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1.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(6)2022 May 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1869875

ABSTRACT

The number of reported pertussis cases has significantly decreased during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic under the influence of strict public health measures in many countries including China. This study evaluated the prevalence of serum anti-pertussis toxin (anti-PT) IgG antibodies in adults at childbearing age pre- and post- COVID-19 in Beijing, China. Altogether, 2021 serum samples collected from individuals aged 20 to 39 years who attended an annual health examination at the Sixth Medical Center of PLA General Hospital, Beijing, in 2018~2020 were measured by ELISA. The median concentration of anti-PT IgG antibodies among participants in 2020 (2.96 IU/mL) was significantly lower than that in 2018 (3.27 IU/mL) (p = 0.011) and in 2019 (3.24 IU/mL) (p = 0.014). The percentage of participants with anti-PT IgG antibodies higher than 40 IU/mL (indicating a pertussis infection within the past few years) was 1.79% (9/503) in 2018, 2.04% (15/735) in 2019 and 1.66% (13/783) in 2020, respectively. The corresponding numbers of the non-detectable (<5 IU/mL) rate of anti-PT IgG antibodies were 66.60%, 65.99% and 70.24%. Our results showed that there was a significant difference between true and reported incidence rates even during the COVID-19 pandemic. The proportion of adults at childbearing age without pertussis-specific antibodies is high, suggesting that booster vaccinations in adults should be considered in this country.

2.
J Hazard Mater ; 436: 129233, 2022 08 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1867366

ABSTRACT

During COVID-19 pandemic, analysis on virus exposure and intervention efficiency in public transports based on real passenger's close contact behaviors is critical to curb infectious disease transmission. A monitoring device was developed to gather a total of 145,821 close contact data in subways based on semi-supervision learning. A virus transmission model considering both short- and long-range inhalation and deposition was established to calculate the virus exposure. During rush-hour, short-range inhalation exposure is 3.2 times higher than deposition exposure and 7.5 times higher than long-range inhalation exposure of all passengers in the subway. The close contact rate was 56.1 % and the average interpersonal distance was 0.8 m. Face-to-back was the main pattern during close contact. Comparing with random distribution, if all passengers stand facing in the same direction, personal virus exposure through inhalation (deposition) can be reduced by 74.1 % (98.5 %). If the talk rate was decreased from 20 % to 5 %, the inhalation (deposition) exposure can be reduced by 69.3 % (73.8 %). In addition, we found that virus exposure could be reduced by 82.0 % if all passengers wear surgical masks. This study provides scientific support for COVID-19 prevention and control in subways based on real human close contact behaviors.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Railroads , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Masks , Pandemics/prevention & control
3.
Int J Infect Dis ; 122: 83-92, 2022 May 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1867234

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Infectious viruses (e.g., SARS-CoV-2, norovirus) can transmit through surfaces. Norovirus has infected millions of individuals annually. Interventions on norovirus transmission in high-risk indoor environment are important. METHODS: This study focused on a restaurant in Guangzhou, China. More than 41,000 touches by both diners and staff members were collected using video cameras. A surface transmission model was developed and combined with these real human touch behaviors to analyze the effectiveness of different norovirus prevention strategies. RESULTS: When the virus carrier was a diner, the virus intake fraction of diners in the same table was the highest. Increasing the touch frequency on personal private surfaces would reduce the virus exposure. The virus intake fraction was reduced by 18.4% on average if public surfaces were not touched. Optimization on surface materials could reduce the virus intake fraction by 86.6%. Additionally, disinfecting tablecloths, clothes of diners, and chairs were the three most effective surface disinfection strategies. CONCLUSION: Controlling human touch behavior (e.g., reducing the self-touches on mucous membranes) is more effective than surface disinfection in controlling norovirus transmission, but surface disinfection cannot be ignored because human behavior is difficult to be controlled.

4.
Build Environ ; 219: 109233, 2022 Jul 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1866932

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is a global threat. Non-pharmaceutical interventions were commonly adopted for COVID-19 prevention and control. However, during stable periods of the pandemic, energy would be inevitably wasted if all interventions were implemented. The study aims to reduce the building energy consumption when meet the demands of epidemic prevention and control under the stable period of COVID-19. Based on the improved Wells-Riley model considering dynamic quanta generation and pulmonary ventilation rate, we established the infection risk - equivalent fresh air volume - energy consumption model to analyze the infection risk and building energy consumption during different seasons and optimized the urban building energy consumption according to the spatio-temporal population distribution. Shopping centers and restaurants contributed the most in urban energy consumption, and if they are closed during the pandemic, the total infection risk would be reduced by 25%-40% and 15%-25% respectively and the urban energy consumption would be reduced by 30%-40% and 13%-20% respectively. If people wore masks in all public indoor environments (exclude restaurants and KTV), the infection risk could be reduced by 60%-70% and the energy consumption could be reduced by 20%-60%. Gyms pose the highest risk for COVID-19 transmission. If the energy consumption kept the same with the current value, after the optimization, infection risk in winter, summer and the transition season could be reduced by 65%, 53% and 60%, respectively. After the optimization, under the condition of R t  < 1, the energy consumption in winter, summer, and the transition season could be reduced by 72%, 64%, and 68% respectively.

5.
Rev Med Virol ; : e2363, 2022 May 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1850235

ABSTRACT

Human coronaviruses (HCoVs) were first described in 1960s for patients experiencing common cold. Since then, increasing number of HCoVs have been discovered, including those causing severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), and the circulating coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which can cause fatal respiratory disease in humans on infection. HCoVs are believed to spread mainly through respiratory droplets and close contact. However, studies have shown that a large proportion of patients with HCoV infection develop gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms, and many patients with confirmed HCoV infection have shown detectable viral RNA in their faecal samples. Furthermore, multiple in vitro and in vivo animal studies have provided direct evidence of intestinal HCoV infection. These data highlight the nature of HCoV GI infection and its potential faecal-oral transmission. Here, we summarise the current findings on GI manifestations of HCoVs. We also discuss how HCoV GI infection might occur and the current evidence to establish the occurrence of faecal-oral transmission.

6.
Sci China Life Sci ; 2022 May 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1826872

ABSTRACT

Lockdown and re-opening may become cyclical due to the recurrent waves of the COVID-19 epidemic. Few studies have examined temporal trends and determinants of in-hospital mortality among patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), a life-threatening condition that requires emergency medical care. Using nation-wide data before, during and after the Wuhan lockdown, we aimed to depict temporal patterns and major determinants of STEMI in-hospital mortality in China across five time periods of the COVID-19 epidemic. We analyzed the data of 283,661 STEMI patients who were admitted to 4,487 chest-pain-centers across China, from January 1, 2019 to May 31, 2020. Compared with the period before the lockdown, STEMI in-hospital mortality increased by 25% (OR 1.25, 95%CI 1.16-1.34) during Early Lockdown, by 12% (OR 1.12, 95%CI 1.03-1.22) during Later Lockdown, by 35% (OR 1.35, 95%CI 1.21-1.50) during Early Lift, and returned to pre-COVID risk (OR 1.04, 95%CI 0.95-1.14) during Later Lift. For each time-period, we observed a clear mortality gradient by timing and types of revascularization procedure. In conclusion, the COVID-19 epidemic had a significant adverse impact on STEMI in-hospital mortality, with bimodal peaks during early lockdown and early lift periods and clear mortality gradients by timing and types of revascularization procedure, independent of the time periods.

7.
Am J Public Health ; 112(6): 913-922, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1817598

ABSTRACT

We analyzed COVID-19 influences on the design, implementation, and validity of assessing the quality of primary health care using unannounced standardized patients (USPs) in China. Because of the pandemic, we crowdsourced our funding, removed tuberculosis from the USP case roster, adjusted common cold and asthma cases, used hybrid online-offline training for USPs, shared USPs across provinces, and strengthened ethical considerations. With those changes, we were able to conduct fieldwork despite frequent COVID-19 interruptions. Furthermore, the USP assessment tool maintained high validity in the quality checklist (criteria), USP role fidelity, checklist completion, and physician detection of USPs. Our experiences suggest that the pandemic created not only barriers but also opportunities to innovate ways to build a resilient data collection system. To build data system reliance, we recommend harnessing the power of technology for a hybrid model of remote and in-person work, learning from the sharing economy to pool strengths and optimize resources, and dedicating individual and group leadership to problem-solving and results. (Am J Public Health. 2022;112(6):913-922. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2022.306779).


Subject(s)
Acacia , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Quality of Health Care
8.
BMC Cardiovasc Disord ; 22(1): 194, 2022 04 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1817181

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 affects healthcare resource allocation, which could lead to treatment delay and poor outcomes in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). We assessed the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on AMI outcomes. METHODS: We compared outcomes of patients admitted for acute ST-elevation MI (STEMI) and non-STEMI (NSTEMI) during a non-COVID-19 pandemic period (January-February 2019; Group 1, n = 254) and a COVID-19 pandemic period (January-February 2020; Group 2, n = 124). RESULTS: For STEMI patients, the median of first medical contact (FMC) time, door-to-balloon time, and total myocardial ischemia time were significantly longer in Group 2 patients (all p < 0.05). Primary percutaneous intervention was performed significantly more often in Group 1 patients than in Group 2 patients, whereas thrombolytic therapy was used significantly more often in Group 2 patients than in Group 1 patients (all p < 0.05). However, the rates of and all-cause 30-day mortality and major adverse cardiac event (MACE) were not significantly different in the two periods (all p > 0.05). For NSTEMI patients, Group 2 patients had a higher rate of conservative therapy, a lower rate of reperfusion therapy, and longer FMC times (all p < 0.05). All-cause 30-day mortality and MACE were only higher in NSTEMI patients during the COVID-19 pandemic period (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 pandemic causes treatment delay in AMI patients and potentially leads to poor clinical outcome in NSTEMI patients. Thrombolytic therapy should be initiated without delay for STEMI when coronary intervention is not readily available; for NSTEMI patients, outcomes of invasive reperfusion were better than medical treatment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Myocardial Infarction , Non-ST Elevated Myocardial Infarction , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction , Humans , Myocardial Infarction/diagnosis , Myocardial Infarction/epidemiology , Myocardial Infarction/therapy , Non-ST Elevated Myocardial Infarction/diagnosis , Non-ST Elevated Myocardial Infarction/therapy , Pandemics , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/diagnosis , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/epidemiology , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/therapy , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
9.
Front Psychol ; 13: 826121, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1809579

ABSTRACT

With the rapid development of livestreaming marketing in China, consumers spend an increasing amount of time watching and purchasing on the platform, which shows a trend of livestreaming addiction. In the early stage of the COVID-19 pandemic, the addiction exacerbated by a surge of boredom caused by home quarantine. Based on the observation of this phenomenon, this research focused on whether state boredom could facilitate consumers' livestreaming addiction and explored the associated mechanisms of this relationship. Based on three studies, this research found that state boredom had a positive effect on consumers' livestreaming addiction, and this relationship worked through the mediating effect of consumers' sensation seeking. We further verified a moderated mediation effect of consumers' life meaning perception, where the indirect effect of state boredom on consumers' livestreaming addiction via consumers' sensation seeking existed for high and low levels of life meaning perception, but in opposite directions. The conclusions provided theoretical and practical implications of livestreaming marketing and healthy leisure consumption.

10.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 5980, 2022 04 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1788316

ABSTRACT

The burdens and trends of gastric cancer are poorly understood, especially in high-prevalence countries. Based on the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019, we analyzed the incidence, death, and possible risk factors of gastric cancer in five Asian countries, in relation to year, age, sex, and sociodemographic index. The annual percentage change was calculated to estimate the trends in age-standardized incidence rate (ASIR) and age-standardized death rate (ASDR). The highest ASIR per 100,000 person-years in 2019 was in Mongolia [44 (95% uncertainty interval (UI), 34 to 55)], while the lowest was in the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK) [23 (95% UI, 19 to 29)]. The highest ASDR per 100,000 person-years was in Mongolia [46 (95% UI, 37 to 57)], while the lowest was in Japan [14 (95% UI, 12 to 15)]. Despite the increase in the absolute number of cases and deaths from 1990 to 2019, the ASIRs and ASDRs in all five countries decreased with time and improved sociodemographic index but increased with age. Smoking and a high-sodium diet were two possible risk factors for gastric cancer. In 2019, the proportion of age-standardized disability-adjusted life-years attributable to smoking was highest in Japan [23% (95% UI, 19 to 28%)], and the proportions attributable to a high-sodium diet were highest in China [8.8% (95% UI, 0.21 to 33%)], DPRK, and the Republic of Korea. There are substantial variations in the incidence and death of gastric cancer in the five studied Asian countries. This study may be crucial in helping policymakers to make better decisions and allocate appropriate resources.


Subject(s)
Stomach Neoplasms , Global Burden of Disease , Global Health , Humans , Incidence , Quality-Adjusted Life Years , Risk Factors , Sodium , Stomach Neoplasms/epidemiology
11.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-331571

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19) is an emerging acute infectious disease around the world. Therefore, it is crucial to identify the risk factors of in-hospital mortality and disease severity for COVID-19 patients. We firstly proposed a biomarker ratio, lactate dehydrogenase to albumin ratio (LAR) may be more reliable to assess the predictive value of LAR for in-hospital mortality and early identification of critical COVID-19 patients. A retrospective study was conducted including patients (≥18 years old) with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 infection who had been discharged or had died from 1 February to 29 February, 2020. The study included 321 patients and the median age of the 321 patients was 63.0 (IQR 51.0-70.0), ranging from 19 to 95 years old and 180 (56.1%) patients were male. 142 (44.2%) patients had 1 or more coexisting comorbidity. The most common symptoms on admission were fever(289[90%]) and cough(258[80.4%]). In multivariable logistic regression, only older age (OR, 1.11;95% CI, 1.05-1.16), WBC count (OR, 1.26;95% CI, 1.11-1.44), lymphocyte count (OR, 0.78;95% CI, 0.62-0.99) and LAR (OR, 1.29;95% CI, 1.18-1.40) were found to be significantly associated with in-hospital death. ROC analysis showed that LAR had a higher AUC (0.917) and the highest specificity(84.0%) and sensitivity(84.6%). Furthermore, the results showed that LAR had a higher AUC (0.931) to differentiate critical from mild patients and had a sensitivity of 87.7% and a specificity of 82.1%. Besides, LAR had an AUC (0.861) to differentiate critical from severe patients and had a sensitivity of 86.0% and a specificity of 73.8% and the role of LAR to distinguish severe from mild patients was the worst. To the best of our knowledge, a high LAR appears to predict higher odds of mortality and differentiate critical patients from mild or severe COVID-19 patients.

12.
Buildings ; 12(3):365, 2022.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1742332

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has threatened human lives. Countries have implemented various interventions such as vaccination, mask-wearing, body temperature screening, and isolation. However, the effectiveness of single and combined interventions has not yet been accurately analyzed. In this study, an improved SEIR model considering both real human indoor close contact behaviors and susceptibility to COVID-19 was established. Taking Hong Kong as an example, a quantitative assessment of the relationship between the efficiency of single and combined interventions and implementation time and intensity was carried out. The results showed that the infection risk (one-hour close contact with an infected person) of COVID-19 of students, workers, and non-workers/non-students was 3.1%, 8.7%, and 13.6%, respectively. Workplace closures were more effective among built environment interventions. If mask-wearing was mandatorily required in schools, workplaces, supermarkets, shopping centers, and public transport, COVID-19 could not be totally restricted. Workers should be prioritized for vaccination, followed by non-workers/non-students and students. Among all interventions, reducing close contact rate and increasing vaccination rate were better interventions. There was no COVID-19 outbreak (basic reproduction number R0 = 1) if the close contact reduction rate was 59.9% or the vaccination rate reached 89.5%. The results may provide scientific support for COVID-19 prevention and control.

14.
Energy Build ; 261: 111954, 2022 Apr 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1693499

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has led to considerable morbidity and mortality, and consumed enormous resources (e.g. energy) to control and prevent the disease. It is crucial to balance infection risk and energy consumption when reducing the spread of infection. In this study, a quantitative human, behavior-based, infection risk-energy consumption model for different indoor environments was developed. An optimal balance point for each indoor environment can be obtained using the anti-problem method. For this study we selected Wangjing Block, one of the most densely populated places in Beijing, as an example. Under the current ventilation standard (30 m3/h/person), prevention and control of the COVID-19 pandemic would be insufficient because the basic reproduction number (R0 ) for students, workers and elders are greater than 1. The optimal required fresh air ventilation rates in most indoor environments are near or below 60 m3/h/person, after considering the combined effects of multiple mitigation measures. In residences, sports buildings and restaurants, the demand for fresh air ventilation rate is relatively high. After our global optimization of infection risk control (R0  ≤ 1), energy consumption can be reduced by 13.7% and 45.1% on weekdays and weekends, respectively, in contrast to a strategy of strict control (R0  = 1 for each indoor environment).

15.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-315632

ABSTRACT

Background: Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19) is an emerging acute infectious disease that was first discovered in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China. Since then, it has quickly spread to over one hundred cities around the world. Therefore, it is crucial to identify the risk factors of in-hospital mortality and disease severity for COVID-19 patients. MethodsWe firstly proposed a biomarker ratio, lactate dehydrogenase(LDH) to albumin ratio (LAR) may be more reliable to assess the predictive value of LAR for in-hospital mortality and early identification of critical COVID-19 patients. A retrospective study was conducted including patients (≥18 years old) with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 infection who had been discharged or had died from 1 February to 29 February, 2020. ResultsThe study included 321 patients with COVID-19. The median age of the 321 patients was 63.0 (IQR 51.0-70.0), ranging from 19 to 95 years old and 180 (56.1%) patients were male. 142 (44.2%) patients had 1 or more coexisting comorbidity. The most common symptoms on admission were fever(289[90%]) and cough(258[80.4%]). In multivariable logistic regression, only older age (OR, 1.11;95% CI, 1.05-1.16), WBC count (OR, 1.26;95% CI, 1.11-1.44), lymphocyte count (OR, 0.78;95% CI, 0.62-0.99) and LAR (OR, 1.29;95% CI, 1.18-1.40) were found to be significantly associated with in-hospital death. ROC analysis showed that LAR had a higher AUC (0.917) and the highest specificity(84.0%) and sensitivity(84.6%). Furthermore, the results showed that LAR had a higher AUC (0.931) to differentiate critical from mild patients and had a sensitivity of 87.7% and a specificity of 82.1%. Besides, LAR had an AUC (0.861) to differentiate critical from severe patients and had a sensitivity of 86.0% and a specificity of 73.8% and the role of LAR to distinguish severe from mild patients was the worst. ConclusionsTo the best of our knowledge, this study is the first for us to explore the predictive value of LAR for in-hospital mortality and disease severity. A high LAR appears to predict higher odds of mortality and differentiate critical patients from mild or severe COVID-19 patients.

16.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-312633

ABSTRACT

Background: With the strength intervention of China, the outbreak of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) had a great control effect. The measures may influence the development and progression of others infectious diseases. Method: The data of daily coronavirus virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) confirmed cases from January 3, 2020 to April 30, 2020 and natural focal disease cases from January, 2005 to April, 2020 were collected from Jiangsu Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention (Jiangsu Provincial CDC). We describe and compare the data of natural focal diseases from January to April, 2020 with the same months from 2015 to 2019 in the four aspects: trend of incidence, regional, age and sex distribution. Nonparametric tests were used to analyzed to the difference between the duration from onset of illness to date of diagnosis of natural focal diseases and the same period of the previous year. Results: : The incidence of malaria in February (0.9 per 10,000,000 people), March (0.3 per 10,000,000 people) and April (0.1 per 10,000,000 people) 2020 less than the lower limit for range of February (1.6-4.5 per 10,000,000 people), March (0.8-3.3 per 10,000,000 people) and April (1.0-2.9 per 10,000,000 people) from 2015 to 2019 respectively. The incidence of brucellosis in February was 0.9 (per 10,000,000 people), less than the lower limit for the range from 2015 to 2019 (1.6-4.5 per 10,000,000 people). The incidence of hemorrhagic fever (HF) in March was 1.0 (per 10,000,000 people), less than the lower limit for the range from 2015 to 2019 (1.4-2.6 per 10,000,000 people). However, the incidence of Severe Fever with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome (SEFT) in March was 0.3 (per 10,000,000 people), higher than the upper limit for the range from 2015 to 2019 (0.0-0.1 per 10,000,000 people). Furthermore, we respectively observed the incidence with various degree of reduction in male, 20-60 years old and both rural and urban areas. Conclusions: : In Jiangsu province, the incidence of natural focal diseases decreased during the outbreak of COVID-19 in 2020, especially malaria, HF and SEFT. The impact of interventions were felt most by male individuals within the age group of 20-50 years. The interventions for COVID-19 may control the epidemics of natural focal diseases.

17.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-308345

ABSTRACT

Doxorubicin (DOX) is a well-known chemotherapeutic drug for most malgnencies including breast cancer and leukemia whilst the usage of DOX is limited owing to its cardiotoxicity. The present study analyzed the effects of crocin on doxorubicin’s cardiotoxic efect in rat myocardium and searched their mechanistic interaction in the pathogenesis of DOX-induced myocardial toxicity. Forty rats were divided into four groups;(a) control (received normal saline as a dose of 1 ml/kg by ip for 15 days), (b) Crocin (received crocin as a dose of 40 mg/kg/24h by ip for 15 days), (c) DOX (received DOX as a dose of 2 mg/kg/48h by ip in six injection, cumulative dose 12 mg/kg), and (d) DOX+Crocin (received DOX as a dose of 2 mg/kg/48h by ip in six injection and crocin as a dose of 40 mg/kg/24h ip for 15 days). According to the present study, DOX administration caused significant increases in lipid indices (triglyseride, low-dencity lipoproteins and very low-dencity lipoproteins) as well as cardiac markers (Creatine kinase-muscle/brain and Cardiac Troponin I). Morever, DOX caused significant increases in oxidative stress parameters (malondialdehyde and total oxidant status) as well as decreases in antioxidant defense systems (glutathione, superoxide dismutase, catalase and total antioxidant status). The present study also demonstrated that co-administration of crocin with DOX significantly ameliorated the lipid profile and biochemical parameters in rats receiving DOX. The results were supported by histopathological and immunohistochemical evaluations. Taken together, our results reveal that crocin might be a cardioprotective agent in DOX treated patients for cancer.

18.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-325303

ABSTRACT

Background: Exploring new ways to improve the efficiency of nursing work for patients with severe new coronavirus pneumonia. Methods A total of 372 clinical nursing shifts from February 9, 2020 to April 11, 2020 were analyzed in this study. Shifts were divided into a control group (186 shifts before reorganization) and an observation group (186 shifts after reorganization). Following improvements were applied: wearing the protective equipment, communication between inside and outside the contaminated area, and time needed to restock the bedside consumables. Results After the new method was applied, changing of protective equipment during worktime was reduced (5% (9/186) in the observation group vs. 15% (27/186) in the control group;P = 0.003). Moreover, the time needed to transfer items between inside and outside contaminated area and time for replenishment consumables for bedside treatment was shorter in the observation group compared to the control group (1.98 ± 1.41, 6.86 ± 2.25 vs. 2.52 ± 1.97, 10.81 ± 4.45, respectively;all P < 0.002). Conclusion The new applied measures have improved the nursing efficiency in patients with severe novel coronavirus pneumonia.

19.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-325099

ABSTRACT

Objectives: To analyze the findings of computed tomography (CT) imaging in critically ill patients diagnosed with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Methods: This retrospective study reviewed 60 critically ill patients (43 males and 17 females, mean age 64.4±11.0 years) with COVID-19 pneumonia who were admitted to two different clinical centers. Their clinical and medical records were analyzed, and the chest CT images were assessed to determine the involvement of lobes and the distribution of lesions in the lungs between the patients who recovered from the illness and those who died. Results: Patients were significantly older in the death group (10/60, 16.67%) than in the recovery group (50/60, 83.33%) (p=0.044). C-reactive protein (CRP) (67.9±50.5 mg/L) was significantly elevated in the death group as opposed to the recovery group (p<0.001). The neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) was higher in the death group when compared with the recovery group (p=0.030). Involvement of five lung lobes was found in 98% of the patients, with medial or parahilar area involvement observed in all the death patients. Ground-glass opacities (97%), crazy-paving pattern (92%) and air bronchogram (93%) were the most common radiological findings. Presence of emphysema was more prevalent in the death group than in the recovery group (30% vs 2%, p=0.011). Conclusions: The degree of lung involvement and lesion distribution with dominance in the medial and parahilar pulmonary areas were more severe in the death patients than in those who recovered. Patient’s age, emphysema, CRP and NLR could be combined with CT to predict the disease outcomes.

20.
BJPsych open ; 7(Suppl 1):S192-S192, 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1661134

ABSTRACT

Aims The COVID-19 pandemic has caused significant disruption to activities of daily living, which in turn has had a profound impact on the mental wellbeing of the public. An e-guide was designed to provide remote support to the general public through the application of a Behavioural Activation approach. Interactive, brief evidence-based exercises were included in the e-guide, along with mood ratings after each exercise to assess any improvements observed. Method The e-guide was designed using the Xerte On- Line Toolkits open source software. Videos and interactive exercises were embedded within the resource, forming part of the brief intervention based on cognitivist and behaviourist principles. Information and further support was also provided for young people and parents. Videos from the public highlighting their experiences during the pandemic were also sourced and included (with consent). A pilot was launched to assess the impact of the e-guide. Participants were recruited from Cardiff University, mental health services and a local charity. Result The e-guide was piloted on a sample of volunteers (n = 3), who completed a brief survey after engaging with the resource. Following the results of the pilot, the e-guide was promoted by the university's marketing team and made available to the public. At the 6-month mark, the e-guide had been accessed by 3228 individuals throughout the UK. Conclusion The e-guide has since been disseminated by support services for young people, places of employment and eduction institutions. The national impact of the e-guide is evidenced from the number of people accessing the resource exceeding 3000. With the long-term effects of the pandemic taking hold, it remains crucial to support the wellbeing of the general public through such initiatives that are administered remotely

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