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1.
NPJ Vaccines ; 7(1): 84, 2022 Jul 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1960375

ABSTRACT

As the world continues to experience the COVID-19 pandemic, seasonal influenza remain a cause of severe morbidity and mortality globally. Worse yet, coinfection with SARS-CoV-2 and influenza A virus (IAV) leads to more severe clinical outcomes. The development of a combined vaccine against both COVID-19 and influenza is thus of high priority. Based on our established lipid nanoparticle (LNP)-encapsulated mRNA vaccine platform, we developed and characterized a novel mRNA vaccine encoding the HA antigen of influenza A (H1N1) virus, termed ARIAV. Then, ARIAV was combined with our COVID-19 mRNA vaccine ARCoV, which encodes the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the SARS-CoV-2 S protein, to formulate the final combined vaccine, AR-CoV/IAV. Further characterization demonstrated that immunization with two doses of AR-CoV/IAV elicited robust protective antibodies as well as antigen-specific cellular immune responses against SARS-CoV-2 and IAV. More importantly, AR-CoV/IAV immunization protected mice from coinfection with IAV and the SARS-CoV-2 Alpha and Delta variants. Our results highlight the potential of the LNP-mRNA vaccine platform in preventing COVID-19 and influenza, as well as other respiratory diseases.

3.
Front Psychol ; 13: 854810, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1933835

ABSTRACT

Background: With the popularity of computers, the internet, and the global spread of COVID-19, more and more attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) patients need timely interventions through the internet. At present, there are many online intervention schemes may help these patients. It is necessary to integrate data to analyze their effectiveness. Objectives: Our purpose is to integrate the ADHD online interventions trials, study its treatment effect and analyze its feasibility, and provide reference information for doctors in other institutions to formulate better treatment plans. Methods: We searched PubMed, EMBASE and Cochrane libraries. We didn't limit the start date and end date of search results. Our last search was on December 1, 2021. The keyword is ADHD online therapy. We used the Cochrane bias risk tool to assess the quality of included studies, used the standardized mean difference (SMD) as an effect scale indicator to measure data. Random effects model, subgroup analysis were used to analyze the data. Results: Six randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were identified, including 261 patients with ADHD. These studies showed that online interventions was more effective than waiting list in improving attention deficit and social function of adults and children with ADHD. The attention deficit scores of subjects were calculated in six studies. The sample size of the test group was 123, the sample size of the control group was 133, and the combined SMD was -0.73 (95% confidence interval: -1.01, -0.44). The social function scores of subjects were calculated in six studies. The sample size of the experimental group was 123 and the control group was 133. The combined SMD was -0.59 (95% confidence interval: -0.85, -0.33). Conclusions: The results show that online interventions of ADHD may be an effective intervention. In the future, we need more online intervention researches to improve the symptoms of different patients, especially for some patients who have difficulties in accepting face-to-face treatment.

4.
J Informetr ; 16(2): 101295, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1819551

ABSTRACT

Based on publication data on coronavirus-related fields, this study applies a difference in differences approach to explore the evolution of gender inequalities before and during the COVID-19 pandemic by comparing the differences in the numbers and shares of authorships, leadership in publications, gender composition of collaboration, and scientific impacts. We find that, during the pandemic: (1) females' leadership in publications as the first author was negatively affected; (2) although both females and males published more papers relative to the pre-pandemic period, the gender gaps in the share of authorships have been strengthened due to the larger increase in males' authorships; (3) the share of publications by mixed-gender collaboration declined; (4) papers by teams in which females play a key role were less cited in the pre-pandemic period, and this citation disadvantage was exacerbated during the pandemic; and (5) gender inequalities regarding authorships and collaboration were enhanced in the initial stage of COVID-19, widened with the increasing severity of COVID-19, and returned to the pre-pandemic level in September 2020. This study shows that females' lower participation in teams as major contributors and less collaboration with their male colleagues also reflect their underrepresentation in science in the pandemic period. This investigation significantly deepens our understanding of how the pandemic influenced academia, based on which science policies and gender policy changes are proposed to mitigate the gender gaps.

5.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-333031

ABSTRACT

As the world continues to experience the COVID-19 pandemic, seasonal influenza remain a cause of severe morbidity and mortality globally. Worse yet, coinfection with SARS-CoV-2 and influenza A virus (IAV) leads to more severe clinical outcomes. The development of a combined vaccine against both COVID-19 and influenza is thus of high priority. Based on our established lipid nanoparticle (LNP)-encapsulated mRNA vaccine platform, we developed and characterized a novel mRNA vaccine encoding the HA antigen of influenza A (H1N1) virus, termed ARIAV. Then, ARIAV was combined with our COVID-19 mRNA vaccine ARCoV, which encodes the receptor binding domain (RBD) of the SARS-CoV-2 S protein, to formulate the final combined vaccine, AR-CoV/IAV. Further characterization demonstrated that immunization with two doses of AR-CoV/IAV elicited robust protective antibodies as well as antigen-specific cellular immune responses against SARS-CoV-2 and IAV. More importantly, AR-CoV/IAV immunization protected mice from coinfection with IAV and the SARS-CoV-2 Alpha and Delta variants. Our results highlight the potential of the LNP-mRNA vaccine platform in preventing COVID-19 and influenza, as well as other respiratory diseases.

6.
Research Square ; 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1786456

ABSTRACT

As the world continues to experience the COVID-19 pandemic, seasonal influenza remain a cause of severe morbidity and mortality globally. Worse yet, coinfection with SARS-CoV-2 and influenza A virus (IAV) leads to more severe clinical outcomes. The development of a combined vaccine against both COVID-19 and influenza is thus of high priority. Based on our established lipid nanoparticle (LNP)-encapsulated mRNA vaccine platform, we developed and characterized a novel mRNA vaccine encoding the HA antigen of influenza A (H1N1) virus, termed ARIAV. Then, ARIAV was combined with our COVID-19 mRNA vaccine ARCoV, which encodes the receptor binding domain (RBD) of the SARS-CoV-2 S protein, to formulate the final combined vaccine, AR-CoV/IAV. Further characterization demonstrated that immunization with two doses of AR-CoV/IAV elicited robust protective antibodies as well as antigen-specific cellular immune responses against SARS-CoV-2 and IAV. More importantly, AR-CoV/IAV immunization protected mice from coinfection with IAV and the SARS-CoV-2 Alpha and Delta variants. Our results highlight the potential of the LNP-mRNA vaccine platform in preventing COVID-19 and influenza, as well as other respiratory diseases.

7.
Annual Review of Psychology ; 73:575-598, 2022.
Article in English | APA PsycInfo | ID: covidwho-1738482

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic poses wide-ranging impacts on the physical and mental health of people around the world, increasing attention from both researchers and practitioners on the topic of resilience. In this article, we review previous research on resilience from the past several decades, focusing on how to cultivate resilience during emerging situations such as the COVID-19 pandemic at the individual, organizational, community, and national levels from a socioecological perspective. Although previous research has greatly enriched our understanding of the conceptualization, predicting factors, processes, and consequences of resilience from a variety of disciplines and levels, future research is needed to gain a deeper and comprehensive understanding of resilience, including developing an integrative and interdisciplinary framework for cultivating resilience, developing an understanding of resilience from a life span perspective, and developing scalable and cost-effective interventions for enhancing resilience and improving pandemic preparedness. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved)

8.
Radiology ; 295(3): 200463, 2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1723927

ABSTRACT

In this retrospective study, chest CTs of 121 symptomatic patients infected with coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) from four centers in China from January 18, 2020 to February 2, 2020 were reviewed for common CT findings in relationship to the time between symptom onset and the initial CT scan (i.e. early, 0-2 days (36 patients), intermediate 3-5 days (33 patients), late 6-12 days (25 patients)). The hallmarks of COVID-19 infection on imaging were bilateral and peripheral ground-glass and consolidative pulmonary opacities. Notably, 20/36 (56%) of early patients had a normal CT. With a longer time after the onset of symptoms, CT findings were more frequent, including consolidation, bilateral and peripheral disease, greater total lung involvement, linear opacities, "crazy-paving" pattern and the "reverse halo" sign. Bilateral lung involvement was observed in 10/36 early patients (28%), 25/33 intermediate patients (76%), and 22/25 late patients (88%).


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Lung Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Lung Diseases/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Female , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Lung Diseases/pathology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Radiography, Thoracic/methods , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Young Adult
10.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-321601

ABSTRACT

Genomic surveillance of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is critical to monitor the spread and evolution of the virus across different populations, geographical regions and species. Here, we present a streamlined workflow—COVseq—based on the CUTseq method that we previously described, which can be used to generate highly multiplexed sequencing libraries compatible with Illumina platforms, from hundreds of SARS-CoV-2 samples in parallel, in a rapid and cost-effective manner. We validated COVseq on RNA extracted from the supernatant of a SARS-CoV-2 culture as well as from 85 RNA samples from nasopharyngeal swabs, demonstrating the ability of COVseq to achieve near complete genome coverage, including the S region encoding the spike protein. A cost analysis showed that COVseq could be used to sequence thousands of samples per week at less than 10 USD per sample, including library preparation and sequencing costs. COVseq is a versatile and scalable method that can be readily applied for genomic surveillance of the ongoing pandemic and easily adapted to other pathogens such as influenza viruses.

11.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-315713

ABSTRACT

The considerable cessation of human activities during the COVID-19 pandemic has affected global energy use and CO2 emissions. Here we show the unprecedented decrease in global fossil CO2 emissions from January to April 2020 was of 7.8% (938 Mt CO2 with a +6.8% of 2-σ uncertainty) when compared with the period last year. In addition other emerging estimates of COVID impacts based on monthly energy supply or estimated parameters, this study contributes to another step that constructed the near-real-time daily CO2 emission inventories based on activity from power generation (for 29 countries), industry (for 73 countries), road transportation (for 406 cities), aviation and maritime transportation and commercial and residential sectors emissions (for 206 countries). The estimates distinguished the decline of CO2 due to COVID-19 from the daily, weekly and seasonal variations as well as the holiday events. The COVID-related decreases in CO2 emissions in road transportation (340.4 Mt CO2, -15.5%), power (292.5 Mt CO2, -6.4% compared to 2019), industry (136.2 Mt CO2, -4.4%), aviation (92.8 Mt CO2, -28.9%), residential (43.4 Mt CO2, -2.7%), and international shipping (35.9Mt CO2, -15%). Regionally, decreases in China were the largest and earliest (234.5 Mt CO2,-6.9%), followed by Europe (EU-27 & UK) (138.3 Mt CO2, -12.0%) and the U.S. (162.4 Mt CO2, -9.5%). The declines of CO2 are consistent with regional nitrogen oxides concentrations observed by satellites and ground-based networks, but the calculated signal of emissions decreases (about 1Gt CO2) will have little impacts (less than 0.13ppm by April 30, 2020) on the overserved global CO2 concertation. However, with observed fast CO2 recovery in China and partial re-opening globally, our findings suggest the longer-term effects on CO2 emissions are unknown and should be carefully monitored using multiple measures.

12.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-315347

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is an infectious disease caused by the most recently discovered coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). This study aims to investigate associations between sunlight and vitamin D, using latitude as an indicator, with COVID-19 cases and related deaths in the United States. General regression and Chi-square test were used to examine the associations between latitude and COVID-19 cases and deaths. The analyses indicated that latitudes were marginally associated with cases (p = 0.0792) and deaths (p = 0.0599), with an increase of 2491 cases and 189 deaths of the total numbers in the mainland of US for every unit of increase of the latitude. When the states were classified into high latitude (>N 370) and low latitude (<N 370) groups, both the cases (702 vs 255 cases/100k population) and deaths (43 vs 11 deaths/100k population) were significantly different (p < 0.001) between the two categories. The results suggested that sunlight and vitamin D, with latitude as an indicator, might be associated with decreased risks for both COVID-19 cases and deaths. These findings warranted urgent needs of large cohort, clinical and pre-clinical studies to assess the impact of VD on the prevention of COVID-19.

13.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-325449

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has outbreaked in Wuhan city, Hubei province of China since December 30 th 2019, and spread nationwide and widely spilled over to other countries around the world that has been declared a public health emergency. However, there is no specific drug for the treatment of the disease. Therefore, identifying effective antiviral drugs to combat the disease is urgently needed. Angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) has become the promising target to discovery new antiviral drugs to treat COVID-19, we have attempted to discover novel ACE2 inhibitors through ligand-based virtual screening. Finally, eight compounds were selected and tested ACE2 kinase inhibitory assay using fluorescence assays method. The results showed that four compounds (monoammonium glycyrrhizinate, glycyrrhizic acid methyl ester, ginsenoside Rg6 and ginsenoside F1) from 101 kinds of Chinese medicinal and edible plants which could inhibit ACE2 activity in vitro. Further efforts on chemical modification of these lead compounds are undergoing can lead to discover better agents against COVID-19.

14.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-324785

ABSTRACT

The pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has exploded since December 2019, and causes more than 2 million death with more than 95 million people infected as of Jan. 21th, 2021 globally1,2. Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), expressed in the lungs, arteries, heart, kidney, intestines, and nasal epithelium3, has been shown to be the primary entry point targeted by the surface spike protein of SARS-CoV-2. Currently, no proven antiviral treatment for SARS-CoV-2 infection is available. In this study, we screened a number of photosensitizers for photodynamic viral inactivation, and found compounds pentalysine β-carbonylphthalocyanine zinc (ZnPc5K) and chlorin e6 (ce6) potently inhibited the viral infection and replication in vitro with half-maximal effective concentrations (EC50) values at nanomolar level. Such viral inactivation strategy is implementable, and has unique advantages, including resistance to virus mutations, affordability compared to the monoclonal antibodies, and lack of long-term toxicity.

15.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-324779

ABSTRACT

Backgrounds: : To determine the differences in clinical manifestations and biomarker levels of Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients, including common patients and severe (serious and critical) patients. Methods: A total of 89 COVID-19 patients were diagnosed and treated at the First Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University. We clinically classified the patients and collected data. Findings: There was a higher proportion of confirmed cases in patients with type A blood (44.8%). There were no obvious differences in number of lung lobes involved in the lesion between the patients with or without a positive nucleic acid test (p>0.05).There were obvious differences in contact history (p<0.001), duration of symptoms (p=0.004), and respiratory rate (p=0.029) between the patients with or without a positive nucleic acid test. According to the results of the nucleic acid diagnosis test, there were no obvious differences in the number of lung lobes involved in the lesion and all items of routine blood, liver, and kidney function tests between the patients with or without positive nucleic acid tests (all p>0.05). Between the common patients and severe patients, there were obvious differences in age (p=0.006), duration of symptoms (p=0.001), diastolic blood pressure (p=0.046), lymphocyte count (p<0.0001), neutrophil count (p=0.019), albumin (p=0.002), lactate dehydrogenase (p=0.007), calcium (p<0.0001), C-reactive protein (CRP) (p=0.004), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (p=0.021), international standard ratio (p=0.020), and CD3 (p=0.001), CD3+CD4 (p=0.006), and CD3+CD8 (p=0.001) levels. In patients infected with SARS-COV-2, the number of lung lobes involved in the lesion were positively correlated with lymphocytes (R=0.261, p=0.044);the body mass index (BMI) values were positively correlated with the number of lung lobes involved in the lesion (R=0.320, P=0.034);the age (R=0.391, p<0.001) and respiratory rate (R=0.352, p=0.001) were positively correlated with neutrophil count;and the age (R=0.349, p=0.001) and the number of lung lobes involved in the lesion (R=0.422, p=0.001) were positively correlated with CRP. Conclusion: Patients with blood type A may be more susceptible to SARS-COV-2. The decrease in lymphocytes may indicate the aggravation of COVID-19, whereas the number of lung lobes involved in the lesion may not be a valid criterion for COVID-19 diagnosis.

16.
Int J Infect Dis ; 112: 173-182, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1654534

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the long-term consequences of COVID-19 survivors one year after recovery, and to identify the risk factors associated with abnormal patterns in chest imaging manifestations or impaired lung function. METHODS: COVID-19 patients were recruited and prospectively followed up with symptoms, health-related quality of life, psychological questionnaires, 6-minute walking test, chest computed tomography (CT), pulmonary function tests, and blood tests. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to evaluate the association between the clinical characteristics and chest CT abnormalities or pulmonary function. RESULTS: Ninety-four patients with COVID-19 were recruited between January 16 and February 6, 2021. Muscle fatigue and insomnia were the most common symptoms. Chest CT scans were abnormal in 71.28% of participants. The results of multivariable regression showed an increased odds in age. Ten patients had diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide (DLCO) impairment. Urea nitrogen concentration on admission was significantly associated with impaired DLCO. IgG levels and neutralizing activity were significantly lower compared with those in the early phase. CONCLUSIONS: One year after hospitalization for COVID-19, a cohort of survivors were mainly troubled with muscle fatigue and insomnia. Pulmonary structural abnormalities and pulmonary diffusion capacities were highly prevalent in surviving COVID-19 patients. It is necessary to intervene in the main target population for long-term recovery.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Follow-Up Studies , Hospitals , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Patient Discharge , Quality of Life , SARS-CoV-2 , Survivors
17.
Current psychology (New Brunswick, N.J.) ; : 1-9, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1624260

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has brought unprecedented disruptions to people’s everyday life and induced wide-ranging impacts on people’s physical health, mental health and well-being. This research investigated the relationship between risk perception, mental health distress, and flourishing during the peak period of the COVID-19 pandemic in China. Three hundred and ninety Chinese completed measures on risk perception, mental health distress, positive and negative affect, flourishing, and demographic information. The results revealed that 27.2% of participants experienced some level of mental health distress, but they also experienced a relatively high level of flourishing. Higher level of risk perception and negative affect were risk factors, whereas positive affect was a protective factor, of mental illness and flourishing. Experiences of positive and negative affect mediated the relationship between risk perception and level of mental health distress and flourishing, respectively. Although the COVID-19 pandemic led to a higher level of mental distress among the general public in China, most people were also resilient during the pandemic. The results have implications for improving mental health and enhancing resiliency during public health crises such as the COVID-19 pandemic.

18.
Curr Psychol ; : 1-9, 2022 Jan 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1620371

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has brought unprecedented disruptions to people's everyday life and induced wide-ranging impacts on people's physical health, mental health and well-being. This research investigated the relationship between risk perception, mental health distress, and flourishing during the peak period of the COVID-19 pandemic in China. Three hundred and ninety Chinese completed measures on risk perception, mental health distress, positive and negative affect, flourishing, and demographic information. The results revealed that 27.2% of participants experienced some level of mental health distress, but they also experienced a relatively high level of flourishing. Higher level of risk perception and negative affect were risk factors, whereas positive affect was a protective factor, of mental illness and flourishing. Experiences of positive and negative affect mediated the relationship between risk perception and level of mental health distress and flourishing, respectively. Although the COVID-19 pandemic led to a higher level of mental distress among the general public in China, most people were also resilient during the pandemic. The results have implications for improving mental health and enhancing resiliency during public health crises such as the COVID-19 pandemic.

19.
Remote Sensing of Environment ; 269:N.PAG-N.PAG, 2022.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1591822

ABSTRACT

Floods are causing massive losses of crops and agricultural infrastructures in many regions across the globe. During the 2018/2019 agricultural year, heavy rains from Cyclone Idai caused flooding in Central Mozambique and had the greatest impact on Sofala Province. The main objectives of this study are to map the flooding durations, evaluate how long crops survived the floods, and analyse the dynamics of the affected crops and their recovery following various flooding durations using multi-source satellite data. Our results indicate that Otsu method-based flooding mapping provides reliable flood extents and durations with an overall accuracy higher than 90%, which facilitates the assessment of how long crops can survive floods and their recovery progress. Croplands in both Buzi and Tica administrative units were the most severely impacted among all the regions in Sofala Province, with the largest flooded cropland extent at 23,101.1 ha in Buzi on 20 March 2019 and the most prolonged flooding duration of more than 42 days in Tica and Mafambisse. Major summer crops, including maize and rice, could survive when the fields were inundated for up to 12 days, while all crops died when the flooding duration was longer than 24 days. The recovery of surviving crops to pre-flooding status took a much longer time, from approximately 20 days to as long as one month after flooding. The findings presented herein can assist decision making in developing countries or remote regions for flood monitoring, mitigation and damage assessment. [Display omitted] • Image-dependent threshold method precisely extracts flood extent and duration. • Multi-satellite analysis is feasible to quantify the dynamic flood impacts on crops. • Crops could survive even inundate for 12 days, but recovery was slow. • All crops die with flooding durations longer than 24 days. • The Buzi and Tica regions were severely damaged by the 2019 floods in Mozambique. [ FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Remote Sensing of Environment is the property of Elsevier B.V. and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full . (Copyright applies to all s.)

20.
Sci Total Environ ; 810: 152302, 2022 Mar 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1559094

ABSTRACT

The surge of medical waste (MW) generated during the COVID-19 pandemic has exceeded the disposal capacity of existing facilities. The timely, safe, and efficient emergency disposal of MW is critical to prevent the epidemic spread. Therefore, this review presents the current status of MW generation and disposal in China and analyzes the characteristics and applicability of emergency disposal technologies. The results show that movable disposal facilities can dispose of infectious MW on site, even though most of their disposal capacity is at a low level (<5 t/day). Co-disposal facilities need to be reformed completely for emergency MW disposal, in which separate feeding systems should be taken seriously. Specifically, municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration facilities have great potential to improve emergency MW disposal capacities. For hazardous waste incineration facilities, compatibility of the wastes must be matched to the composition and calorific value of the waste. As for cement kiln, MW can only be used as an alternative fuel instead of a raw material for cement. Based on the environmental risk and technical adaptability, the six emergency MW disposal technologies are recommended to be prioritized as follows: movable microwave sterilization, movable steam sterilization, movable incineration, co-incineration with hazardous waste, co-incineration with MSW and co-disposal in cement kilns. Infectious MW, especially COVID-19 MW, should be prioritized for disposal by centralized and movable disposal facilities, while non-infectious MW can be disposed of using co-disposal facilities. All stakeholders should strengthen the delicacy management of the end-of-life stage of MW, including collection, classification, packaging identification, transportation, and disposal. Currently, it is necessary for centralized disposal enterprises to follow the emergency disposal operation flowchart. From a long-term strategic perspective, making full use of regional movable and co-disposal facilities in the megacities can effectively enhance the emergency MW disposal capacity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Medical Waste Disposal , Medical Waste , Refuse Disposal , Waste Management , China/epidemiology , Humans , Incineration , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Solid Waste/analysis , Waste Disposal Facilities
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