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1.
Front Public Health ; 10: 879289, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35493378

ABSTRACT

Background: A study of the current situation and characteristics of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection among Chinese pregnant women is meaningful to provide baseline information for future research and policy making, with an aim to eliminate HBV in China. Objectives: To provide the epidemiological status of HBV infection among pregnant women in China. Methods: PubMed, EMbase, The Cochrane Library, and three Chinese databases were searched. Cohort studies and cross-sectional studies on HBV prevalence in Chinese pregnant women, published after 2016, were retrieved. In addition, combined HBV prevalence and 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated. This research was registered in PROSPERO (CRD42021289123). Main Results: A total of 42 studies were included in the study, with a sample size of 4,007,518 cases, and 20 provinces in China. The prevalence of HBV in Chinese pregnant women was 6.64% (95% CI: 5.72-7.57%) during the period between 2016 and 2021. Among HBsAg positive pregnant women, the HBeAg positive rate was 25.80% (95% CI: 22.26-29.69%). Moreover, geographic regions with HBV prevalence ranking from high to low were in western China, eastern China, and central China, successively. Conclusion: The prevalence of HBV in Chinese pregnant women is intermediate endemic, although disparities exist between different regions. Among pregnant women with HBV infection, a high proportion of the patients have strong infectivity. Factors affecting HBV prevalence remain controversial, which demands further studies. Systematic Review Registration: https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/PROSPERO/, identifier: CRD42021289123.


Subject(s)
Hepatitis B , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Hepatitis B/epidemiology , Hepatitis B Surface Antigens , Hepatitis B virus , Humans , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnant Women
2.
Hematol Oncol ; 2022 Jun 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35686657

ABSTRACT

In chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) patients, the involvement of the BCR/ABL1 isoform in tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) resistance has attracted lots of attention. In this work, a novel isoform that encoded truncated protein due to the deletion of ABL1 exon7, 8, and 9 was reported and named BCR/ABL1ΔE7-8-9 here. This isoform was detected only in 10.2% of CML patients with inadequate responses to TKIs. BCR/ABL1Δexon7-8-9 isoform promoted S phase cell proliferation and reduced the expression of fusion gene and ABL1 phosphorylation level more slowly than that of control cells after TKIs treatment. The novel isoform has the qualities of a functional tyrosine kinase, localized in the cytoplasm, and could not be imported into the nucleus by TKIs. These results indicated that BCR/ABL1Δexon7-8-9 showed poorer sensitivity to imatinib and nilotinib than wild-type BCR/ABL1. According to molecular docking studies, nilotinib and imatinib present different binding sites and have a lower binding capacity with BCR/ABL1ΔE7-8-9 protein than the wild type. Our findings suggested that the novel isoform BCR/ABL1ΔE7-8-9 may contribute to TKIs resistance in CML due to its weakened TKIs binding ability. It enriched the mechanism of spliceosome involved in TKIs resistance. Monitoring the expression of BCR/ABL1ΔE7-8-9 helps guide the treatment of CML patients in the clinic.

3.
Front Pharmacol ; 13: 787113, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35662686

ABSTRACT

Background: Drug use safety in children is a global public health problem. The potentially inappropriate prescription screening tools are expected to reduce adverse drug reactions and promote rational drug use. Objectives: To systematically evaluate children's potentially inappropriate prescription screening tools and validation studies on these tools. Methods: We systematically searched six databases PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, CNKI, VIP and Wanfang Data. Two reviewers independently selected articles by the eligible criteria and extracted data. Then we evaluated the coverage of diseases or drugs in these tools and the consistency of items between tools. Results: Five children's potentially inappropriate prescription screening tools were identified, most tools were formed by Delphi expert consensus and focused on respiratory system drugs, anti-infective drugs, and gastrointestinal drugs. The coincidence rates of items between the POPI and the POPI Int, the POPI and the POPI United Kingdom, the POPI United Kingdom and the POPI int, and the POPI United Kingdom and the PIPc were 82.0, 55.1, 51.0 and 2.2% respectively, and the KIDs List did not overlap other four tools. Only the POPI tool developed by French experts was comprehensively validated by studies and most tools have not been validated. Conclusion: The development of screening tools for potentially inappropriate prescribing in children is a neglected field and most tools lack studies to validate clinical applicability. More researchers need to form their national potentially inappropriate prescription screening tools for children based on the best available clinical evidence and the actual clinical situation in their countries.

4.
Transl Psychiatry ; 12(1): 228, 2022 Jun 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35660740

ABSTRACT

Bumetanide, a drug being studied in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) may act to restore gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) function, which may be modulated by the immune system. However, the interaction between bumetanide and the immune system remains unclear. Seventy-nine children with ASD were analysed from a longitudinal sample for a 3-month treatment of bumetanide. The covariation between symptom improvements and cytokine changes was calculated and validated by sparse canonical correlation analysis. Response patterns to bumetanide were revealed by clustering analysis. Five classifiers were used to test whether including the baseline information of cytokines could improve the prediction of the response patterns using an independent test sample. An immuno-behavioural covariation was identified between symptom improvements in the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS) and the cytokine changes among interferon (IFN)-γ, monokine induced by gamma interferon and IFN-α2. Using this covariation, three groups with distinct response patterns to bumetanide were detected, including the best (21.5%, n = 17; Hedge's g of improvement in CARS = 2.16), the least (22.8%, n = 18; g = 1.02) and the medium (55.7%, n = 44; g = 1.42) responding groups. Including the cytokine levels significantly improved the prediction of the best responding group before treatment (the best area under the curve, AUC = 0.832) compared with the model without the cytokine levels (95% confidence interval of the improvement in AUC was [0.287, 0.319]). Cytokine measurements can help in identifying possible responders to bumetanide in ASD children, suggesting that immune responses may interact with the mechanism of action of bumetanide to enhance the GABA function in ASD.


Subject(s)
Autism Spectrum Disorder , Autistic Disorder , Autism Spectrum Disorder/drug therapy , Autistic Disorder/drug therapy , Bumetanide/therapeutic use , Child , Child, Preschool , Cytokines , Humans , gamma-Aminobutyric Acid
5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(10)2022 May 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35628575

ABSTRACT

The heart is the core organ of the circulatory system. Through the blood circulation system, it has close contact with all tissues and cells in the body. An exosome is an extracellular vesicle enclosed by a phospholipid bilayer. A variety of heart tissue cells can secrete and release exosomes, which transfer RNAs, lipids, proteins, and other biomolecules to adjacent or remote cells, mediate intercellular communication, and regulate the physiological and pathological activities of target cells. Cardiogenic exosomes play an important role in regulating almost all pathological and physiological processes of the heart. In addition, they can also reach distant tissues and organs through the peripheral circulation, exerting profound influence on their functional status. In this paper, the composition and function of cardiogenic exosomes, the factors affecting cardiogenic exosomes and their roles in cardiovascular physiology and pathophysiology are discussed, and the close relationship between cardiovascular system and motor system is innovatively explored from the perspective of exosomes. This study provides a reference for the development and application of exosomes in regenerative medicine and sports health, and also provides a new idea for revealing the close relationship between the heart and other organ systems.


Subject(s)
Cardiovascular System , Exosomes , Extracellular Vesicles , Cell Communication , Exosomes/metabolism , Heart
6.
Gene ; 833: 146596, 2022 Jul 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35598679

ABSTRACT

Thermo-sensitive cytoplasmic male sterility is of great significance to heterosis and hybrid seed production in wheat. Consequently, it is worthwhile to research the genes associated with male sterility. Although polygalacturonases (PGs) have been studied to play a crucial role in male reproduction of many plants, their functions in the reproductive development of wheat remain unclear. Here, TaPG (TraesCS7A02G404900) encoding a polygalacturonase was isolated from the anthers of KTM3315A, a wheat thermo-sensitive cytoplasmic male sterile with Aegilops kotschyi cytoplasm. Expression pattern analyses showed that TaPG was strongly expressed in fertile anthers and its protein was localized in the cell wall. Further verification via barley stripe mosaic virus revealed that the silencing of TaPG exhibited abnormal anthers, premature degradation of tapetum, pollen abortion, and defective pollen wall formation, resulting in the declination of fertility. Conclusively, our research suggested that TaPG contributed to the pollen development and male fertility, which will provide a novel insight into the fertility conversion of thermo-sensitive cytoplasmic male sterility in wheat.


Subject(s)
Infertility, Male , Triticum , Cytoplasm/genetics , Cytoplasm/metabolism , Fertility/genetics , Gene Expression Regulation, Plant , Humans , Infertility, Male/metabolism , Male , Plant Infertility/genetics , Pollen/genetics , Pollen/metabolism , Polygalacturonase/genetics , Polygalacturonase/metabolism , Triticum/metabolism
7.
Drug Des Devel Ther ; 16: 1433-1440, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35592087

ABSTRACT

Objective: Pediatric electrolyte supplements injection is mainly used to supplement heat and body fluid, and commonly used in pediatrics. Its compatibility and stability with common clinical drugs such as antibiotics was rarely reported to ensure the children's safety and the rational use of drugs. The aim of the present study was to investigate physical and chemical stability of pediatric electrolyte supplements injection mixed with ten commonly used clinical drugs. Methods: According to clinical drug concentration, we mix the pediatric electrolyte supplements injection mixed with ten drugs. The compatible solutions were withdrawn at certain time intervals (0, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 6 hours) after mixing and tested by description, insoluble particles detection, pH determination and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) assay of active ingredient as measures of physicochemical compatibility. Results: No obvious appearance changes were observed when mixing. Furthermore, over the 6 hours post-preparation period the pH values were within the requirements of each drug quality standard and the number of insoluble particles (≥10 and ≥25µm) met requirements of Chinese Pharmacopeia (Edition 2020) except for mezlocillin sodium for injection. The percentages of the initial concentrations maintained at a minimum of 97% in the mixtures within 6 hours. Conclusions: Nine commonly used clinical drugs remained stable in the pediatric electrolyte supplements injection for 6 hours at 25°C and avoiding from light. Mezlocillin sodium for injection was not recommended to be combined with electrolyte supplement injection for children because its insoluble particles exceed the standard.


Subject(s)
Mezlocillin , Pediatrics , Child , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Drug Incompatibility , Drug Stability , Electrolytes , Humans
8.
Front Pharmacol ; 13: 852414, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35592414

ABSTRACT

Objective: Survey pediatricians and guardians of children with tic disorder on medication needs and choices. Methods: We designed a cross-sectional survey for pediatricians in mainland China, Hong Kong, Macao, and Taiwan, as well as for the guardians of patients with tic disorder from West China Second University Hospital. We collected and analyzed information on clinicians' medical behavior and medication choices and on guardians' knowledge of tic disorder, medical treatment behaviors, and medication choices and needs. Results: We collected responses from 242 physicians and 610 guardians. For patients with tic disorder and without comorbidities, the first-line drugs selected by physicians were tiapride (60.74%), clonidine (32.64%), haloperidol (25.62%), aripiprazole (16.53%), and sulpiride (12.4%). Physicians reported making medication choices by considerations such as clinical guidelines, clinical efficacy, a low incidence of adverse drug reactions, sufficient clinical research evidence, convenient dosage forms, and patient adherence. Guardians reported making medication choices by considerations such as a low incidence of adverse drug reactions, physician recommendations, clinical efficacy, dose, dosage forms, and the convenience and steadiness of obtaining the medication. However, guardians exhibited insufficient knowledge of tic disorder and treatment options. Conclusions: Physicians and patient guardians differ in their considerations when selecting medications, highlighting a gap in optimizing treatment.

9.
BMC Pediatr ; 22(1): 295, 2022 May 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35590273

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A recent survey revealed that extensive off-label use of sugammadex in pediatric anesthesia deserved particular attention. The present study with trial sequential analysis (TSA) aimed to evaluate the effects of sugammadex for antagonizing neuromuscular blockade (NMB) in pediatric patients, and to investigate whether the findings achieved the required information size to draw conclusions. METHODS: PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) were searched from inception to April 2021. All randomized controlled trials used sugammadex as reversal agent in pediatric patients were enrolled. Time from NMB reversal to recovery of the train-of-four ratio (TOFr) to 0.9 and extubation time were considered as co-primary outcomes, and incidences of adverse events were considered as secondary outcomes. Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) system was used to rate the quality of evidences. RESULTS: Data from 18 studies involving 1,065 pediatric patients were acquired. The results revealed that use of sugammadex was associated with shorter duration from administration of reversal agents to TOFr > 0.9 (MD = -14.42, with 95% CI [-17.08, -11.75]) and shorter interval from reversal from NMB to extubation (MD = -13.98, with 95% CI [-16.70, -11.26]) compared to control groups. TSA also indicated that the current sample sizes were sufficient with unnecessary further trials. Analysis of secondary outcomes indicated that administration of sugammadex was associated with less incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV), bradycardia, and dry mouth compared to control groups. CONCLUSION: Considering of satisfactory and rapid neuromuscular blockade reversal with low incidences of adverse events, sugammadex might be considered as the preferred option for children in clinical anesthesia practice compared to acetylcholinesterase inhibitors. However, overall low-quality evidences in present study rated by GRADE system indicated that superiority of sugammadex employed in pediatric patients needs to be confirmed by more studies with high quality and large sample size in future.


Subject(s)
Neuromuscular Blockade , Neuromuscular Nondepolarizing Agents , Sugammadex , Acetylcholinesterase , Child , Humans , Neuromuscular Blockade/methods , Neuromuscular Nondepolarizing Agents/adverse effects , Neuromuscular Nondepolarizing Agents/therapeutic use , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Sugammadex/adverse effects , Sugammadex/therapeutic use
10.
Front Mol Biosci ; 9: 873311, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35573738

ABSTRACT

As the first-line clinical drugs for tuberculosis (TB), isoniazid (INH), pyrazinamide (PZA), and rifampicin (RMP) are playing important roles for preventing the rapid spread of TB. Precise quantification of these drugs in biological samples is crucial to evaluate or improve the efficacy of advanced TB drug delivery systems, which are designed for reducing drug resistance, minimizing side effects, etc. Herein, a simple and sensitive method based on UPLC-UV was established and investigated for simultaneous quantification of PZA, INH, and RMP in human plasma and was applied to anti-TB drug therapeutic drug monitoring. The analytes were implemented on an HSS T3 C18 column at 40°C. The separation was performed with a gradient elution with methanol-acetonitrile-water (3:3:94) at 0.1 ml/min. The analysis only involved plasma with a small volume of 100 µL and a rapid one-step protein precipitation with methanol-acetonitrile (1:1). The results showed that the calibration curves for INH, PZA, and RMP were linear in a range of 0.5-20 µg/ml, 5-60 µg/ml, and 5-60 µg/ml, respectively. The intra- and inter-day precisions were both smaller than 15%, and the lower limit of quantitation (LLOQ) was identifiable and reproducible at 0.5 µg/ml for INH and 5 µg/ml for both PZA and RMP, respectively. The target drugs in plasma were stable after 21 days of storage at -80°C. The results indicated that our developed method is suitable for the simultaneous monitoring of INH, PZA, and RMP in human plasma.

11.
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med ; 2022: 2229735, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35529920

ABSTRACT

Purpose: To systematically evaluate the safety and effectiveness of different dosages of recombinant human interferon α1b (IFNα1b) inhaled for bronchiolitis in children. Methods: 7 databases, including PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, CNKI, Wanfang Database, and VIP, were searched. The search time was from their inception dates to March 28, 2022. A randomized controlled trial (RCT) of 2 µg/kg IFNα1b (low dosage group) monotherapy or in combination with other drugs vs. 4 µg/kg IFNα1b (high dosage group) monotherapy or in combination with the other drugs was included. The risk of bias 2.0 evaluated the RCT's quality, and the grading of recommendations assessment, development and evaluation (GRADE) tool was used for evaluating the overall quality of the evidence. Then, a meta-analysis was performed by RevMan 5.4. Results: A total of 13 RCTs with 1719 children were included. The meta-analysis results showed that the high dosage group was significantly shorter than the low dosage group of the duration of hospital stays (MD = -0.40, 95%CI (-0.73, -0.07), P = 0.02) (low quality), three depressions sign disappearing time (MD = -0.60, 95%CI (-1.05, -0.14), P = 0.010) (low quality), and wheeze disappearing time (MD = -0.62, 95%CI (-1.17, -0.06), = 0.03) (low quality). There was no significant difference between the two groups in coughing disappearing time, pulmonary rales disappearing time, wheezing sound disappearing time, or adverse event rates. Conclusions: Compared with low dosage IFNα1b, high dosage IFNα1b reduces the duration of hospital stays, the disappearance time of the three depression signs, and the disappearance time of wheeze in the treatment of bronchiolitis in children. Limited by the low quality of the evidence, the conclusions still need to be supported by high-quality studies.

12.
Ann Transl Med ; 10(6): 327, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35434040

ABSTRACT

Background: Research on pharmacoeconomics (PE) promotes the rational allocation of medical resources, which has received attention in the last decade. We conducted a scientometric analysis of PE to determine the current status and frontiers, and promote cooperation and development. Methods: The Web of Science Core Collection-Science Citation Index Expanded was adopted to retrieve publications associated with PE from 2012-2021. After screening publications, CiteSpace 3.8.R3 was used to conduct a scientometric analysis. We analyzed terms, including publications and citations, countries/regions, institutions, journals, authors, keywords, and references. Results: In total, 4,715 documents published from 2012-2021 were included in this study, of which 3,829 were articles and 886 were reviews. The documents were cited 54,596 times, at an average of 11.58 times per document. 121 countries/regions and 410 institutions were involved. The top 3 countries/regions by the number of publications were the United States of America (n=1,790), England (n=601), and China (n=403), while the institution with the most publications was Pfizer. Pharmacoeconomics was the main journal of PE, with 310 publications in all, and the top 3 cited journals were New England Journal of Medicine (citation times =1,620), Value in Health (citation times =1,306), and Lancet (citation times =1,255). Bin Wu was the most productive author (n=16), while World Health Organization was the most influential author (citation times =387). 524 keywords altogether were found, and the top 3 keywords by frequency were therapy (frequency =318), impact (frequency =305), and cost-effectiveness (frequency =296). The keyword "modifying antirheumatic drug" associated with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) has continued bursting from 2016-2021. Guide to the methods of technology appraisal 2013 by the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence, was the most frequently cited publication on PE (citation times =65). Cluster 0 labeled as "cost-effectiveness analysis" (CEA) was the largest and latest cluster, and its citing articles focused on the CEA of first-line treatment for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Conclusions: The economic analysis of disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs related to RA was a popular topic in the last 6 years, and CEA of NSCLC first-line treatment was at the frontier of PE.

13.
J Evid Based Med ; 15(1): 19-29, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35416436

ABSTRACT

AIM: To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of Danmu Extract Syrup for the treatment of acute upper respiratory tract infection (AURI) in children. METHODS: In this prospective cohort study, we enrolled children with AURI in the pediatric outpatient department and emergency department of West China Second Hospital. According to the treatment, they were divided into two groups: Danmu Extract Syrup Group (Danmu Group) and Xiaoer Chiqiao Granule Group (Chiqiao Group). The primary outcome was time to symptom remission, and the secondary outcomes were defervescence time, relief time, admission rate, and adherence. We used restricted mean survival time (RMST) to quantify the treatment effects and test noninferiority for primary outcome. Propensity score matching (PSM) was used to adjust confounding. Subgroup analysis and sensitivity analysis were used to verify the robustness of results. RESULTS: We enrolled 1036 children with AURI, including 516 in Danmu Group and 520 in Chiqiao Group. After PSM, no significant difference was observed in the baseline characteristics of the two groups. The primary results showed that the RMST difference was -3 h (95% CI: -15.1 to 9.1) and the upper limit of the 95% CI was less than the noninferiority margin of 11 h. There was no statistical difference in the secondary outcomes except for defervescence between the two groups. The results of safety analysis showed that the incidence of adverse events occurred is 4.1% in Danmu Group, which was lower than the incidence of Chiqiao Group (6.9%). CONCLUSION: This study indicated that Danmu extract syrup is noninferiority to Chiqiao Granule for AURI in children.


Subject(s)
Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Respiratory Tract Infections , Child , China , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/adverse effects , Humans , Prospective Studies , Respiratory Tract Infections/drug therapy
14.
Front Psychiatry ; 13: 806149, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35401276

ABSTRACT

Objective: During the COVID-19 pandemic, face-to-face intervention services for families of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) were limited. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of an 8-week, online-delivered Project ImPACT program for children with ASD and their parents in China during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: A pilot non-randomized study with a waitlist control group was conducted in 68 children with ASD and their parents in the Department of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics between April 15, 2020 and March 19, 2021. Participants were allocated to either the intervention (IG) or the waitlist group (WLG) according to their order of recruitment. Parents in the IG immediately received 8 weeks of the online-delivered Project ImPACT program, and the WLG received the same program with a delay when the IG had completed all sessions. Participants in both groups received treatment as usual during the research period. Results: The online-delivered Project ImPACT program significantly improved the parent-reported social communication skills of children with ASD. Furthermore, parent's involvement in the training program produced a collateral reduction in parenting stress and an increase in perceived competence in the parental role. Parents rated the program acceptable in terms of curriculum schedule, session content, homework assignments, and therapist feedback. Conclusions: The 8-week, online-delivered Project ImPACT program is a feasible and effective social skill training program for families of children with ASD in China during the COVID-19 pandemic. Due to the methodological limitations, randomized controlled studies with larger sample sizes are suggested to provide more solid evidence.

15.
Nanoscale Horiz ; 7(5): 554-561, 2022 05 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35347336

ABSTRACT

Generally, a high quality surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) substrate often requires a highly-tailorable electromagnetic (EM) field generated at nanoparticle (NP) surfaces by the regulation of the morphologies, components and roughness of NPs. However, most recent universal approaches are restricted to single components, and integrating these key factors into one system to achieve the theoretically maximum signal amplification is still challenging. Herein, we design a triple SERS signal amplification platform by the coordination of spiky Au NPs with rich-tip nanostructures, controllable silver nanoshell, as well as tailorable surface roughness into one nano-system. As a result, the theoretical electromagnetic field of the interfacial self-assembled 2D substrate can be improved by nearly 5 orders of magnitude, and the ideal tracing capability for the model SERS molecule can be achieved at levels of 5 × 10-11 M. Finally, diverse analytes in pesticide residues, environmental pollutants as well as medically diagnose down to 10-11 M and can be fingerprinted by the proposed SERS nano-platform. Our integrated triple amplification platform not only provides an effective SERS sensing strategy, but also makes it possible to simultaneously achieve high sensitivity, stability as well as universality into one plasmonic-based SERS sensing system.


Subject(s)
Metal Nanoparticles , Nanostructures , Gold/chemistry , Metal Nanoparticles/chemistry , Nanostructures/chemistry , Silver/chemistry , Spectrum Analysis, Raman/methods
16.
Bone Res ; 10(1): 31, 2022 Mar 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35301280

ABSTRACT

Osteoporosis caused by aging is characterized by reduced bone mass and accumulated adipocytes in the bone marrow cavity. How the balance between osteoblastogenesis and adipogenesis from bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) is lost upon aging is still unclear. Here, we found that the RNA-binding protein Musashi2 (Msi2) regulates BMSC lineage commitment. Msi2 is commonly enriched in stem cells and tumor cells. We found that its expression was downregulated during adipogenic differentiation and upregulated during osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs. Msi2 knockout mice exhibited decreased bone mass with substantial accumulation of marrow adipocytes, similar to aging-induced osteoporosis. Depletion of Msi2 in BMSCs led to increased adipocyte commitment. Transcriptional profiling analysis revealed that Msi2 deficiency led to increased PPARγ signaling. RNA-interacting protein immunoprecipitation assays demonstrated that Msi2 could inhibit the translation of the key adipogenic factor Cebpα, thereby inhibiting PPAR signaling. Furthermore, the expression of Msi2 decreased significantly during the aging process of mice, indicating that decreased Msi2 function during aging contributes to abnormal accumulation of adipocytes in bone marrow and osteoporosis. Thus, our results provide a putative biochemical mechanism for aging-related osteoporosis, suggesting that modulating Msi2 function may benefit the treatment of bone aging.

17.
Acta Pharmacol Sin ; 2022 Mar 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35260820

ABSTRACT

Inflammatory activation and oxidative stress promote the proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), which accounts for pathological vascular remodeling in hypertension. ELABELA (ELA) is the second endogenous ligand for angiotensin receptor-like 1 (APJ) receptor that has been discovered thus far. In this study, we investigated whether ELA regulated VSMC proliferation and vascular remodeling in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). We showed that compared to that in Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKYs), ELA expression was markedly decreased in the VSMCs of SHRs. Exogenous ELA-21 significantly inhibited inflammatory cytokines and NADPH oxidase 1 expression, reactive oxygen species production and VSMC proliferation and increased the nuclear translocation of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor (Nrf2) in VSMCs. Osmotic minipump infusion of exogenous ELA-21 in SHRs for 4 weeks significantly decreased diastolic blood pressure, alleviated vascular remodeling and ameliorated vascular inflammation and oxidative stress in SHRs. In VSMCs of WKY, angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced inflammatory activation, oxidative stress and VSMC proliferation were attenuated by pretreatment with exogenous ELA-21 but were exacerbated by ELA knockdown. Moreover, ELA-21 inhibited the expression of matrix metalloproteinase 2 and 9 in both SHR-VSMCs and Ang II-treated WKY-VSMCs. We further revealed that exogenous ELA-21-induced inhibition of proliferation and PI3K/Akt signaling were amplified by the PI3K/Akt inhibitor LY294002, while the APJ receptor antagonist F13A abolished ELA-21-induced PI3K/Akt inhibition and Nrf2 activation in VSMCs. In conclusion, we demonstrate that ELA-21 alleviates vascular remodeling through anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative and anti-proliferative effects in SHRs, indicating that ELA-21 may be a therapeutic agent for treating hypertension.

18.
Front Pharmacol ; 13: 828152, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35250577

ABSTRACT

Background: Essential medicines for children are those medicines that satisfy the priority health care needs of children. Access to essential medicines for children is a big challenge, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. Our study aimed to assess the accessibility of essential medicines for children in public sector in Sichuan Province of China, based on availability, affordability, and price. Methods: We adopted the modified World Health Organization/Health Action International (WHO/HAI) standardization methodology to measure the availability, affordability, and prices of 30 essential medicines for children in 20 public hospitals in nine regions of the Sichuan Province, China. Availability was expressed as the percentage of public medicine outlets that stocked surveyed medicines on the day of data collection, and prices were expressed as median price ratio (MPR). Affordability was assessed as the number of Sichuan Province's daily wages required for the lowest-paid government unskilled worker (11.03 USD per day) to purchase one standard treatment of an acute disease or treatment for chronic disease for a month. Results: The mean availability of originator brands (OBs) and lowest priced generics (LPGs) were 9.7 and 46.5% in public sector. MPRs of only 3 OBs could be calculated, ranging from 0.55 to 13.37. MPRs of 18 LPGs ranged from 0.07 to 25.05. Among them, 2 OBs and 11 LPGs were priced at more than 1.5 times their international reference prices (IRPs) in public sector, most of which were injections. Except for cefazolin injection and ceftriaxone injection, most LPGs were affordable for the treatment of childhood diseases in public sector, as they each cost one or less than the daily wage for the lowest-paid unskilled government worker. Conclusions: Although the availability of LPGs for children was higher than OBs in public sector, the availability of children's essential medicines was low in surveyed public sector in Sichuan Province, which was similar to previous studies in other provinces of China. The price of most medicines surveyed was higher than their IRPs in surveyed public sector, especially for some injections. The affordability of most surveyed LPGs was reasonable in surveyed public sector, except for ceftriaxone injection and cefazolin injection.

19.
Bone Res ; 10(1): 16, 2022 Feb 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35181672

ABSTRACT

Bone remodeling is a lifelong process that gives rise to a mature, dynamic bone structure via a balance between bone formation by osteoblasts and resorption by osteoclasts. These opposite processes allow the accommodation of bones to dynamic mechanical forces, altering bone mass in response to changing conditions. Mechanical forces are indispensable for bone homeostasis; skeletal formation, resorption, and adaptation are dependent on mechanical signals, and loss of mechanical stimulation can therefore significantly weaken the bone structure, causing disuse osteoporosis and increasing the risk of fracture. The exact mechanisms by which the body senses and transduces mechanical forces to regulate bone remodeling have long been an active area of study among researchers and clinicians. Such research will lead to a deeper understanding of bone disorders and identify new strategies for skeletal rejuvenation. Here, we will discuss the mechanical properties, mechanosensitive cell populations, and mechanotransducive signaling pathways of the skeletal system.

20.
J Healthc Eng ; 2022: 7244847, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35132360

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to analyze the influencing factors of frailty in elderly patients with type II diabetes. 332 elderly patients with type II diabetes admitted to our hospital from May 2018 to December 2019 were selected as the study subjects. The degree of frailty was evaluated by the Fried fragility phenotype scale, and the general information and the clinical data of patients were collected by inquiry and questionnaire survey. After that, all the data were analyzed by SPSS 20.0. Univariate analysis showed that there were significant differences in age, medication types, dietary habits, exercise tolerance, exercise capacity, body balance, coordination ability, urinary incontinence, anxiety, etc., in elderly patients with type II diabetes who suffered from different degrees of frailty (P < 0.01). In addition, there were significant differences in the presence of coronary heart disease, heart failure, atrial fibrillation, pulmonary diseases, osteoarticular diseases, anemia, and other blood diseases of elderly patients with type II diabetes who suffered from different degrees of frailty (P < 0.01). Multiple Logistic regression analyses indicated that weakened exercise tolerance, reduced exercise capacity, atrial fibrillation, anemia, and other blood diseases were the influencing factors of the frailty in elderly patients with type II diabetes. The degree of frailty in elderly patients with diabetes is affected by many factors, such as exercise tolerance, exercise capacity, atrial fibrillation, anemia, and other blood diseases; thus, reasonable intervention should be implemented for elderly patients with type II diabetes according to the influencing factors so as to effectively relieve frailty.


Subject(s)
Atrial Fibrillation , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Frailty , Heart Failure , Aged , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Frail Elderly , Humans
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