviewed and approved by the Ethics Committee of Shanghai Ninth Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University (SH9H-2020-T304-1). Electronic informed consent was obtained from each participant.

7.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-313433

ABSTRACT

Background: Understanding of the incidence and effects of acute kidney injury (AKI) in patients diagnosed with COVID-19 is limited. The purpose of this study was to examine risk factors and related outcomes associated with AKI among patients diagnosed with COVID-19. Method: This is a retrospective cohort study of patients diagnosed with COVID-19 associated-pneumonia admitted to a tertiary hospital in Wuhan between January to February 2020. AKI was defined and staged according to the Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcome (KDIGO) classification criteria. Cox’s multivariate regression and logistic regression modelling were used to assess the effects of AKI on hospital mortality and risk factors associated with occurrence of AKI. Primary outcomes were risk-adjusted in-hospital mortality. Results: : 342 patients were finally enrolled in this study. AKI occurred in 13.4% (n = 46), among them 7.0% (n = 24) developed stage 1AKI, and 6.4% (n = 22) developed stage 2 - 3 AKI. Overall 26.9% (n = 92) died during hospitalization. Among them 19.3% (57/296) of the non-AKI patients died, 62.5%(15/24) of stage 1 AKI patients, and 90.9% (20/22) of stage 2 - 3 AKI patients died. AKI was strongly associated with mortality (HR 2.52;95% CI, 1.59-3.96;p <0.001). Further analysis shows that progression to AKI stage 2 - 3 doubles the hazard ratio for death. Age, leukocytes number, fibrinogen concentration, C-reative protein level, and severity of pneumonia at admission were independent risk factors associated with the development of AKI. Conclusion: Acute kidney injury is common among hospitalized COVID-19 patients and strongly associated with increased mortality, early detection and prevention of the progression of AKI may be critical to reduce mortality of these patients.

8.
Front Public Health ; 9: 794359, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1686570

ABSTRACT

Objectives: This study aimed to explore the utilization of a mobile multifunctional workstation for COVID-19 sample collection. Methods: Twenty-four nurses and 150 individuals who took nucleic acid tests using mobile multifunctional workstations in Beijing Youan Hospital, Capital Medical University, from September to November 2020, were enrolled in the study as the observation group. As the control group, we included 36 nurses and 150 individuals who did not use the workstations from June to September 2020. We compared the two groups on (1) comfort of working environment, self-perceived security, the convenience of information system, operational process flexibility, pharyngeal acquisition visibility, and effectiveness of communication among nurses; and (2) self-perceived safety, waiting time, and overall satisfaction among individuals who took nucleic acid tests. Results: The satisfaction score of nurses in the observation group of nurses were significantly higher than those of the control group (OR = 17.297 95% CI:4.294, 69.673), as well as the convenience of the information system (OR = 6.250 95% CI: 1.775, 22.008), and communication effectiveness (OR = 5.588 95% CI: 1.590, 19.646). Among individuals who took nucleic acid tests, the overall satisfaction (P < 0.05) and self-perceived security (P < 0.05) had statistical differences between the observation group and the control group. Conclusions: The mobile multifunctional workstation for specimen collection could improve the comfort of the working environment, the convenience of information systems, and the effectiveness of communication among nurses.It can improve satisfaction and self-perceived security among people who took nucleic acid tests.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Personal Satisfaction , SARS-CoV-2 , Specimen Handling , Workplace
9.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 11(1): 629-638, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1665837

ABSTRACT

Mounting evidence indicates that SARS-CoV-2 can infect multiple systemic tissues, but few studies have evaluated SARS-CoV-2 RNA dynamics in multiple specimen types due to their reduced accessibility and diminished performance of RT-qPCR with non-respiratory specimens. Here, we employed an ultrasensitive CRISPR-RT-PCR assay to analyze longitudinal mucosal (nasal, buccal, pharyngeal, and rectal), plasma, and breath samples from SARS-CoV-2-infected non-human primates (NHPs) to detect dynamic changes in SARS-CoV-2 RNA level and distribution among these specimens. We observed that CRISPR-RT-PCR results consistently detected SARS-CoV-2 RNA in all sample types at most time points post-infection, and that SARS-CoV-2 infection dose and administration route did not markedly affect the CRISPR-RT-PCR signal detected in most specimen types. However, consistent RT-qPCR positive results were restricted to nasal, pharyngeal, and rectal swab samples, and tended to decrease earlier than CRISPR-RT-PCR results, reflecting lower assay sensitivity. SARS-CoV-2 RNA was detectable in both pulmonary and extrapulmonary specimens from early to late infection by CRISPR-RT-PCR, albeit with different abundance and kinetics, with SARS-CoV-2 RNA increases detected in plasma and rectal samples trailing those detected in upper respiratory tract samples. CRISPR-RT-PCR assays for SARS-CoV-2 RNA in non-respiratory specimens may thus permit direct diagnosis of suspected COVID-19 cases missed by RT-PCR, while tracking SARS-CoV-2 RNA in minimally invasive alternate specimens may better evaluate the progression and resolution of SARS-CoV-2 infections.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , Humans , Primates , RNA, Viral/analysis , Sensitivity and Specificity , Serologic Tests
10.
Front Public Health ; 9: 736617, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1581126

ABSTRACT

Objectives: During the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) self-quarantine period, the transition to online-course has profoundly changed the learning modes of millions of school-aged children and put them at an increased risk of asthenopia. Therefore, we aimed to determine associations of the total screen/online-course time with asthenopia prevalence among that children during the COVID-19 pandemic, and whether the associations were mediated by psychological stress. Methods: Asthenopia was defined according to a validated computer vision syndrome questionnaire (CVS-Q). We used CVS-Q to collect the frequency and intensity of 16 asthenopia-related eye symptoms of 25,781 children. Demographic features, eye care habits, visual disorders, lifestyle, psychological and environmental factors, were also collected. Results: The overall asthenopia prevalence was 12.1%, varying from 5.4 to 18.2% across grade/gender-classified subgroups. A 100-h increment of total screen/online-course time were associated with an increased risk of asthenopia by 9% [odds ratio (OR) = 1.09] and 11% (OR = 1.11), respectively. Mediation analysis showed that the proportions of total effects mediated by psychological stress were 23.5 and 38.1%, respectively. Age, female gender, having myopia or astigmatism, bad habits when watching screens were also risk factors. Conversely, keeping 34-65 cm between eyes and screen, increased rest time between classes, and increased eye exercise were all associated with a decreased risk. Conclusion: Our study indicated that the influence of long total screen or online-course time on psychological stress increases asthenopia risk. The findings of this study have provided a new avenue for intervening screen-related asthenopia in addition to incorporating a reasonable schedule of online courses into educational policy.


Subject(s)
Asthenopia , COVID-19 , Asthenopia/epidemiology , Asthenopia/etiology , Child , Female , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology
11.
Curr Med Imaging ; 2021 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1394671

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The new coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is spreading rapidly around the world. Artificial intelligence (AI) assisted identification and detection of diseases is an ef-fective method of medical diagnosis. OBJECTIVES: To present recent advances in AI-assisted diagnosis of COVID-19, we introduce major aspects of AI in the process of diagnosing COVID-19. METHODS: In this paper, we firstly cover the latest collection and processing methods of da-tasets of COVID-19. The processing methods mainly include building public datasets, transfer learning, unsupervised learning and weakly supervised learning, semi-supervised learning methods and so on. Secondly, we introduce the algorithm application and evaluation metrics of AI in medical imaging segmentation and automatic screening. Then, we introduce the quantifi-cation and severity assessment of infection in COVID-19 patients based on image segmenta-tion and automatic screening. Finally, we analyze and point out the current AI-assisted diagno-sis of COVID-19 problems, which may provide useful clues for future work. CONCLUSION: AI is critical for COVID-19 diagnosis. Combining chest imaging with AI can not only save time and effort, but also provide more accurate and efficient medical diagnosis results.

12.
Mol Neurodegener ; 16(1): 48, 2021 07 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1318288

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Understanding the long-term effects of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) on cognitive function is essential for monitoring the cognitive decline in the elderly population. This study aims to assess the current cognitive status and the longitudinal cognitive decline in elderly patients recovered from COVID-19. METHODS: This cross-sectional study recruited 1539 COVID-19 inpatients aged over 60 years who were discharged from three COVID-19-designated hospitals in Wuhan, China, from February 10 to April 10, 2020. In total, 466 uninfected spouses of COVID-19 patients were selected as controls. The current cognitive status was assessed using a Chinese version of the Telephone Interview of Cognitive Status-40 (TICS-40) and the longitudinal cognitive decline was assessed using an Informant Questionnaire on Cognitive Decline in the Elderly (IQCODE). Cognitive assessments were performed 6 months after patient discharge. RESULTS: Compared with controls, COVID-19 patients had lower TICS-40 scores and higher IQCODE scores [TICS-40 median (IQR): 29 (25 to 32) vs. 30 (26 to 33), p < 0.001; IQCODE median (IQR): 3.19 (3.00 to 3.63) vs. 3.06 (3.00 to 3.38), p < 0.001]. Severe COVID-19 patients had lower TICS-40 scores and higher IQCODE scores than non-severe COVID-19 patients [TICS-40 median (IQR): 24 (18 to 28) vs. 30 (26 to 33), p < 0.001; IQCODE median (IQR): 3.63 (3.13 to 4.31) vs. 3.13 (3.00 to 3.56), p < 0.001] and controls [TICS-40 median (IQR): 24 (18 to 28) vs. 30 (26 to 33), p < 0.001; IQCODE median (IQR) 3.63 (3.13 to 4.31) vs. 3.06 (3.00 to 3.38), p < 0.001]. Severe COVID-19 patients had a higher proportion of cases with current cognitive impairment and longitudinal cognitive decline than non-severe COVID-19 patients [dementia: 25 (10.50 %) vs. 9 (0.69 %), p < 0.001; Mild cognitive impairment (MCI): 60 (25.21 %) vs. 63 (4.84 %), p < 0.001] and controls [dementia: 25 (10.50 %) vs. 0 (0 %), p < 0.001; MCI: 60 (25.21 %) vs. 20 (4.29 %), p < 0.001)]. COVID-19 severity, delirium and COPD were risk factors of current cognitive impairment. Low education level, severe COVID-19, delirium, hypertension and COPD were risk factors of longitudinal cognitive decline. CONCLUSIONS: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection is associated with an increased risk of long-term cognitive decline in elderly population. COVID-19 patients, especially severe patients, should be intensively monitored for post-infection cognitive decline.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Cognitive Dysfunction/virology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , China , Cognitive Dysfunction/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2
13.
J Affect Disord ; 294: 128-136, 2021 Nov 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1317696

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We aimed to explore the risk profiles attributable to psychosocial and behavioural problems during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. To this end, we created a risk-prediction nomogram model. METHODS: A national multicentre study was conducted through an online questionnaire involving 12,186 children (6-11 years old) and adolescents (12-16 years old). Respondents' psychosocial and behavioural functioning were assessed using the Achenbach Child Behaviour Checklist (CBCL). Data were analysed using STATA software and R-language. RESULTS: The positive detection rate of psychological problems within Wuhan was greater than that outside Wuhan for schizoid (P = 0.005), and depression (P = 0.030) in children, and for somatic complaints (P = 0.048), immaturity (P = 0.023), and delinquent behaviour (P = 0.046) in adolescents. After graded multivariable adjustment, seven factors associated with psychological problems in children and adolescents outside Wuhan were parent-child conflict (odds ratio (OR): 4.94, 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 4.27-5.72), sleep problems (OR: 4.05, 95% CI: 3.77-4.36), online study time (OR: 0.41, 95% CI: 0.37-0.47), physical activity time (OR: 0.510, 95% CI: 0.44-0.59), number of close friends (OR: 0.51, 95% CI: 0.44-0.6), time spent playing videogames (OR: 2.26, 95% CI: 1.90-2.69) and eating disorders (OR: 2.71, 95% CI: 2.35-3.11) (all P < 0.001). Contrastingly, within Wuhan, only the first four factors, namely, parent-child conflict (5.95, 2.82-12.57), sleep problems (4.47, 3.06-6.54), online study time (0.37, 0.22-0.64), and physical activity time (0.42, 0.22-0.80) were identified (all P < 0.01). Accordingly, nomogram models were created with significant attributes and had decent prediction performance with C-indexes over 80%. LIMITATION: A cross-sectional study and self-reported measures. CONCLUSIONS: Besides the four significant risk factors within and outside Wuhan, the three additional factors outside Wuhan deserve special attention. The prediction nomogram models constructed in this study have important clinical and public health implications for psychosocial and behavioural assessment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Problem Behavior , Adolescent , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Nomograms , Pandemics , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Transl Psychiatry ; 11(1): 342, 2021 06 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1258580

ABSTRACT

This study aims to explore the psychosocial and behavioral problems of children and adolescents in the early stage of reopening schools. In this national cross-sectional study, a total of 11072 students from China were naturally divided into two groups based on their schooling status: reopened schools (RS) and home schooling (HS) group. The psychosocial and behavioral functioning were measured by Achenbach Child Behaviour Checklist (CBCL) and compared in these two groups. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were conducted to explore the independent predictors associated with the psychosocial and behavioral problems. Our results showed that the students in the RS group had more adverse behaviors than that of HS group. The RS group had the higher rates of parent-offspring conflict, prolonged homework time, increased sedentary time and sleep problems (all p < 0.001). When separate analyses were conducted in boys and girls, the RS group had the higher scores for (1) overall behavioral problems (p = 0.02 and p = 0.01), internalizing (p = 0.02 and p = 0.02) and externalizing (p = 0.02 and p = 0.004) behaviors in the 6-11 age group; (2) externalizing (p = 0.049 and p = 0.006) behaviors in the 12-16 age group. Multivariable regression showed parent-offspring conflict and increased sedentary time were the most common risk factors, while physical activity and number of close friends were protective factors for behavior problems in RS students (p < 0.01 or 0.05). The present study revealed that students' psychosocial and behavioral problems increased in the early stage of schools reopened unexpectedly. These findings suggest that close attention must be paid and holistic strategies employed in the school reopening process of post-COVID-19 period.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Problem Behavior , Adolescent , Child , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Schools
15.
Sci Total Environ ; 788: 147873, 2021 Sep 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1240610

ABSTRACT

Although river restoration has been increasingly implemented to restore water quality in ecosystems, its effect on the removal of emerging pollutant antibiotics, and their resultant influence on microbial community structure and functions in river water is still unclear. This study investigated the changes of antibiotics, antibiotic resistant genes (ARGs), microbial communities, and their spatial distributions in a megacity river before and after river restoration. Results indicated that although the restoration activities including riverbed dredging, riverbank hardening, sewage and storm water separation and re-pipelining improved water quality such as by decreasing total phosphorus (TP) content from 4.60 ± 6.38 mg/L in 2018 to 0.98 ± 0.44 mg/L in 2020, the antibiotic concentrations in river water increased. Total antibiotic concentrations in the water samples were higher in 2020 (506.89-6952.50 ng/L) than those in 2018 (137.93-1751.51 ng/L), likely caused by increased usage of antibiotics in 2020 for COVID-19 treatment. The spatial distributions of antibiotics were less varied likely as a result of less retardation and fast mixing during antibiotic transport. The result also found that the abundance of Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria, and their correlations with ARGs increased. The spatial distributions of ARGs and microbial communities became less varied in the river water, consistent with the antibiotic variations before and after river restoration. Physicochemical changes such as decreased TP and dissolved organic carbon content may also be a factor. The results indicated that the current river restoration efforts were not effective in removing antibiotics, and implied that further studies are needed to investigate their subsequent transformation and transport, and to assess their risks to the health of ecosystems.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Microbiota , Anti-Bacterial Agents , COVID-19/drug therapy , Drug Resistance, Microbial/genetics , Genes, Bacterial , Humans , Rivers , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Front Immunol ; 12: 614436, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1167338

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus named severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) caused a global pandemic of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which elicits a wide variety of symptoms, ranging from mild to severe, with the potential to lead to death. Although used as the standard method to screen patients for SARS-CoV-2 infection, real-time PCR has challenges in dealing with asymptomatic patients and those with an undetectable viral load. Serological tests are therefore considered potent diagnostic tools to complement real-time PCR-based diagnosis and are used for surveillance of seroprevalence in populations. However, the dynamics of the antibody response against SARS-CoV-2 currently remain to be investigated. Here, through analysis of plasma samples from 84 patients with COVID-19, we observed that the response of virus-specific antibodies against three important antigens, RBD, N and S, dynamically changed over time and reached a peak 5-8 weeks after the onset of symptoms. The antibody responses were irrespective of sex. Severe cases were found to have higher levels of antibody response, larger numbers of inflammatory cells and C-reactive protein levels. Within the mild/moderate cases, pairwise comparison indicated moderate association between anti-RBD vs. anti-N, anti-RBD vs. anti-S1S2, and anti-N vs. anti-S1S2. Furthermore, the majority of cases could achieve IgM and IgG seroconversion at 2 weeks since the disease onset. Analysis of neutralizing antibodies indicated that these responses were able to last for more than 112 days but decline significantly after the peak. In summary, our findings demonstrate the longitudinally dynamic changes in antibody responses against SARS-CoV-2, which can contribute to the knowledge of humoral immune response after SARS-CoV-2 infection and are informative for future development of vaccine and antibody-based therapies.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/immunology , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Adult , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Beijing , COVID-19/pathology , China , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Phosphoproteins/immunology , Protein Domains/immunology , Seroconversion , Severity of Illness Index , Tertiary Care Centers
17.
Circulation ; 142(24): 2299-2311, 2020 12 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1011038

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) treat an expanding range of cancers. Consistent basic data suggest that these same checkpoints are critical negative regulators of atherosclerosis. Therefore, our objectives were to test whether ICIs were associated with accelerated atherosclerosis and a higher risk of atherosclerosis-related cardiovascular events. METHODS: The study was situated in a single academic medical center. The primary analysis evaluated whether exposure to an ICI was associated with atherosclerotic cardiovascular events in 2842 patients and 2842 controls matched by age, a history of cardiovascular events, and cancer type. In a second design, a case-crossover analysis was performed with an at-risk period defined as the 2-year period after and the control period as the 2-year period before treatment. The primary outcome was a composite of atherosclerotic cardiovascular events (myocardial infarction, coronary revascularization, and ischemic stroke). Secondary outcomes included the individual components of the primary outcome. In addition, in an imaging substudy (n=40), the rate of atherosclerotic plaque progression was compared from before to after the ICI was started. All study measures and outcomes were blindly adjudicated. RESULTS: In the matched cohort study, there was a 3-fold higher risk for cardiovascular events after starting an ICI (hazard ratio, 3.3 [95% CI, 2.0-5.5]; P<0.001). There was a similar increase in each of the individual components of the primary outcome. In the case-crossover, there was also an increase in cardiovascular events from 1.37 to 6.55 per 100 person-years at 2 years (adjusted hazard ratio, 4.8 [95% CI, 3.5-6.5]; P<0.001). In the imaging study, the rate of progression of total aortic plaque volume was >3-fold higher with ICIs (from 2.1%/y before 6.7%/y after). This association between ICI use and increased atherosclerotic plaque progression was attenuated with concomitant use of statins or corticosteroids. CONCLUSIONS: Cardiovascular events were higher after initiation of ICIs, potentially mediated by accelerated progression of atherosclerosis. Optimization of cardiovascular risk factors and increased awareness of cardiovascular risk before, during, and after treatment should be considered among patients on an ICI.


Subject(s)
Atherosclerosis/epidemiology , Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors/adverse effects , Ischemic Stroke/epidemiology , Myocardial Infarction/epidemiology , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Plaque, Atherosclerotic , Academic Medical Centers , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Aged , Atherosclerosis/diagnostic imaging , Atherosclerosis/drug therapy , Boston/epidemiology , Disease Progression , Female , Humans , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Ischemic Stroke/diagnostic imaging , Ischemic Stroke/therapy , Male , Middle Aged , Myocardial Infarction/diagnostic imaging , Myocardial Infarction/therapy , Myocardial Revascularization , Neoplasms/diagnosis , Neoplasms/epidemiology , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Time Factors
18.
Eur Neurol ; 83(6): 630-635, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-992126

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) has become a pandemic disease globally. The First Affiliated Hospital of Chengdu Medical College has adopted telestroke to make stroke care accessible in remote areas. During the period January 2020 to March 2020, there was no COVID-19 case reported in our stroke center. A significant reduction of stroke admission was observed between the ischemic stroke group (235 vs. 588 cases) and the intracerebral hemorrhage group (136 vs. 150 cases) when compared with the same period last year (p < 0.001). The mean door-to-needle time (DNT) and door-to-puncture time (DPT) was 62 and 124 min, respectively. Compared to the same period last year, a significant change was observed in DNT (62 ± 12 vs. 47 ± 8 min, p = 0.019) but not in DPT (124 ± 58 vs. 135 ± 23 min, p = 0.682). A total of 46 telestroke consultations were received from network hospitals. Telestroke management in the central hospital was performed on 17 patients. Of them, 3 (17.6%) patients had brain hernia and died in hospital and 8 (47.1%) patients were able to ambulation at discharge and had a modified Rankin Scale of 0-2 at 3 months. The COVID-19 pandemic impacted stroke care significantly in our hospital, including prehospital and in-hospital settings, resulting in a significant drop in acute ischemic stroke admissions and a delay in DNT. The construction of a telestroke network enabled us to extend health-care resources and make stroke care accessible in remote areas. Stroke education and public awareness should be reinforced during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hemorrhagic Stroke/therapy , Ischemic Stroke/therapy , Telemedicine/methods , Thrombectomy/statistics & numerical data , Thrombolytic Therapy/statistics & numerical data , Time-to-Treatment/statistics & numerical data , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Functional Status , Hospitalization , Hospitals , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Multi-Institutional Systems/organization & administration , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke/epidemiology , Telemedicine/organization & administration , Treatment Outcome
19.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 12(22): 22390-22398, 2020 11 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-940433

ABSTRACT

A retrospective analysis of 11 COVID-19 patients complicated with stroke was performed. It was found that the incidence of stroke in patients with COVID-19 was significantly higher than the average level of the general population (P=0.003), and the D-dimer levels of 11 stroke patients were significantly higher than other patients (P=0.004). The significant increase of D-dimer can be used as an early warning indicator of cerebral infarction. It is critical to have a response plan for treating acute stroke in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Cerebral Infarction/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Biomarkers , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cerebral Infarction/blood , Cerebral Infarction/diagnosis , China/epidemiology , Female , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index , Young Adult
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