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1.
Journal of Business Research ; 149:967-982, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1882157

ABSTRACT

Although organizational crises, particularly the COVID-19 pandemic, are shocks for employees, their expression of gratitude can be viewed as a silver lining. Drawing on social exchange theory and the social functions of emotion perspective, we develop a model that elucidates why and when benefactors who receive gratitude expression can perform better in the COVID-19 crisis. We propose that receiving gratitude expression as a potential consequence of providing crisis-related help to coworkers enhances one’s crisis self-efficacy and perceived social impact, which, in turn, positively relates to adaptation to a crisis, task performance, and helping behaviors toward leaders. The perceived novelty of the COVID-19 crisis strengthens the positive effect of receiving gratitude expression on crisis self-efficacy, and the perceived criticality of the crisis strengthens the positive effect of receiving gratitude expression on perceived social impact. A scenario-based experiment and five-wave field survey with Eastern and Western employees generally support our hypotheses.

2.
MedComm (2020) ; 3(2): e130, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1782644

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants, particularly those with multiple mutations in receptor-binding domain (RBD), pose a critical challenge to the efficacy of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccines and therapeutic neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). Omicron sublineages BA.1, BA.2, BA.3, as well as the recent emergence of C.1.2, B.1.630, B.1.640.1, and B.1.640.2, have multiple mutations in RBD and may lead to severe neutralizing antibody evasion. It is urgent to evaluate the antigenic change of the above seven variants against mAbs and sera from guinea pigs immunized with variants of concern (VOCs) (Alpha, Beta, Gamma, Delta, Omicron) and variants of interest (VOIs) (Lambda, Mu) immunogens. Only seven out of the 24 mAbs showed no reduction in neutralizing activity against BA.1, BA.2, and BA.3. However, among these seven mAbs, the neutralization activity of XGv337 and XGv338 against C.1.2, B.1.630, B.1.640.1, and B.1.640.2 were decreased. Therefore, only five neutralizing mAbs showed no significant change against these seven variants. Using VOCs and VOIs as immunogens, we found that the antigenicity of variants could be divided into three clusters, and each cluster showed similar antigenicity to different immunogens. Among them, D614G, B.1.640.1, and B.1.630 formed a cluster, C.1.2 and B.1.640.2 formed a cluster, and BA.1, BA.2, and BA.3 formed a cluster.

3.
Journal of Medical Virology ; 94(5):i-i, 2022.
Article in English | Wiley | ID: covidwho-1750403

ABSTRACT

Front Cover Caption: The cover image is based on the Research Article Aggregation of high-frequency RBD mutations of SARS-CoV-2 with three VOCs did not cause significant antigenic drift by Tao Li et al., https://doi.org/10.1002/jmv.27596.

4.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 7(1): 18, 2022 01 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1639142

ABSTRACT

Emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants are the most serious problem for COVID-19 prophylaxis and treatment. To determine whether the SARS-CoV-2 vaccine strain should be updated following variant emergence like seasonal flu vaccine, the changed degree on antigenicity of SARS-CoV-2 variants and H3N2 flu vaccine strains was compared. The neutralization activities of Alpha, Beta and Gamma variants' spike protein-immunized sera were analysed against the eight current epidemic variants and 20 possible variants combining the top 10 prevalent RBD mutations based on the Delta variant, which were constructed using pseudotyped viruses. Meanwhile, the neutralization activities of convalescent sera and current inactivated and recombinant protein vaccine-elicited sera were also examined against all possible Delta variants. Eight HA protein-expressing DNAs elicited-animal sera were also tested against eight pseudotyped viruses of H3N2 flu vaccine strains from 2011-2019. Our results indicate that the antigenicity changes of possible Delta variants were mostly within four folds, whereas the antigenicity changes among different H3N2 vaccine strains were approximately 10-100-fold. Structural analysis of the antigenic characterization of the SARS-CoV-2 and H3N2 mutations supports the neutralization results. This study indicates that the antigenicity changes of the current SARS-CoV-2 may not be sufficient to require replacement of the current vaccine strain.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/metabolism , Antibodies, Viral/metabolism , COVID-19 Vaccines/metabolism , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Amino Acid Substitution , Antibodies, Neutralizing/chemistry , Antibodies, Neutralizing/genetics , Antibodies, Viral/chemistry , Antibodies, Viral/genetics , Binding Sites , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/chemistry , Epitopes/chemistry , Epitopes/genetics , Epitopes/immunology , Gene Expression , Humans , Immune Sera/chemistry , Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype/chemistry , Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype/genetics , Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype/immunology , Influenza Vaccines/administration & dosage , Influenza Vaccines/chemistry , Influenza Vaccines/metabolism , Influenza, Human/immunology , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Influenza, Human/virology , Models, Molecular , Mutation , Neutralization Tests , Protein Binding , Protein Conformation , Protein Interaction Domains and Motifs , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
5.
J Med Virol ; 94(5): 2108-2125, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1627779

ABSTRACT

Variants of SARS-CoV-2 continue to emerge, posing great challenges in outbreak prevention and control. It is important to understand in advance the impact of possible variants of concern (VOCs) on infectivity and antigenicity. Here, we constructed one or more of the 15 high-frequency naturally occurring amino acid changes in the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of Alpha, Beta, and Gamma variants. A single mutant of A520S, V367F, and S494P in the above three VOCs enhanced infectivity in ACE2-overexpressing 293T cells of different species, LLC-MK2 and Vero cells. Aggregation of multiple RBD mutations significantly reduces the infectivity of the possible three VOCs. Regarding neutralization, it is noteworthy that E484K, N501Y, K417N, and N439K predispose to monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) protection failure in the 15 high-frequency mutations. Most importantly, almost all possible VOCs (single RBD mutation or aggregation of multiple mutations) showed no more than a fourfold decrease in neutralizing activity with convalescent sera, vaccine sera, and immune sera of guinea pigs with different immunogens, and no significant antigenic drift was formed. In conclusion, our pseudovirus results could reduce the concern that the aggregation of multiple high-frequency mutations in the RBD of the spike protein of the three VOCs would lead to severe antigenic drift, and this would provide value for vaccine development strategies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antigenic Drift and Shift , COVID-19/therapy , Chlorocebus aethiops , Guinea Pigs , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Mutation , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Vero Cells
6.
J Med Chem ; 65(4): 2971-2987, 2022 02 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1616927

ABSTRACT

Acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ALI/ARDS) is one of the most common complications in COVID-19. Elastase has been recognized as an important target to prevent ALI/ARDS in the patient of COVID-19. Cyclotheonellazole A (CTL-A) is a natural macrocyclic peptide reported to be a potent elastase inhibitor. Herein, we completed the first total synthesis of CTL-A in 24 linear steps. The key reactions include three-component MAC reactions and two late-stage oxidations. We also provided seven CTL-A analogues and elucidated preliminary structure-activity relationships. The in vivo ALI mouse model further suggested that CTL-A alleviated acute lung injury with reductions in lung edema and pathological deterioration, which is better than sivelestat, one approved elastase inhibitor. The activity of CTL-A against elastase, along with its cellular safety and well-established synthetic route, warrants further investigation of CTL-A as a candidate against COVID-19 pathogeneses.


Subject(s)
Acute Lung Injury/drug therapy , Leukocyte Elastase/antagonists & inhibitors , Peptides, Cyclic/pharmacology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/drug therapy , Serine Proteinase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Acute Lung Injury/chemically induced , Acute Lung Injury/metabolism , Animals , Bleomycin , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/pathology , Cell Line , Disease Models, Animal , Humans , Leukocyte Elastase/metabolism , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Peptides, Cyclic/chemical synthesis , Peptides, Cyclic/chemistry , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/chemically induced , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/metabolism , Serine Proteinase Inhibitors/chemical synthesis , Serine Proteinase Inhibitors/chemistry
7.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 6(1): 346, 2021 09 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1437668

ABSTRACT

Antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) responses to viral infection are a form of antibody regulated immune responses mediated through the Fc fragment. Whether severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) triggered ADCC responses contributes to COVID-19 disease development is currently not well understood. To understand the potential correlation between ADCC responses and COVID-19 disease development, we analyzed the ADCC activity and neutralizing antibody response in 255 individuals ranging from asymptomatic to fatal infections over 1 year post disease. ADCC was elicited by 10 days post-infection, peaked by 11-20 days, and remained detectable until 400 days post-infection. In general, patients with severe disease had higher ADCC activities. Notably, patients who had severe disease and recovered had higher ADCC activities than patients who had severe disease and deceased. Importantly, ADCC activities were mediated by a diversity of epitopes in SARS-COV-2-infected mice and induced to comparable levels against SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VOCs) (B.1.1.7, B.1.351, and P.1) as that against the D614G mutant in human patients and vaccinated mice. Our study indicates anti-SARS-CoV-2 ADCC as a major trait of COVID-19 patients with various conditions, which can be applied to estimate the extra-neutralization level against COVID-19, especially lethal COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antibody-Dependent Cell Cytotoxicity , COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Aged , Animals , Cell Line, Tumor , Female , Humans , Male , Mice , Middle Aged
8.
Cell Discov ; 7(1): 21, 2021 Apr 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1171946

ABSTRACT

The origin and intermediate host for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is yet to be determined. Coronaviruses found to be closely related to SARS-CoV-2 include RaTG13 derived from bat and two clusters (PCoV-GD and PCoV-GX) of coronaviruses identified in pangolin. Here, we studied the infectivity and antigenicity patterns of SARS-CoV-2 and the three related coronaviruses. Compared with the other three viruses, RaTG13 showed almost no infectivity to a variety of cell lines. The two pangolin coronaviruses and SARS-CoV-2 showed similar infectious activity. However, in SARS-CoV-2-susceptible cell lines, the pangolin coronaviruses presented even higher infectivity. The striking difference between the SARS-CoV-2 and pangolin coronaviruses is that the latter can infect porcine cells, which could be partially attributed to an amino acid difference at the position of 498 of the spike protein. The infection by SARS-CoV-2 was mainly mediated by Furin and TMPRSS2, while PCoV-GD and PCoV-GX mainly depend on Cathepsin L. Extensive cross-neutralization was found between SARS-CoV-2 and PCoV-GD. However, almost no cross-neutralization was observed between PCoV-GX and SARS-CoV-2 or PCoV-GD. More attention should be paid to pangolin coronaviruses and to investigate the possibility of these coronaviruses spreading across species to become zoonoses among pigs or humans.

9.
Cell ; 184(9): 2362-2371.e9, 2021 04 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1139468

ABSTRACT

The 501Y.V2 variants of SARS-CoV-2 containing multiple mutations in spike are now dominant in South Africa and are rapidly spreading to other countries. Here, experiments with 18 pseudotyped viruses showed that the 501Y.V2 variants do not confer increased infectivity in multiple cell types except for murine ACE2-overexpressing cells, where a substantial increase in infectivity was observed. Notably, the susceptibility of the 501Y.V2 variants to 12 of 17 neutralizing monoclonal antibodies was substantially diminished, and the neutralization ability of the sera from convalescent patients and immunized mice was also reduced for these variants. The neutralization resistance was mainly caused by E484K and N501Y mutations in the receptor-binding domain of spike. The enhanced infectivity in murine ACE2-overexpressing cells suggests the possibility of spillover of the 501Y.V2 variants to mice. Moreover, the neutralization resistance we detected for the 501Y.V2 variants suggests the potential for compromised efficacy of monoclonal antibodies and vaccines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Immune Evasion , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antigens, Viral/immunology , Cell Line, Tumor , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Mutation/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
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