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1.
Adv Healthc Mater ; 11(14): e2200283, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1843840

ABSTRACT

The eye is susceptible to viral infections, causing severe ocular symptoms or even respiratory diseases. Methods capable of protecting the eye from external viral invasion in a long-term and highly effective way are urgently needed but have been proved to be extremely challenging. Here, a strategy of forming a long-acting protective ocular surface is described by instilling adhesive dual-antiviral nanoparticles. Taking pseudotyped severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) as a model virus, antiviral agent-loaded nanoparticles are coated with a "double-lock" hybrid cell membrane abundant with integrin-ß1 and angiotensin converting enzyme II (ACE2). After instillation, the presence of integrin-ß1 endows coated nanoparticles with steady adhesion via specific binding to Arg-Gly-Asp sequence on the fibronectin of ocular epithelium, achieving durable retention on the ocular surface. In addition to loaded inhibitors, the exposure of ACE2 can trap SARS-CoV-2 and subsequently neutralize the associated spike protein, playing a dual antiviral effect of the resulting nanoparticles. Adhesive dual-antiviral nanoparticles enabled by coating with a "double-lock" hybrid cell membrane could be a versatile platform for topical long-acting protection against viral infection of the eye.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents , COVID-19 , Eye Diseases , Eye , Nanoparticles , Adhesives/pharmacology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Eye/drug effects , Eye/virology , Eye Diseases/prevention & control , Eye Diseases/virology , Humans , Integrins , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med ; 2022: 2056630, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1807677

ABSTRACT

Background: Myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury (MIRI) has become a thorny and unsolved clinical problem. The pathological mechanisms of MIRI are intricate and unclear, so it is of great significance to explore potential hub genes and search for some natural products that exhibit potential therapeutic efficacy on MIRI via targeting the hub genes. Methods: First, the differential expression genes (DEGs) from GSE58486, GSE108940, and GSE115568 were screened and integrated via a robust rank aggregation algorithm. Then, the hub genes were identified and verified by the functional experiment of the MIRI mice. Finally, natural products with protective effects against MIRI were retrieved, and molecular docking simulations between hub genes and natural products were performed. Results: 230 integrated DEGs and 9 hub genes were identified. After verification, Emr1, Tyrobp, Itgb2, Fcgr2b, Cybb, and Fcer1g might be the most significant genes during MIRI. A total of 75 natural products were discovered. Most of them (especially araloside C, glycyrrhizic acid, ophiopogonin D, polyphyllin I, and punicalagin) showed good ability to bind the hub genes. Conclusions: Emr1, Tyrobp, Itgb2, Fcgr2b, Cybb, and Fcer1g might be critical in the pathological process of MIRI, and the natural products (araloside C, glycyrrhizic acid, ophiopogonin D, polyphyllin I, and punicalagin) targeting these hub genes exhibited potential therapeutic efficacy on MIRI. Our findings provided new insights to explore the mechanism and treatments for MIRI and revealed new therapeutic targets for natural products with protective properties against MIRI.

3.
PLoS One ; 17(3): e0265117, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1742021

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To investigate the mortality and health care resource use among patients with severe or critical coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) in the first wave of pandemic in China. METHODS: We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to investigate the mortality, discharge rate, length of hospital stay, and use of invasive ventilation in severe or critical COVID-19 cases in China. We searched electronic databases for studies from China with no restrictions on language or interventions patients received. We screened records, extracted data and assessed the quality of included studies in duplicate. We performed the meta-analysis using random-effect models through a Bayesian framework. Subgroup analyses were conducted to examine studies by disease severity, study location and patient enrolment start date. We also performed sensitivity analysis using various priors, and assessed between-study heterogeneity and publication bias for the primary outcomes. RESULTS: Out of 6,205 titles and abstracts screened, 500 were reviewed in full text. A total of 42 studies were included in the review, of which 95% were observational studies (n = 40). The pooled 28-day and 14-day mortalities among severe or critical patients were 20.48% (7,136 patients, 95% credible interval (CrI), 13.11 to 30.70) and 10.83% (95% CrI, 6.78 to 16.75), respectively. The mortality declined over time and was higher in patients with critical disease than severe cases (1,235 patients, 45.73%, 95% CrI, 22.79 to 73.52 vs. 3,969 patients, 14.90%, 95% CrI, 4.70 to 39.57) and patients in Hubei compared to those outside Hubei (6,719 patients, 26.62%, 95% CrI, 13.11 to 30.70 vs. 244 patients, 5.88%, 95% CrI 2.03 to 14.11). The length of hospital stay was estimated at 18.48 days (6,847 patients, 95% CrI, 17.59 to 21.21), the 28-day discharge rate was 50.48% (3,645 patients, 95% CrI, 26.47 to 79.53), and the use of invasive ventilation rate was 13.46% (4,108 patients, 95% CrI, 7.61 to 22.31). CONCLUSIONS: Our systematic review and meta-analysis found high mortality among severe and critical COVID-19 cases. Severe or critical COVID-19 cases consumed a large amount of hospital resources during the outbreak.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Critical Care , Length of Stay , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , China/epidemiology , Critical Illness , Humans , Severity of Illness Index
4.
Front Psychol ; 13: 808189, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1731834

ABSTRACT

In the context of coronavirus pandemic (COVID-19), the face-recognition-based access control system (FACS) has been intensively adopted to protect students' and teachers' health and safety in school. However, the impact of FACS, as a new technology, on students' attitude toward accepting FACS has remained unknown from the psychological halo effect. Drawn on "halo effect" theory where psychological effects affect the sense of social identity and belonging, the present study explored college students' sense of school identity and belonging in using FACS during COVID-19 based on the technology acceptance model (TAM). Data collected from 391 college students was analyzed using SEM to verify the relationship among perceived usefulness (PU), perceived ease of use (PEU), intention to use (IU), school identity, and school belonging. The results show that PU and PEU can positively predict IU, and consequentially can positively predict school identity and school belonging. Our study expands the application of halo effect theory to study FACS acceptance based on TAM, and provides strong evidence to support the effect of school FACS during the pandemic. The findings of this study also suggest that FACS acceptance can enhance students' sense of school identity and belonging.

5.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-324521

ABSTRACT

The game-based learning supported by mobile intelligence technology has promoted the renewal of teaching and learning model. Therefore, a model of Question-Observation-Doing-Explanation (QODE) based on smart phones was constructed and applied to the science learning during school disruption in COVID-19 pandemic. In this study, from the theoretical perspective of Cognitive-affective Theory of Learning with Media, Bandura’s Motivation Theory and Community of Inquiry model, self-report measure was used to verify the effect of students’ scientific self-efficacy and cognitive anxiety on science engagement. 357 valid questionnaires were used for structural equation model research. The results of this study indicated that two types of scientific self-efficacy as indicated by scientific leaning ability and scientific learning behavior was negatively associated with cognitive anxiety. In addition, cognitive anxiety was also negatively correlated to four types of science engagement as indicated by cognitive engagement, emotional engagement, behavioral engagement and social engagement through smartphone interactions. These findings provide further evidence for game-based learning promoted by smart phones, contributing to deeper understanding of the associations between scientific self-efficacy, cognitive anxiety and science engagement. The implication of this study pointed out that the QODE model is suitable for implementing at a smart mobile device to students’ science learning.

6.
Curr Med Imaging ; 17(11): 1324-1329, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574892

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has become a global health issue. This study aimed to explore the clinical characteristics and CT imaging features of patients with COVID-19 on admission. METHODS: Consecutive patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 were retrospectively recruited to this study from January 2020 to March 2020. According to the disease severity status on admission, patients were divided into two groups, the common group, and the severe group. RESULTS: Forty-four patients (F/M 20/24) who were COVID-19 positive were enrolled in this study. The most common onset symptom was fever (90.9%), followed by cough (43.2%). As for the laboratory tests, common findings included increased C reactive protein (47.7%) and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (43.2%) and decreased lymphocyte (34.1%). The frequency of decreased lymphocyte count and increased lactate dehydrogenasewas higher in the severe group (n=14) than in the common group (n=30). About 86% of patients showed typical imaging findings of COVID-19 infection, including ground-glass opacity with ill-defined margins, air bronchogram, interlobular septal thickening, and consolidation. Lesions were mainly located in the peripheral and subpleural regions with diffused distribution and multiple lung lobes were found to be affected. CONCLUSION: Fever and cough were the most common onset symptoms of COVID-19. Increased C reactive protein and erythrocyte sedimentation rate were the most common laboratory findings. Typical signs of chest CT imaging of COVID-19 included ground-glass opacity with ill-defined margins, air bronchogram, interlobular septal thickening, and consolidation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Nano Today ; 40: 101280, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1386357

ABSTRACT

New vaccine technologies are urgently needed to produce safe and effective vaccines in a more timely manner to prevent future infectious disease pandemics. Here, we describe erythrocyte-mediated systemic antiviral immunization, a versatile vaccination strategy that boosts antiviral immune responses by using erythrocytes decorated with virus-mimetic nanoparticles carrying a viral antigen and a Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonist. As a proof of concept, polydopamine nanoparticles were synthesized via a simple in situ polymerization in which the nanoparticles were conjugated with the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein S1 subunit and the TLR7/8 agonist R848. The resulting SARS-CoV-2 virus-mimetic nanoparticles were attached to erythrocytes via catechol groups on the nanoparticle. Erythrocytes naturally home to the spleen and interact with the immune system. Injection of the nanoparticle-decorated erythrocytes into mice resulted in greater maturation and activation of antigen-presenting cells, humoral and cellular immune responses in the spleen, production of S1-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies, and systemic antiviral T cell responses than a control group treated with the nanoparticles alone, with no significant negative side effects. These results show that erythrocyte-mediated systemic antiviral immunization using viral antigen- and TLR agonist-presenting polydopamine nanoparticles-a generalizable method applicable to many viral infections-is effective new approach to developing vaccines against severe infectious diseases.

8.
SciFinder; 2020.
Preprint | SciFinder | ID: ppcovidwho-5360

ABSTRACT

A review. The outbreak of corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Wuhan, China, in Dec. 2019, is highly contagious and epidemic, and belongs to the category of "plague" in traditional Chinese medicine, which seriously threatens human life and health. In the face of this sudden public health event, based on the theory of "Wenyilun", this paper analyzes the onset characteristics, transmission, and syndrome differentiation-based treatment of COVID-19 in clin. practice. During the treatment, WU You-ke put forward three principles of "removing the pathogen as the priority, and then avoiding false sweating, and caring for the spleen and stomach". The theory of Wenyilun has a systematic understanding of the pathogeny, pathogenesis, and syndrome differentiation-based treatment of "the epidemic", and provides valuable experience for fight against plagues in later generations, which is also of great significance for the prevention and treatment of COVID-19.

9.
SciFinder; 2020.
Preprint | SciFinder | ID: ppcovidwho-4355

ABSTRACT

Some patients with corona virus disease-2019 (COVID-19) experienced a severe exacerbation of the disease due to the occurrence of inflammatory storm during the development of the disease. They are complicated with acute respiratory distress, multiple organ dysfunction syndrome and other serious complications, with a poor prognosis and a high mortality. For the inflammation storm, western medicine mostly adopts glucocorticoids, nutritional support, artificial ventilation assistance and other measures at present. The development of artificial liver, blood purification therapy, Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation and other technologies have also reduced the mortality of patients to some extent. However, due to the high requirements for equipment, the measures have not yet been widely carried out. From the perspective of traditional Chinese medicine(TCM), the basic pathogenesis of COVID-19 is epidemic toxin invasion, lung and spleen being affected by pathogens, damaging vital Qi, and pathol. properties involving dampness, heat, poison, stasis and deficiency. At the stage of inflammation storm, the pathogens are abundant, while the vital qi is deficient;and the pathogens occlude the lung, and disturb the heart and mind, and blood stasis and toxicity are combined with Qi-Yin deficiency. In severe cases, even both Yin and Yang exhaustion occurs. At present, a number of studies have shown that a variety of Chinese herbal medicines have multi-target immunomodulatory effects on viral pneumonia and cytokine storm. TCM participates in the whole process of the occurrence and development of the inflammation storm, mainly eliminating pathogens in the early stage, controlling inflammation and blocking the occurrence of the inflammation storm;eliminating pathogens and strengthening the body resistance to eliminate the pathol. products of the inflammation storm, and promoting the dissipation and absorption of inflammation in the middle stage;and saving lives in the late stage by benefiting Qi and relieving depletion, and restoring yang and rescuing from collapse. On the basis of the pathophysiol. mechanism of COVID-19 inflammation storm and the theory of TCM syndrome differentiation and treatment, this paper summarized the pharmacol. studies on the intervention on inflammatory storm with relevant Chinese herbal medicine, Chinese medicine prescriptions and Chinese medicine preparations, and discussed the intervention measures of traditional Chinese medicine in different development stages of inflammatory storm, in the expectation of providing the guidance for clin. treatment.

10.
J Sci Educ Technol ; 30(3): 380-393, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-917131

ABSTRACT

Game-based learning supported by mobile intelligence technology has promoted the renewal of teaching and learning models. Herein, a model of Question-Observation-Doing-Explanation (QODE) based on smart phones was constructed and applied to science learning during school disruption in COVID-19 pandemic. In this study, from the theoretical perspective of cognitive-affective theory of learning with media, Bandura's motivation theory and community of inquiry model, self-report measure was used to verify the effect of students' scientific self-efficacy and cognitive anxiety on science engagement. A total of 357 valid questionnaires were used for structural equation model research. The results indicated that two types of scientific self-efficacy, as indicated by scientific learning ability and scientific learning behavior, were negatively associated with cognitive anxiety. In addition, cognitive anxiety was also negatively correlated to four types of science engagement, as indicated by cognitive engagement, emotional engagement, behavioral engagement, and social engagement through smartphone interactions. These findings provide further evidence for game-based learning promoted by smart phones, contributing to a deeper understanding of the associations between scientific self-efficacy, cognitive anxiety, and science engagement. This study points out that the QODE model is suitable for implementing smart mobile devices to students' science learning.

11.
Asian Geogr. ; 2020.
Article in English | WHO COVID, ELSEVIER | ID: covidwho-381772

ABSTRACT

This paper contributes to a geographically-informed preliminary assessment of the diverse and uneven immediate impacts of the Covid-19 pandemic, and outlines an agenda for geographical studies of its longer term effects. Intrigued by the apparent tendency of an inverse relationship between a country’s health security capacities and Covid-19 mortalities, the paper explores the significance of a range of geographically situated contextual factors in the realms of the economy, governance and culture as mediators of the public health impacts of Covid-19, and questions how these realms may also be reshaped by this viral pandemic. The paper concludes with reflections on the path dependency and state centrality of pandemic response, and the potential post-pandemic reconfiguration of state-market-society relationships.

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