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1.
Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 54(1): 108-113, 2023 Jan.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2246232

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has caused an ongoing global pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Proper nutritional support helps boost the immunity of the human body, strengthen the high-risk populations' defense against SARS-CoV-2, reduce the prevalence of COVID-19, prevent mild cases from developing into severe cases, and reduce the occurrence of adverse symptoms during recovery. Nutritional support is an important guarantee to provide protection against virus infection, promote patient recovery, and improve patient prognosis. Whole nutritional food formulas designed according to the characteristic clinical symptoms of COVID-19 provide patients with comprehensive nutritional support of appropriate nutritional content, which effectively improves the nutritional status of patients and provides strong technical support to improve their quality of survival. During the critical period of COVID-19 prevention and control, more emphasis should be placed on the essential role of nutritional support and the clinical efficacy of nutritional support should be given full play.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/prevention & control , Nutritional Status , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
2.
Clin Epidemiol ; 14: 925-935, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1978912

ABSTRACT

Purpose: The systematic review aims to analyze and summarize the characteristics of living systematic review (LSR) for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Methods: Six databases including Medline, Excerpta Medica (Embase), Cochrane Library, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Wanfang Database and China Science, and Technology Journal Database (VIP), were searched as the source of basic information and methodology of LSR. Descriptive analytical methods were used to analyze the included COVID-19 LSRs, and the study characteristics of COVID-19 LSRs were further assessed. Results: Sixty-four COVID-19 LSRs were included. Eighty-nine point one percent of LSRs were published on Science Citation Index (SCI) journals, and 64.1% publication with an impact factor (IF) >5 and 17.2% with an IF >15 among SCI journals. The first unit of the published LSRs for COVID-19 came from 19 countries, with the largest contribution from the UK (17.2%, 11/64). Forty point six percent of LSRs for COVID-19 were related to therapeutics topic which was considered the most concerned perspective for LSRs for COVID-19. Seventy-six point six percent of LSRs focused on the general population, with less attention to children, pregnant women and the elderly. However, the LSR for COVID-19 was reported incomplete on "living" process, including 40.6% of studies without search frequency, 79.7% of studies without screening frequency, 20.3% of studies without update frequency, and 65.6% of studies without the timing or criteria of transitioning LSR out of living mode. Conclusion: Although researchers in many countries have applied LSRs to COVID-19, most of the LSRs for COVID-19 were incomplete in reporting on the "living" process and less focused on special populations. This could reduce the confidence of health-care providers and policy makers in the results of COVID-19 LSR, thereby hindering the translation of evidence on COVID-19 LSR into clinical practice. It was necessary to explicitly enact preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA) to improve the reporting quality of LSR and support ongoing efforts of therapeutics research for special patients with COVID-19.

3.
Front Psychiatry ; 13: 806149, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1785423

ABSTRACT

Objective: During the COVID-19 pandemic, face-to-face intervention services for families of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) were limited. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of an 8-week, online-delivered Project ImPACT program for children with ASD and their parents in China during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: A pilot non-randomized study with a waitlist control group was conducted in 68 children with ASD and their parents in the Department of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics between April 15, 2020 and March 19, 2021. Participants were allocated to either the intervention (IG) or the waitlist group (WLG) according to their order of recruitment. Parents in the IG immediately received 8 weeks of the online-delivered Project ImPACT program, and the WLG received the same program with a delay when the IG had completed all sessions. Participants in both groups received treatment as usual during the research period. Results: The online-delivered Project ImPACT program significantly improved the parent-reported social communication skills of children with ASD. Furthermore, parent's involvement in the training program produced a collateral reduction in parenting stress and an increase in perceived competence in the parental role. Parents rated the program acceptable in terms of curriculum schedule, session content, homework assignments, and therapist feedback. Conclusions: The 8-week, online-delivered Project ImPACT program is a feasible and effective social skill training program for families of children with ASD in China during the COVID-19 pandemic. Due to the methodological limitations, randomized controlled studies with larger sample sizes are suggested to provide more solid evidence.

4.
Vaccine ; 39(48): 7001-7011, 2021 11 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1488001

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 pandemic has severely impacted the public health and social economy worldwide. A safe, effective, and affordable vaccine against SARS-CoV-2 infections/diseases is urgently needed. We have been developing a recombinant vaccine based on a prefusion-stabilized spike trimer of SARS-CoV-2 and formulated with aluminium hydroxide and CpG 7909. The spike protein was expressed in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, purified, and prepared as a stable formulation with the dual adjuvant. Immunogenicity studies showed that candidate vaccines elicited robust neutralizing antibody responses and substantial CD4+ T cell responses in both mice and non-human primates. And vaccine-induced neutralizing antibodies persisted at high level for at least 6 months. Challenge studies demonstrated that candidate vaccine reduced the viral loads and inflammation in the lungs of SARS-CoV-2 infected golden Syrian hamsters significantly. In addition, the vaccine-induced antibodies showed cross-neutralization activity against B.1.1.7 and B.1.351 variants. These data suggest candidate vaccine is efficacious in preventing SARS-CoV-2 infections and associated pneumonia, thereby justifying ongoing phase I/II clinical studies in China (NCT04982068 and NCT04990544).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Alum Compounds , Aluminum Hydroxide , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , CHO Cells , Cricetinae , Cricetulus , Humans , Mice , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
5.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 685544, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1394780

ABSTRACT

Background: While some contacts of COVID-19 cases become symptomatic and radiographically abnormal, their SARS-CoV-2 RNA tests remain negative throughout the disease course. This prospective population-based cohort study aimed to explore their characteristics and significances. Methods: From January 22, 2020, when the first COVID-19 case was identified in Hefei, China, until July 3, a total of 14,839 people in Feidong, Hefei, with a population of ~1,081,000 underwent SARS-CoV-2 RNA testing, where 36 cases (0.2%) with confirmed COVID-19 infection (Group 1) and 27 close contacts (0.2%) testing negative for SARS-CoV-2 RNA but having both positive COVID-19 exposure histories and CT findings (Group 2) from eight clusters were prospectively identified. Another 62 non-COVID-19 pneumonia cases without any exposure history (Group 3) were enrolled, and characteristics of the three groups were described and compared. We further described a cluster with an unusual transmission pattern. Results: Fever was more common in Group 2 than Groups 1 and 3. Frequency of diarrhea in Group 1 was higher than in Groups 2 and 3. Median leucocyte, neutrophil, monocyte, and eosinophil counts were all lower in Groups 1 and 2 than in Group 3. Median D-dimer level was lower in Group 1 than in Groups 2 and 3. Total protein and albumin levels were higher in Groups 1 and 2 than in Group 3. C-reactive protein level was lower and erythrocyte sedimentation rate slower in Groups 1 and 2 than in Group 3. Combination antibacterial therapy and levofloxacin were more often used in Group 3 than in Groups 1 and 2. Lopinavir/ritonavir was more often administered in Groups 1 and 2 than in Group 3. Group 1 received more often corticosteroids than Groups 2 and 3. Group 2 received less often oxygen therapy than Groups 1 and 3. Median duration from illness onset to discharge was longer in Group 1 (27 d) than Groups 2 and 3 (both 17 d). Among contacts of a confirmed COVID-19 patient, only one had a positive virus RNA test but remained asymptomatic and had negative CT findings, and three had negative virus RNA tests but had symptoms and positive CT findings, one of whom transmitted COVID-19 to another asymptomatic laboratory-confirmed patient who had no other exposures. Conclusions: Among close contacts of confirmed COVID-19 cases, some present with positive symptoms and CT findings but test negative for SARS-CoV-2 RNA using common respiratory (throat swab and sputum) specimens; they have features more similar to confirmed COVID-19 cases than non-COVID-19 pneumonia cases and might have transmitted SARS-CoV-2 to others. Such cases might add to the complexity and difficulty of COVID-19 control. Our hypothesis-generating study might suggest that SARS-CoV-2 RNA testing by rRT-PCR assays of common respiratory (throat swab and sputum) specimens alone, the widely accepted "golden standard" for diagnosing COVID-19, might be sometimes insufficient, and that further studies with some further procedures (e.g., testing via bronchoalveolar lavage or specific antibodies) would be warranted for Group 2-like patients, namely, the SARS-CoV-2 RNA-negative (tested using common respiratory specimens), radiographically positive, symptomatic contacts of COVID-19 cases, to further reveal their nature.

6.
Vaccine ; 39(20): 2746-2754, 2021 05 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1174522

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study examined the safety and immunogenicity of an inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine. METHOD: In a phase I randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial involving 192 healthy adults 18-59 years old, two injections of three doses (50 EU, 100 EU, 150 EU) of an inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine or placebo were administered intramuscularly at a 2- or 4-week interval. The safety and immunogenicity of the vaccine were evaluated. RESULTS: Vaccination was completed in 191 subjects. Forty-four adverse reactions occurred within 28 days, most commonly mild pain and redness at the injection site or slight fatigue. At days 14 and 28, the seroconversion rates were 87.5% and 79.2% (50 EU), 100% and 95.8% (100 EU), and 95.8% and 87.5% (150 EU), respectively, with geometric mean titers (GMTs) of 18.1 and 10.6, 54.5 and 15.4, and 37.1 and 18.5, respectively, for the schedules with 2-week and 4-week intervals. Seroconversion was associated with synchronous upregulation of antibodies against the S protein, N protein and virion and a cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response. No cytokines and immune cells related to immunopathology were observed. Transcriptome analysis revealed the genetic diversity of immune responses induced by the vaccine. INTERPRETATION: In a population aged 18-59 years in this trial, this inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine was safe and immunogenic. TRIAL REGISTRATION: CTR20200943 and NCT04412538.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Vaccines , Adolescent , Adult , Antibodies, Viral , China , Double-Blind Method , Humans , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
7.
J Infect ; 80(6): e1-e13, 2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-47490

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The outbreak of coronavirus-disease-2019 (COVID-19) has rapidly spread to many places outside Wuhan. Previous studies on COVID-19 mostly included older hospitalized-adults. Little information on infectivity among and characteristics of youngsters with COVID-19 is available. METHODS: A cluster of 22 close-contacts of a 22-year-old male (Patient-Index) including youngsters with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 and hospitalized close-contacts testing negative for severe-acute-respiratory-syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) in Anhui Province, China was prospectively-traced. RESULTS: Since January 23, 2020, we enrolled a cluster of eight youngsters with COVID-19 (median age [range], 22 [16-23] years; six males) originating from Patient-Index returning from Wuhan to Hefei on January 19. Patient-Index visited his 16-year-old female cousin in the evening on his return, and met 15 previous classmates in a get-together on January 21. He reported being totally asymptomatic and were described by all his contacts as healthy on January 19-21. His very first symptoms were itchy eyes and fever developed at noon and in the afternoon on January 22, respectively. Seven youngsters (his cousin and six classmates) became infected with COVID-19 after a-few-hour-contact with Patient-Index. None of the patients and contacts had visited Wuhan (except Patient-Index), or had any exposure to wet-markets, wild-animals, or medical-institutes within three months. For affected youngsters, the median incubation-period was 2 days (range, 1-4). The median serial-interval was 1 day (range, 0-4). Half or more of the eight COVID-19-infected youngsters had fever, cough, sputum production, nasal congestion, and fatigue on admission. All patients had mild conditions. Six patients developed pneumonia (all mild; one bilateral) on admission. As of February 20, four patients were discharged. CONCLUSIONS: SARS-CoV-2-infection presented strong infectivity during the incubation-period with rapid transmission in this cluster of youngsters outside Wuhan. COVID-19 developed in these youngsters had fast onset and various nonspecific atypical manifestations, and were much milder than in older patients as previously reported.


Subject(s)
Asymptomatic Diseases/epidemiology , Contact Tracing , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Infectious Disease Incubation Period , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Adolescent , Adult , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
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