Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 92
Filter
1.
Cell Host & Microbe ; 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1821185

ABSTRACT

Summary The Omicron variant of SARS-CoV-2 evades antibody-mediated neutralization with unprecedented efficiency. At least three Omicron sublineages have been identified, BA.1, BA.2 and BA.3, with BA.2 exhibiting increased transmissibility. However, it is currently unknown whether BA.2 differs from the other sublineages regarding cell entry and antibody-mediated inhibition. Here, we show that BA.1, BA.2 and BA.3 enter and fuse target cells with similar efficiency and in an ACE2-dependent manner. However, BA.2 was not efficiently neutralized by seven of eight antibodies used for COVID-19 therapy, including Sotrovimab, which robustly neutralized BA.1. In contrast, BA.2 and BA.3 but not BA.1 were appreciably neutralized by Cilgavimab, which may constitute a treatment option. Finally, all sublineages were comparably and efficiently neutralized by antibodies induced by BNT162b2 booster vaccination after previous two-dose homologous or heterologous vaccination. Collectively, the Omicron sublineages show comparable cell entry and neutralization by vaccine-induced antibodies but differ in susceptibility to therapeutic antibodies.

4.
Chin Med ; 17(1): 40, 2022 Apr 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1770556

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) causes a global pandemic and has devastating effects around the world, however, there are no specific antiviral drugs and vaccines for the constant mutation of SARS-CoV-2. PURPOSE: In this study, we evaluted the antiviral and anti-inflammatory activities of Liushen Capsules (LS) on different novel coronavirus in vitro, studied its therapeutic effects on novel SARS-CoV-2 infected mice and observed the LS's clinical efficacy and safety in COVID-19. METHODS: The antiviral and aiti-inflammatory effects of LS on the 501Y.V2/B.1.35 and G/478K.V1/ B.1.617.2 strains were determined in vitro. A hACE2 mouse model of novel SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia was established. Survival rates, histological changes, inflammatory markers, lung virus titers and the expression of the key proteins in the NF-κB/MAPK signaling pathway was detected by western blotting and immumohistochemical staining in the lungs were measured. Subsequently, the disease duration, prognosis of disease, time of negative nucleic acid and the cytokines levels in serum were used to assess the efficacy of treatment with LS in patients. RESULTS: The results showed that LS (2, 1, 0.5 µg/mL) could significantly inhibit the replication of the two SARS-CoV-2 variants and the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, IL-8, IP-10, CCL-5, MIP-1α, IL-1α) induced by the virus in vitro. As for the survival experiment in mice, the survival rate of virus group was 20%, while LS-treatment groups (40, 80, 160 mg/kg) could increase the survival rate to 60, 100 and 100%, respectively. LS (40, 80, 160 mg/kg) could significantly decrease the lung titers in mice and it could improve the pathological changes, inhibit the excessive inflammatory mediators (IFN-α, IFN-γ, IP-10, MCP-1) and the protein expression of p-NF-κB p65 in mice. Moreover, LS could significantly decrease SARS-CoV-2-induced activation of p-NF-κB p65, p-IκBα, and p-p38 MAPK and increase the protein expression of the IκBα. In addition, the patient got complete relief of symptoms after being treated with LS for 6 days and was proven with negative PCR test after being treated for 23 days. Finally, treatment with LS could reduce the release of inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, PDGF-AA/BB, Eotaxin, MCP-1, MIP-1α, MIP-1ß, GRO, CCL-5, MCP-3, IP-10, IL-1α). CONCLUSION: LS effectively alleviated novel SARS-CoV-2 or variants induced pneumonia in vitro and in vivo, and improved the prognosis of COVID-19. In light of the efficacy and safety profiles, LS could be considered for the treatment of COVID-19 with a broad-spectrum antiviral and anti-inflammatory agent.

5.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-329754

ABSTRACT

Objective To develop a vocal biomarker for fatigue monitoring in people with COVID-19. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Predi-COVID data between May 2020 and May 2021. Participants A total of 1772 voice recordings was used to train an AI-based algorithm to predict fatigue, stratified by gender and smartphone’s operating system (Android/iOS). The recordings were collected from 296 participants tracked for two weeks following SARS-CoV-2 infection. primary and secondary outcome measures Four machine learning algorithms (Logistic regression, k-nearest neighbors, support vector machine, and soft voting classifier) were used to train and derive the fatigue vocal biomarker. A t-test was used to evaluate the distribution of the vocal biomarker between the two classes (Fatigue and No fatigue). Results The final study population included 56% of women and had a mean (±SD) age of 40 (±13) years. Women were more likely to report fatigue ( P< . 001 ). We developed four models for Android female, Android male, iOS female, and iOS male users with a weighted AUC of 79%, 85%, 86%, 82%, and a mean Brier Score of 0.15, 0.12, 0.17, 0.12, respectively. The vocal biomarker derived from the prediction models successfully discriminated COVID-19 participants with and without fatigue (t-test P< . 001 ). Conclusions This study demonstrates the feasibility of identifying and remotely monitoring fatigue thanks to voice. Vocal biomarkers, digitally integrated into telemedicine technologies, are expected to improve the monitoring of people with COVID-19 or Long-COVID.

6.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 233: 113353, 2022 Mar 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1719635

ABSTRACT

The deposition is an important process of microplastics transporting from atmosphere to water and soil. But the spatial and temporal distribution of microplastics in urban atmospheric deposition and its influencing factors are poorly understood. The current study investigated the possible sources, spatial and temporal distribution, and potential ecological risk of microplastics in deposition from the valley basin of Lanzhou city during the COVID-19 pandemic (from February to August, 2020). The deposition flux of microplastics was 353.83 n m-2 d-1. Most plastic samples were small sized (50~500 µm) and transparent. The dominant chemical composition and shapes were PET, fragments and fibers, respectively. A modified method was conducted to identify the sources of microplastics, and the local sources were suggested as the main possible sources. The distribution of microplastics investigated through the inverse distance weight interpolation showed spatial variation and temporal differentiation which was dominated by the human activity. The rainfall also affected the temporal distribution. The preliminary assessment indicated higher potential ecological risk of microplastics in deposition. This study suggested the dominant effect of human activity on the source and distribution of atmospheric microplastic deposition in city.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Water Pollutants, Chemical , China , Environmental Monitoring , Humans , Microplastics , Pandemics , Plastics , SARS-CoV-2 , Water Pollutants, Chemical/analysis
7.
J Inorg Biochem ; 231: 111777, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1712812

ABSTRACT

The Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic is currently the major challenge to global public health. Two proteases, papain-like protease (PLpro) and the 3-chymotrypsin-like protease (3CLpro or Mpro), are indispensable for SARS-CoV-2 replication, making them attractive targets for antiviral therapy development. Here we screened a panel of essential metal ions using a proteolytic assay and identified that zinc gluconate, a widely-used zinc supplement, strongly inhibited the proteolytic activities of the two proteases in vitro. Biochemical and crystallographic data reveal that zinc gluconate exhibited the inhibitory function via binding to the protease catalytic site residues. We further show that treatment of zinc gluconate in combination with a small molecule ionophore hinokitiol, could lead to elevated intracellular Zn2+ level and thereby significantly impaired the two protease activities in cellulo. Particularly, this approach could also be applied to rescue SARS-CoV-2 infected mammalian cells, indicative of potential application to combat coronavirus infections. Our studies provide the direct experimental evidence that elevated intracellular zinc concentration directly inhibits SARS-CoV-2 replication and suggest the potential benefits to use the zinc supplements for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) treatment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Gluconates , Mammals/metabolism , Monoterpenes , Peptide Hydrolases/metabolism , Tropolone/analogs & derivatives , Zinc/pharmacology
8.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-325164

ABSTRACT

Background: The novel coronavirus pneumonia (COVID-19) is a highly contagious and highly pathogenic disease caused by a novel coronavirus(SARS-CoV-2)and has become pandemic within a short period of time. The epidemic has brought not only the risk of death from infection but also unbearable psychological pressure. College students as a special group, their mental health status need to be studied during the outbreak of COVID-19.MethodsWe used the Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS), Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS), and the compulsive behavior part of the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (YBOCS), combined with demographic information, using online questionnaires to research, and the study was conducted between February 21 and 24, 2020. A total of 2270 valid questionnaires were collected, the respondents of these questionnaires included 563 medical students and 1707 non-medical students. We separately analyzed the mental health status of medical and non-medical students during the outbreak of COVID-19.ResultsOf the 563 medical students, 20 (3.55%) students had anxiety symptoms, and 57 (10.12%) students had depressive symptoms. Gender, PMH, compulsive behavior, and regularity of daily life during the epidemic outbreak were correlated with their anxiety symptoms and age, PMH, compulsive behavior, and regularity of daily life during the epidemic outbreak were associated with their depressive symptoms. Of the 1707 non-medical students, 66 (3.87%) students had anxiety symptoms, and 180 (10.54%) students had depressive symptoms. Gender, contact history of similar infectious disease, PMH, compulsive behavior, regularity of daily life and exercise during the epidemic outbreak and concern on COVID-19 were correlated with their anxiety symptoms and contact history of similar infectious disease, PMH, compulsive behavior, regularity of daily life and exercise during the epidemic outbreak and concern on COVID-19 were associated with their depressive symptoms.ConclusionsResults indicated that gender, age, contact history of similar infectious disease, past medical history (PMH), compulsive behavior, regularity of daily life, and exercise during the epidemic outbreak are the key factors making college students anxious or depressed. The results provided a theoretical basis for relevant interventions;it is also essential for medical education and public health epidemic prevention.

9.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-325080

ABSTRACT

Background: Compared with Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome(SARS) and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome(MESR), Corona Virus Disease 2019(COVID-19) spread more rapidly and widely. The population was generally susceptible. However, reports on pregnant women infected with SARS-CoV-2 were very limited. By sharing the clinical characteristics, treatments and outcomes of 18 patients with COVID-19 during late pregnancy, we hoped to provide some references for obstetric treatment and management. Methods: : A total of 18 patients with COVID-19 treated in Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University were collected. The epidemiological characteristics, clinical manifestations, laboratory tests, chest CT and pregnancy outcomes were performed for analysis. Results: : 1 . 18 cases of late pregnancy infected with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia were delivered at 35 + 5 weeks to 41 weeks. According to the clinical classification of COVID-19, 1 case was mild type, 16 cases were ordinary type, and 1 case was severe type. 2 . According to Imaging examinations: 15 (83%) cases showed unilateral or bilateral pneumonia, 2 (11%) cases had pulmonary infection with pleural effusion, and 1 (6%) case had no abnormal imaging changes. 8 (44%) cases were positive and 10 (56%) cases were negative for nasopharyngeal-swab tests of SARS-CoV-2. 3. Among the 18 newborns, there were 3 (17%) premature infants, 1 (6%) case of mild asphyxia, 5 (28%) cases of bacterial pneumonia, 1 (6%) case of gastrointestinal bleeding, 1 (6%) case of necrotizing enteritis, 2 (11%) cases of hyperbilirubinemia and 1 (6%) case of diarrhea. All the newborns were negative for the first throat swab test of SARS-CoV-2 after birth. 4. Follow-up to Mar 7, 2020, no maternal and neonatal deaths occurred. Conclusions: : The majority of patients in late term pregnancy with COVID-19 were of ordinary type, and they less likely developed into critical pneumonia after early isolation and antiviral treatment. Vertical transmission of SARS-CoV-2 was not detected, but the proportion of neonatal bacterial pneumonia was higher than other neonatal diseases in newborns.

10.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-325065

ABSTRACT

Background: Many Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) users have difficulty attending the quarterly facility-based HIV testing, which leads to the potential risk of drug resistance in the context of breakthrough infection with low drug compliance. We explored the acceptance of HIV self-testing (HIVST) service among PrEP recipients. Methods: : MSM were recruited for the PrEP demonstration in four major cities in China from December 2018 to September 2019, provided with regimens of both daily and on-demand PrEP. Facility-based HIV testing was provided quarterly at clinic visits. Previous HIV testing history and acceptance of free HIVST kits to use between each quarterly clinic visit was collected. Correlates of levels of acceptance were analysed using multivariable ordinal logistic regression. Results: : We recruited 1,222 MSM. among which 48.5% preferred daily PrEP and 51.5% preferred on-demand PrEP. There was 26.8% (321/1222) had never been to any facility-based HIV testing previously, and the self-reported major reason was that they had already routinely used HIVST. A quarter of the participants (74.5%, 910/1222) had used HIVST previously. There were 1184 MSM (96.9%) accepted to use HIVST between each quarterly clinic visits during PrEP usage, composing 947 ( 77.5%) very willing to, 237(19.4%)willing to, 29 (2.4%) unwilling to, and 9 (0.7%) very unwilling to. Participants preferred daily PrEP (vs. on-demand PrEP, aOR=1.8, 95% CI:1.3-2.4) and had less than 2 times of facility-based HIV testing in the past year (vs. ³2, aOR=1.4,95% CI:1.1-1.9) were more likely to have higher level of acceptance of HIVST. Conclusions: : MSM had high acceptance of HIVST, especially among those preferred daily PrEP and with less facility-based HIV testing in the previous year. Offering HIVST services PrEP recipients is feasible and necessary. Above result is of great significance for promoting HIVST among PrEP users during COVID-19, improving awareness of their HIV infection status and ensuring compliance with medication. Future study should exam the impact of HIVST on HIV testing frequency among PrEP users. Trial registration: ChiCTR1800020374 on 27 th Dec 2018. http://www.chictr.org.cn/searchproj.aspx

11.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-322526

ABSTRACT

The aim of our study was to describe the clinical characteristics and outcomes of patients with confirmed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pneumonia who underwent elective tracheostomies. We investigated all COVID-19 patients who underwent elective tracheostomies in intensive care units (ICUs) of 23 hospitals in Hubei Province, China, from January 8, 2020 to March 25, 2020. Demographic information, clinical characteristics, treatment, details of the tracheostomy procedure, successful weaning after tracheostomy, and living status were collected and analyzed. A total of 80 patients were included. The median duration from endotracheal intubation to tracheostomy was 17.5 [IQR 11.3-27.0] days. Most tracheotomies were performed by ICU physicians (62 (77.5%)) and using percutaneous techniques (63 (78.8%)) at the ICU bedside (76 (95.0%)). At 60 days after intubation, 31 (38.8%) patients experienced successful weaning from the ventilator, 17 (21.2%) patients were discharged from the ICU, and 43 (53.8%) patients had died. Higher 60-day mortality (22 (73.3%) vs 21 (42.0%)) was identified in patients who underwent early tracheostomy. In patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia, tracheostomies were feasible to conduct by ICU physicians at bedside with few major complications. However, tracheostomies within 14 days of endotracheal intubation should be avoided.

12.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-315588

ABSTRACT

Medical imaging technologies, including computed tomography (CT) or chest X-Ray (CXR), are largely employed to facilitate the diagnosis of the COVID-19. Since manual report writing is usually too time-consuming, a more intelligent auxiliary medical system that could generate medical reports automatically and immediately is urgently needed. In this article, we propose to use the medical visual language BERT (Medical-VLBERT) model to identify the abnormality on the COVID-19 scans and generate the medical report automatically based on the detected lesion regions. To produce more accurate medical reports and minimize the visual-and-linguistic differences, this model adopts an alternate learning strategy with two procedures that are knowledge pretraining and transferring. To be more precise, the knowledge pretraining procedure is to memorize the knowledge from medical texts, while the transferring procedure is to utilize the acquired knowledge for professional medical sentences generations through observations of medical images. In practice, for automatic medical report generation on the COVID-19 cases, we constructed a dataset of 368 medical findings in Chinese and 1104 chest CT scans from The First Affiliated Hospital of Jinan University, Guangzhou, China, and The Fifth Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, Zhuhai, China. Besides, to alleviate the insufficiency of the COVID-19 training samples, our model was first trained on the large-scale Chinese CX-CHR dataset and then transferred to the COVID-19 CT dataset for further fine-tuning. The experimental results showed that Medical-VLBERT achieved state-of-the-art performances on terminology prediction and report generation with the Chinese COVID-19 CT dataset and the CX-CHR dataset. The Chinese COVID-19 CT dataset is available at https://covid19ct.github.io/.

13.
Open life sciences ; 16(1):1313-1320, 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1609634

ABSTRACT

3,4-Dihydroxyphenylethanol (DOPET) is a polyphenol found in olive oil. The present study evaluated the protective role of DOPET on LPS provoked septic cardiac injury in a murine model. Four groups were used in the study (n = 3): control, LPS, DOPET alone, and DOPET + LPS. LPS (15 mg/kg;i.p.);they were used to induce cardiac sepsis. The cardiac markers like LDH, CK-MB, and troponin-T, as well as inflammatory cytokines like TNF-α and IL-6 were measured in the serum. The antioxidants and oxidative stress parameters were measured in cardiac tissues. RT-PCR and western blot methods were done to evaluate the expression of inflammatory mediators and apoptotic markers. DOPET significantly decreased the cardiac markers (LDH, CK-MB, and troponin-T) and TNF-α and IL-6 level in the serum. DOPET effectively reduced the levels of MDA and NO in LPS intoxicated rats. DOPET also increased the levels of antioxidants like SOD, CAT, GPx, and GSH in LPS intoxicated rats. The mRNA levels of TNF-α, IL-6, and NF-κB were significantly downregulated by DOPET in cardiac tissues of LPS rats. The protein expression of Bcl-2 was upregulated, and Bax and caspase-3 were downregulated by DOPET. DOPET effectively attenuates LPS-induced cardiac dysfunction through its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-apoptotic mechanisms.

14.
Front Pharmacol ; 12: 784335, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1674371

ABSTRACT

Bulbus fritillariae cirrhosae (BFC) is one of the most used Chinese medicines for lung disease, and exerts antitussive, expectorant, anti-inflammatory, anti-asthmatic, and antioxidant effects, which is an ideal therapeutic drug for respiratory diseases such as ARDS, COPD, asthma, lung cancer, and pulmonary tuberculosis. Through this review, it is found that the therapeutic mechanism of BFC on respiratory diseases exhibits the characteristics of multi-components, multi-targets, and multi-signaling pathways. In particular, the therapeutic potential of BFC in terms of intervention of "cytokine storm", STAT, NF-κB, and MAPK signaling pathways, as well as the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) that ACE is involved in. In the "cytokine storm" of SARS-CoV-2 infection there is an intense inflammatory response. ACE2 regulates the RAS by degradation of Ang II produced by ACE, which is associated with SARS-CoV-2. For COVID-19, may it be a potential drug? This review summarized the research progress of BFC in the respiratory diseases, discussed the development potentiality of BFC for the treatment of COVID-19, explained the chemical diversity and biological significance of the alkaloids in BFC, and clarified the material basis, molecular targets, and signaling pathways of BFC for the respiratory diseases. We hope this review can provide insights on the drug discovery of anti-COVID-19.

15.
Genome Res ; 32(2): 228-241, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1642462

ABSTRACT

The pathogenesis of COVID-19 is still elusive, which impedes disease progression prediction, differential diagnosis, and targeted therapy. Plasma cell-free RNAs (cfRNAs) carry unique information from human tissue and thus could point to resourceful solutions for pathogenesis and host-pathogen interactions. Here, we performed a comparative analysis of cfRNA profiles between COVID-19 patients and healthy donors using serial plasma. Analyses of the cfRNA landscape, potential gene regulatory mechanisms, dynamic changes in tRNA pools upon infection, and microbial communities were performed. A total of 380 cfRNA molecules were up-regulated in all COVID-19 patients, of which seven could serve as potential biomarkers (AUC > 0.85) with great sensitivity and specificity. Antiviral (NFKB1A, IFITM3, and IFI27) and neutrophil activation (S100A8, CD68, and CD63)-related genes exhibited decreased expression levels during treatment in COVID-19 patients, which is in accordance with the dynamically enhanced inflammatory response in COVID-19 patients. Noncoding RNAs, including some microRNAs (let 7 family) and long noncoding RNAs (GJA9-MYCBP) targeting interleukin (IL6/IL6R), were differentially expressed between COVID-19 patients and healthy donors, which accounts for the potential core mechanism of cytokine storm syndromes; the tRNA pools change significantly between the COVID-19 and healthy group, leading to the accumulation of SARS-CoV-2 biased codons, which facilitate SARS-CoV-2 replication. Finally, several pneumonia-related microorganisms were detected in the plasma of COVID-19 patients, raising the possibility of simultaneously monitoring immune response regulation and microbial communities using cfRNA analysis. This study fills the knowledge gap in the plasma cfRNA landscape of COVID-19 patients and offers insight into the potential mechanisms of cfRNAs to explain COVID-19 pathogenesis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cell-Free Nucleic Acids , RNA/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/genetics , Cell-Free Nucleic Acids/blood , Cytokine Release Syndrome , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
16.
J Thorac Dis ; 13(12): 6866-6875, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1623786

ABSTRACT

Background: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is still raging worldwide. Efficient, fast and low-cost severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) nucleic acid detection methods are urgently needed. Methods: A rapid PCR temperature change mode was explored by moving the reaction tube between the independent temperature modules with large temperature differences and a portable ultra-fast real-time PCR instrument were developed. We established a rapid SARS-CoV-2 test method using the ultra-fast real-time PCR instrument, a China Food and Drug Administration-certified SARS-CoV-2 reagent and optimized reaction condition. The analytical and clinical performances of the rapid tests were evaluated by comparing with the standard SARS-CoV-2 tests. Results: The new temperature change mode can effectively shorten the amplification reaction time and be successfully used in the development of the ultra-fast real-time PCR instrument. The rapid SARS-CoV-2 test method was established and the time to yield results were greatly shortened from 81 min of the standard test to 31 min. Specificity of the rapid test was assessed and no non-specific amplification (0/63) was observed. The limits of detection of the rapid and standard tests were similar. Clinical performance was evaluated using 184 respiratory specimens from patients with suspected SARS-CoV-2 infection. The positive agreement between the rapid and standard tests was 100% (67/67), the negative agreement was 97.4% (114/117), and the kappa statistic was 0.965 (P<0.001). No significant differences in the Ct values for each target gene were observed between the rapid test and the standard test (P>0.05). Conclusions: We had developed a 30-minute detection method for SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid using a novel ultra-fast real-time PCR instrument. The rapid test method may impact on patient management.

17.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 11(1): 168-171, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1623181

ABSTRACT

HCoV-OC43 is one of the mildly pathogenic coronaviruses with high infection rates in common population. Here, 43 HCoV-OC43 related cases with pneumonia were reported, corresponding genomes of HCoV-OC43 were obtained. Phylogenetic analyses based on complete genome, orf1ab and spike genes revealed that two novel genotypes of HCoV-OC43 have emerged in China. Obvious recombinant events also can be detected in the analysis of the evolutionary dynamics of novel HCoV-OC43 genotypes. Estimated divergence time analysis indicated that the two novel genotypes had apparently independent evolutionary routes. Efforts should be conducted for further investigation of genomic diversity and evolution analysis of mildly pathogenic coronaviruses.


Subject(s)
Common Cold/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus OC43, Human/genetics , Genome, Viral , Genotype , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Base Sequence , Bayes Theorem , Child , Child, Hospitalized , Child, Preschool , China/epidemiology , Common Cold/pathology , Common Cold/transmission , Common Cold/virology , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Coronavirus OC43, Human/classification , Coronavirus OC43, Human/pathogenicity , Epidemiological Monitoring , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Monte Carlo Method , Mutation , Phylogeny , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Recombination, Genetic
18.
J Diabetes Investig ; 13(1): 148-155, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1621938

ABSTRACT

AIMS/INTRODUCTION: To explore the relationship between handgrip strength per weight (HGS/W), triglyceride glucose index (TyG) and diabetes, and whether lower HGS levels precede TyG in the Chinese elderly population. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two linear regression models were used to explore the association of whether baseline HGS/W predicted follow-up variation of TyG or baseline TyG predicted follow-up variation of HGS/W. The logistic regression model was used to examine the relationship between baseline HGS/W and future diabetes. RESULTS: A total of 4,561 participants in the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study were enrolled, of which 47.0% were men, and the mean age was 58.7 years (standard deviation 8.68 years). A lower baseline HGS/W significantly correlated with a higher level of follow-up TyG (ß = -0.173, P = 0.002). The baseline level of HGS/W was significantly negatively associated with the incidence risk of diabetes (rate ratio 0.375, P = 0.004). However, in sex stratification, the statistical association between HGS/W and TyG and diabetes was only in men. CONCLUSIONS: Our results showed that HGS/W was inversely associated with TyG and diabetes, and lower HGS/W levels preceded TyG levels in the elderly population. However, the effect was inconsistent between men and women, and the possible mechanism would require further clarification.


Subject(s)
Blood Glucose/analysis , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/etiology , Hand Strength , Sex Factors , Triglycerides/blood , Aged , Body Weight , China/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Incidence , Linear Models , Logistic Models , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors
19.
Computer Modeling in Engineering & Sciences ; 130(1):23-71, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1614592

ABSTRACT

Since Corona Virus Disease 2019 outbreak, many expert groups worldwide have studied the problem and proposed many diagnostic methods. This paper focuses on the research of Corona Virus Disease 2019 diagnosis. First, the procedure of the diagnosis based on machine learning is introduced in detail, which includes medical data collection, image preprocessing, feature extraction, and image classification. Then, we review seven methods in detail: transfer learning, ensemble learning, unsupervised learning and semi-supervised learning, convolutional neural networks, graph neural networks, explainable deep neural networks, and so on. What’s more, the advantages and limitations of different diagnosis methods are compared. Although the great achievements in medical images classification in recent years, Corona Virus Disease 2019 images classification based on machine learning still encountered many problems. For example, the highly unbalanced dataset, the difficulty of collecting labeled data, and the poor quality of the data. Aiming at these problems, we propose some solutions and provide a comprehensive presentation for future research.

20.
International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management ; 33(3):851-872, 2021.
Article in English | APA PsycInfo | ID: covidwho-1592326

ABSTRACT

Purpose: This paper aims to explore how hospitable telemedicine services empowered patients during the COVID-19. Expanding from the technology aspect, this research integrated the philosophy of hospitality organizational culture by including factors related to human-human interaction as significant predictors for patients' sense of empowerment (perceived competence and control) in coping with their emotional stress (anxiety and isolation). Design/methodology/approach: Survey data were obtained from 409 general consumers who have used video-based virtual consultation since February 2020. Stepwise multiple regression and simple linear regression analyses were used for hypotheses testing. Findings: The results reveal that the doctors' reliability, responsiveness and empathy significantly predict patients' perceived competence and control. Perceived usefulness and convenience of telemedicine technology enhance patients' perceived competence and control. Patients' sense of empowerment significantly reduces their anxiety and sense of isolation. Research limitations/implications: To fully understand the role of hospitality in people's telemedicine experiences, future studies are encouraged to not only examine the patients-clinicians interactions but also explore the patients-support staff interactions. Practical implications: Health care providers' "bed-side" manners empower patients in managing their emotional stress. Health care providers should be trained for their empathetic ability and communication skills. Strategies such as collaborating with hospitality schools and business schools can be implemented to help build medical student's patient-centric attitudes and skills. Originality/value: This paper provided empirical evidence for the value of hospitality in health care and offered useful suggestions for health care providers, especially by empowering vulnerable people during catastrophic events such as COVID-19. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved)

SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL