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1.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 2139, 2021 11 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1528683

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The only previous studies that formulated a theoretical model of epidemics for psychological response relative to cultural perspectives have focused on the role of individualism-collectivism and have omitted analysis of tightness-looseness. This study explored the role of cultural tightness in relation to psychological disorders during the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: We recruited 1827 Chinese adolescents (Mage = 18.16 ± 2.23 years, 53.3% female) to participate a cross-sectional survey. Participants completed a series of questionnaires, including the scales of cultural tightness, risk perception of COVID-19 pandemic, perceived protection efficacy, anxiety and depression. A latent moderated structural equations model was used to analyse the mediating and moderating effects of risk perception regarding COVID-19, cultural tightness and perceived protection efficacy on psychological disorders. RESULTS: The results showed that greater risk perception of COVID-19 predicted greater psychological disorders, however cultural tightness moderated this positive relationship. The increase in psychological disorders with risk perception regarding COVID-19 was less pronounced among people who lived in tighter cultural areas. In addition, this moderating effect of cultural tightness was further mediated by perceived protection efficacy; that is, tight culture protects against psychological disorders by enhancing perceived protection efficacy. CONCLUSION: This study enriched the theoretical framework of cultural tightness and indicated its importance in the field of mental health and health policies. It also emphasized the importance of tight culture as a protective factor against psychological disorders in case of COVID-19 outbreaks, providing valuable practical insight into psychological prevention for COVID-19 outbreaks.

2.
Diabetes Metab Syndr Obes ; 14: 4469-4482, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526719

ABSTRACT

Purpose: To analyze the impact of hyperglycemia on the clinical outcome of COVID-19 in patients with newly diagnosed diabetes (NDD). Patients and Methods: We performed a retrospective study of 3114 cases of COVID-19 without pre-existing diabetes, 351 of which had NDD, in Hubei Province, China. The Cox regression model was used to calculate the risk of adverse clinical outcomes comparing the NDD vs non-NDD group before and after propensity score-matched (PSM) analysis. Patients with NDD were further divided into a sustained hyperglycemia group, a fluctuating group, and a remitted group based on their blood glucose levels during hospitalization as well as into hypoglycemic agent users and nonusers. Results: Compared to the non-NDD individuals, individuals with NDD had a significantly increased risk of all-cause mortality (adjusted HR after PSM, 2.65; 95% CI, 1.49-4.72; P = 0.001) and secondary outcomes involving organ damage during the 28-day follow-up period. Subgroup analyses indicated that among individuals with NDD, the individuals with remitted hyperglycemia had the lowest 28-day mortality, whereas those with sustained hyperglycemia had the highest (IRR 24.27; 95% CI, 3.21-183.36; P < 0.001). Moreover, individuals treated with hypoglycemic agents had significantly lower all-cause mortality than those not treated with hypoglycemic agents (IRR 0.08; 95% CI, 0.01-0.56; P < 0.001). Conclusion: Our study reinforces the clinical message that NDD is strongly associated with poor outcomes in COVID-19 patients. Furthermore, resolved hyperglycemia in the later phase of the disease and the use of hypoglycemic agents were associated with improved prognosis in patients with NDD.

3.
Journal of Infection and Public Health ; 2021.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1517346

ABSTRACT

Background Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic continues to escalate intensively worldwide. Massive studies on general populations with SARS-CoV-2 infection have revealed that pre-existing comorbidities were a major risk factor for the poor prognosis of COVID-19. Notably, 49-75% of COVID-19 patients had no comorbidities, but this cohort would also progress to severe COVID-19 or even death. However, risk factors contributing to disease progression and death in patients without chronic comorbidities are largely unknown;thus, specific clinical interventions for those patients are challenging. Methods A multicenter, retrospective study based on 4,806 COVID-19 patients without chronic comorbidities was performed to identify potential risk factors contributing to COVID-19 progression and death using LASSO and a stepwise logistic regression model. Results Among 4,806 patients without pre-existing comorbidities, the proportions with severe progression and mortality were 34.29% and 2.10%, respectively. The median age was 47.00 years [interquartile range, 36.00-56.00], and 2,162 (44.99%) were men. Among 51 clinical parameters on admission, age ≥ 47, oxygen saturation < 95%, increased lactate dehydrogenase, neutrophil count, direct bilirubin, creatine phosphokinase, blood urea nitrogen levels, dyspnea, increased blood glucose and prothrombin time levels were associated with COVID-19 mortality in the entire cohort. Of the 3,647 patients diagnosed with non-severe COVID-19 on admission, 489(13.41%) progressed to severe disease. The risk factors associated with COVID-19 progression from non-severe to severe illness were increased procalcitonin levels, SpO2 < 95%, age ≥ 47, increased LDH, activated partial thromboplastin time levels, decreased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, dyspnea and increased D-dimer levels. Conclusions COVID-19 patients without pre-existing chronic comorbidities have specific traits and disease patterns. COVID-19 accompanied by severe bacterial infections, as indicated by increased procalcitonin levels, was highly associated with disease progression from non-severe to severe. Aging, impaired respiratory function, coagulation dysfunction, tissue injury, and lipid metabolism dysregulation were also associated with disease progression. Once factors for multi-organ damage were elevated and glucose increased at admission, these findings indicated a higher risk for mortality. This study provides information that helps to predict COVID-19 prognosis specifically in patients without chronic comorbidities.

4.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 22042, 2021 11 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1510622

ABSTRACT

The mutation of SARS-CoV-2 influences viral function as residue replacements affect both physiochemical properties and folding conformations. Although a large amount of data on SARS-CoV-2 is available, the investigation of how viral functions change in response to mutations is hampered by a lack of effective structural analysis. Here, we exploit the advances of protein structure fingerprint technology to study the folding conformational changes induced by mutations. With integration of both protein sequences and folding conformations, the structures are aligned for SARS-CoV to SARS-CoV-2, including Alpha variant (lineage B.1.1.7) and Delta variant (lineage B.1.617.2). The results showed that the virus evolution with change in mutational positions and physicochemical properties increased the affinity between spike protein and ACE2, which plays a critical role in coronavirus entry into human cells. Additionally, these structural variations impact vaccine effectiveness and drug function over the course of SARS-CoV-2 evolution. The analysis of structural variations revealed how the coronavirus has gradually evolved in both structure and function and how the SARS-CoV-2 variants have contributed to more severe acute disease worldwide.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Evolution, Molecular , Mutation , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Amino Acid Sequence , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/metabolism , Humans , Models, Molecular , Protein Conformation , Protein Folding , Protein Interaction Maps , Protein Multimerization , SARS Virus/chemistry , SARS Virus/genetics , SARS Virus/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Sequence Alignment , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
5.
Phytomedicine ; : 153853, 2021 Nov 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1510181

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Previous studies suggest that major Camellia sinensis (tea) catechins can inhibit 3-chymotrypsin-like cysteine protease (3CLpro), inspiring us to study 3CLpro inhibition of the recently discovered catechins from tea by our group. METHODS: Autodock was used to dock 3CLpro and 16 tea catechins. Further, a 3CLpro activity detection system was used to test their intra and extra cellular 3CLpro inhibitory activity. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) was used to analyze the dissociation constant (KD) between the catechins and 3CLpro. RESULTS: Docking data suggested that 3CLpro interacted with the selected 16 catechins with low binding energy through the key amino acid residues Thr24, Thr26, Asn142, Gly143, His163, and Gln189. The selected catechins other than zijuanin D (3) and (-)-8-(5''R)-N-ethyl-2-pyrrolidinone-3-O-cinnamoylepicatechin (11) can inhibit 3CLpro intracellularly. The extracellular 3CLpro IC50 values of (-)-epicatechin 3-O-caffeoate (EC-C, 1), zijuanin C (2), etc-pyrrolidinone C and D (6), etc-pyrrolidinone A (9), (+)-gallocatechin gallate (GCG), and (-)-epicatechin gallate (ECG) are 1.58 ± 0.21, 41.2 ± 3.56, 0.90 ± 0.03, 46.71 ± 10.50, 3.38 ± 0.48, and 71.78 ± 8.36 µM, respectively. The KD values of 1, 6, and GCG are 4.29, 3.46, and 3.36 µM, respectively. CONCLUSION: Together, EC-C (1), etc-pyrrolidinone C and D (6), and GCG are strong 3CLpro inhibitors. Our results suggest that structural modification of catechins could be conducted by esterificating the 3-OH as well as changing the configuration of C-3, C-3''' or C-5''' to discover strong SARS-CoV-2 inhibitors.

6.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-292323

ABSTRACT

This paper presents a physics-informed machine learning approach to the derivation of a bottom-up coarse-grained model of the SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein from all-atomic molecular dynamics simulations. The machine learning procedure employs a force-matching scheme in the optimization of interaction parameters, where the force-matching scheme is combined in methodology with the initialization of the interaction parameters by the traditional iterative Boltzmann inversion method. The force-matched machine learning procedure is constructed based on two physics-informed layers: one is the Harmonic layer consisting of bond, angle, and dihedral terms as bonded potentials;the other is the Lennard-Jones layer consisting of the non-bonded Lennard-Jones potential. Coarse-grained validation simulations are performed with the learned parameters to test the derived bottom-up coarse-grained model. The simulations are able to reach the microsecond time scale with stability. The physics-informed learning approach yields simulation speeds nearly 40,000 times faster than conventional all-atomic simulations while maintaining comparable simulation accuracy. Additionally, through examination of the non-bonded Lennard-Jones parameters and the radial distribution function analysis, the learning approach matches pairwise distances of the ground-truth data with greater accuracy than the conventional iterative approach method.

7.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(45)2021 11 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1493350

ABSTRACT

We describe an unvaccinated child at risk for life-threatening COVID-19 due to an inherited deficiency of IRF9, which governs ISGF-3-dependent responses to type I and III interferons (IFN). She was admitted, with a high nasal SARS-CoV-2 load on day 1 of upper respiratory tract infection. She was viremic on day 2 and received casirivimab and imdevimab. Her clinical manifestations and viremia disappeared on days 3 and 4, respectively. Circulating SARS-CoV-2 virus induced the expression of IFN-stimulated genes in leukocytes on day 1, whereas the secretion of blood type I IFNs, which peaked on day 4, did not. Antibody-mediated SARS-CoV-2 neutralization is, therefore, sufficient to overcome a deficiency of antiviral IFNs.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , COVID-19/therapy , Interferon-Stimulated Gene Factor 3, gamma Subunit/deficiency , Interferon-Stimulated Gene Factor 3, gamma Subunit/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/therapeutic use , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Immunocompromised Host , Mutation , Viral Load
8.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-291839

ABSTRACT

Background: Understanding immune memory to COVID-19 vaccines is critical for the design and optimal vaccination schedule for curbing the COVID-19 pandemic. Here, we assessed the persistence of humoral and cellular immune responses for 12 months after two-dose CoronaVac.Methods: Participants aged 18–59 years received two doses of 3 μg CoronaVac 14 days apart, and blood samples were collected before vaccination (baseline) and at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months after the second shot. Humoral responses of specific antibodies and neutralising antibodies were measured by using chemiluminescent immunoassay and wild-type SARS-CoV-2 microneutralisation assay, respectively. Cellular responses were measured by immunospot-based and intracellular cytokine staining assays. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT05072496.Findings: Total 150 participants were enrolled, and 136 of them completed the study through the 12-month endpoint. At 1 month after vaccination, binding and neutralising antibodies emerged rapidly, the seropositive rate of binding antibodies and seroconversion rate of neutralizing antibodies was 99% and 50%, respectively. From 3 to 12 months, the binding and neutralizing antibodies declined slightly overtime. At 12 months, the binding and neutralizing antibodies were still detectable and significantly higher than the baseline. IFN-γ and IL-2 secretion specifically induced by RBD persisted at high levels until 6 months, and could be observed at 12 months, while the levels of IL-5 and Granzyme B were hardly detected, demonstrating a Th1-biased response. Besides, specific CD4+TCM, CD4+TEMM, CD8+ TEMand CD8+TE cells were all detectable and functional up to 12 months after the second dose, as the cells produced IFN-γ, IL-2, and GzmB in response to stimulation of SARS-CoV-2 RBD.Interpretation: CoronaVac not only induced durable binding and neutralising antibody responses, but also SARS-CoV-2-specific CD4+ and CD8+ memory T cells for up to 12 months.Trial Registration: This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT05072496.Funding: Beijing Municipal Science & Technology CommissionDeclaration of Interest: None to declare. Ethical Approval: The trial protocol was approved by the Ethics Committee of Beijing CDC (2020-28)

9.
Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications ; : 126558, 2021.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1487921

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) threatens the health and safety of all humanity. This disease has a prominent feature: the presymptomatic and asymptomatic viral carriers can spread the disease. It is crucial to estimate the impact of this undetected transmission on epidemic outbreaks. Currently, disease-related information has been widely disseminated by the mass media. To investigate the impact of both individuals and mass media information dissemination on the epidemic spreading, we establish a new UAU-SEIR (Unaware–Aware–Unaware–Susceptible–Exposed– Infected–Recovered) model with mass media on two-layer multiplex networks. In the model, E-state individuals denote asymptomatic infections, and a single node connecting to all individuals denotes the mass media. In this work, we use the Microscopic Markovian Chain Approach(MMCA) to derive the epidemic threshold. Comparing the MMCA theoretical results and MC simulations results, we find that the MMCA has a good consistency with MC simulation. In addition, we also analyze the impact of model parameters on epidemic spreading and epidemic threshold. The results show that reducing the proportion of asymptomatic infections, accelerating the dissemination of information between individuals and the dissemination of information via the mass media can effectively inhibit the epidemic spreading and raise the epidemic threshold.

10.
Journal of Physics Communications ; 5(10), 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1462255

ABSTRACT

Since the COVID-19 pandemic began, two drugs, chloroquine (CQ) and hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), have received renewed attention. Using the density functional theory method in the CASTEP and DMol3 packages, we calculated both molecules’ infrared spectra and the partial phonon density of states of the hydroxyl group to identify the origin of the differences between the two spectra. Some characteristic vibrational modes of the hydroxyl group in HCQ were analysed individually. We also compared their Fukui functions and found that the oxygen atom in HCQ possesses electrophilic properties. This finding may be related to the large difference in toxicity between these two drugs. The method herein presents a new pathway to investigate organic molecules from the view of physics.

11.
Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol ; 35: 20587384211048567, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463208

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) had become a worldwide health threat. Early prediction of the severity of COVID-19 patients was important for reducing death rate and controlling this disease. METHODS AND MATERIALS: A total of 301 patients confirmed with COVID-19 in Wuhan from 8 February to 10 April 2020 were included. Clinical data were collected and analyzed. Diagnostic and prognostic utility of blood cell counts and lymphocyte subsets in COVID-19 patients were investigated. The receiver operator characteristic curve (ROC) was used in discriminating the mild and severe/critical cases. RESULTS: There were difference in blood cell counts and lymphocyte subsets among mild, severe and critical patients, which were also influenced by comorbidities and duration of disease. The area under the ROC of lymphocyte, CD3+ T cells, CD4+ T cells, and CD8+ T cells were 0.718, 0.721, 0.718, and 0.670, which were higher than that of other hematological parameters. The optimal threshold was 1205, 691, 402, and 177 per µl, respectively. Patients with higher counts of lymphocyte, CD3+ T cells, CD4+ T cells, or CD8+ T cells were correlated with shorter length of stay in hospital (p < 0.05). Multivariable Cox regression analysis showed disease severity, CD3+ T cells counts and time when the nucleic acid turned negative were independent risk factors for in-hospital death of COVID-19 patients (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Blood cell counts and lymphocyte subsets correlated with severity of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Lymphocyte Subsets/immunology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , CD4 Lymphocyte Count , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , China , Female , Hospital Mortality , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Lymphocyte Subsets/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Phenotype , Predictive Value of Tests , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Severity of Illness Index , Time Factors , Young Adult
13.
Sci Immunol ; 6(62)2021 08 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1434876

ABSTRACT

Autosomal inborn errors of type I IFN immunity and autoantibodies against these cytokines underlie at least 10% of critical COVID-19 pneumonia cases. We report very rare, biochemically deleterious X-linked TLR7 variants in 16 unrelated male individuals aged 7 to 71 years (mean: 36.7 years) from a cohort of 1,202 male patients aged 0.5 to 99 years (mean: 52.9 years) with unexplained critical COVID-19 pneumonia. None of the 331 asymptomatically or mildly infected male individuals aged 1.3 to 102 years (mean: 38.7 years) tested carry such TLR7 variants (p = 3.5 × 10-5). The phenotypes of five hemizygous relatives of index cases infected with SARS-CoV-2 include asymptomatic or mild infection (n=2, 5 and 38 years), or moderate (n=1, 5 years), severe (n=1, 27 years), or critical (n=1, 29 years) pneumonia. Two boys (aged 7 and 12 years) from a cohort of 262 male patients with severe COVID-19 pneumonia (mean: 51.0 years) are hemizygous for a deleterious TLR7 variant. The cumulative allele frequency for deleterious TLR7 variants in the male general population is < 6.5x10-4 We also show that blood B cell lines and myeloid cell subsets from the patients do not respond to TLR7 stimulation, a phenotype rescued by wild-type TLR7 The patients' blood plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) produce low levels of type I IFNs in response to SARS-CoV-2. Overall, X-linked recessive TLR7 deficiency is a highly penetrant genetic etiology of critical COVID-19 pneumonia, in about 1.8% of male patients below the age of 60 years. Human TLR7 and pDCs are essential for protective type I IFN immunity against SARS-CoV-2 in the respiratory tract.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Genetic Diseases, X-Linked/complications , Immune System Diseases/complications , Toll-Like Receptor 7/deficiency , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Alleles , Child , Child, Preschool , Humans , Infant , Male , Middle Aged , Pedigree , Penetrance , Toll-Like Receptor 7/genetics , Young Adult
14.
Front Public Health ; 9: 712190, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1405442

ABSTRACT

Fever is one of the typical symptoms of coronavirus disease (COVID-19). We aimed to investigate the association between early fever (EF) and clinical outcomes in COVID-19 patients. A total of 1,014 COVID-19 patients at the Leishenshan Hospital were enrolled and classified into the EF and non-EF groups based on whether they had fever within 5 days of symptom onset. Risk factors for clinical outcomes in patients with different levels of disease severity were analyzed using multivariable analyses. Time from symptom onset to symptom alleviation, CT image improvement, and discharge were longer for patients with moderate and severe disease in the EF group than in the non-EF group. Multivariable analysis showed that sex, EF, eosinophil number, C-reactive protein, and IL-6 levels were positively correlated with the time from symptom onset to hospital discharge in moderate cases. The EF patients showed no significant differences in the development of acute respiratory distress syndrome, compared with the non-EF patients. The Kaplan-Meier curve showed no obvious differences in survival between the EF and non-EF patients. However, EF patients with increased temperature showed markedly lower survival than the non-EF patients with increased temperature. EF had no significant impact on the survival of critically ill patients, while an increase in temperature was identified as an independent risk factor. EF appears to be a predictor of longer recovery time in moderate/severe COVID-19 infections. However, its value in predicting mortality needs to be considered for critically ill patients with EF showing increasing temperature.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Critical Illness , Fever/epidemiology , Humans , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Nonlinear Dyn ; : 1-15, 2021 Sep 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1401059

ABSTRACT

The currently ongoing COVID-19 pandemic confronts governments and their health systems with great challenges for disease management. Epidemiological models play a crucial role, thereby assisting policymakers to predict the future course of infections and hospitalizations. One difficulty with current models is the existence of exogenous and unmeasurable variables and their significant effect on the infection dynamics. In this paper, we show how a method from nonlinear control theory can complement common compartmental epidemiological models. As a result, one can estimate and predict these exogenous variables requiring the reported infection cases as the only data source. The method allows to investigate how the estimates of exogenous variables are influenced by non-pharmaceutical interventions and how imminent epidemic waves could already be predicted at an early stage. In this way, the concept can serve as an "epidemometer" and guide the optimal timing of interventions. Analyses of the COVID-19 epidemic in various countries demonstrate the feasibility and potential of the proposed approach. The generic character of the method allows for straightforward extension to different epidemiological models.

16.
Acta Biomater ; 2021 Sep 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1384809

ABSTRACT

Many biomarkers for early diagnosis of cancer and other diseases are difficult to detect because they often exist in body fluids in very low concentrations and are masked by high-abundance proteins such as albumin and immunoglobulins. At the same time, water pollution is one of the most serious environmental problems, but the existing adsorption materials have many shortcomings such as slow kinetics, small adsorption capacity and low adsorption efficiency. Nanotraps, mixed with gases or liquids, can capture and concentrate target substances, such as biomolecules, metal ions and oxoanions. Using nanotraps is a versatile sample pre-processing approach and it can improve the sensitivity of downstream analysis techniques. Herein, the preparations and applications of different types of nanotraps are mainly introduced. What's more, the shortcomings of using nanotraps in practical applications are also discussed. Using nanotraps is a promising sample pre-processing technology, which is of great significance for biomarkers discovery, diseases diagnosis, sewage purification and valuable ions recovery. STATEMENT OF SIGNIFICANCE: This review collates and summarizes the preparations and applications of different types of nanotraps, and discusses the shortcomings of using nanotraps in practical applications. Nanotraps, mixed with gases or liquids, can capture and concentrate target materials, such as biomolecules, metal ions and oxoanions. Using nanotraps is a versatile sample pre-processing approach and it can improve the sensitivity of downstream analysis techniques. During the COVID-19 pandemic, hydrogel nanotraps were successfully utilized for RT-PCR analysis with the FDA Emergency Used Authorization for COVID-19. Using nanotraps is a promising sample pre-processing technology, which is of great significance for biomarkers discovery, diseases diagnosis, sewage purification and valuable ions recovery.

18.
Bioelectrochemistry ; 142: 107894, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1330658

ABSTRACT

Extensive amounts of chlorine disinfectants have been applied to wastewater system since the outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which inevitably affects the pollutant degradation via interfering with electron transfer mediated by electroactive bacteria. Herein, the response of electroactive biofilm (EAB) to chronic chlorine exposure was investigated. Results showed the EAB formed without exposure (EAB-0) exhibited a 53% and 123% higher current output than that formed with 0.1 mg L-1 (EAB-0.1) and 0.5 mg L-1 (EAB-0.5) chlorine, respectively. The chronic chlorine exposure of EAB boosted the contents of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) in EAB-0.1 and EAB-0.5 by over secretion of extracellular polysaccharides. The EAB-0.1 and EAB-0.5 also presented lower electron exchange capacities (EECs) of EPS, coincided with reduced relative abundance of Geobacter from 61% in EAB-0 to 52% in EAB-0.5. This study provided new insights into the application of engineered EAB for wastewater treatment in a disinfection environment.


Subject(s)
Biofilms/drug effects , Chlorine/pharmacology , Disinfectants/pharmacology , Extracellular Polymeric Substance Matrix/metabolism , Time Factors
19.
Thorax ; 2021 Feb 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1318208

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: As the epidemic of COVID-19 is gradually controlled in China, a summary of epidemiological characteristics and interventions may help control its global spread. METHODS: Data for COVID-19 cases in Hubei Province (capital, Wuhan) was extracted until 7 March 2020. The spatiotemporal distribution of the epidemic in four periods (before 10 January, 10-22 January, 23 January-6 February and 7 February-7 March) was evaluated, and the impacts of interventions were observed. RESULTS: Among 67 706 COVID-19 cases, 52 111 (76.97%) were aged 30-69 years old, and 34 680 (51.22%) were women. The average daily attack rates (95% CI) were 0.5 (0.3 to 0.7), 14.2 (13.2 to 15.1), 45.7 (44.0 to 47.5) and 8.6 (7.8 to 9.3) cases per 106 people in four periods, and the harmonic means (95% CI) of doubling times were 4.28 (4.01 to 4.55), 3.87 (3.78 to 3.98), 5.40 (4.83 to 6.05) and 45.56 (39.70 to 52.80) days. Compared with the first period, daily attack rates rose rapidly in the second period. In the third period, 14 days after 23 January, the daily average attack rate in and outside Wuhan declined by 33.8% and 48.0%; the doubling times increased by 95.0% and 133.2%. In the four periods, 14 days after 7 February, the daily average attack rate in and outside Wuhan decreased by 79.1% and 95.2%; the doubling times increased by 79.2% and 152.0%. CONCLUSIONS: The public health interventions were associated with a reduction in COVID-19 cases in Hubei Province, especially in districts outside of Wuhan.

20.
Genes (Basel) ; 12(7)2021 06 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1288843

ABSTRACT

This study builds a coronavirus knowledge graph (KG) by merging two information sources. The first source is Analytical Graph (AG), which integrates more than 20 different public datasets related to drug discovery. The second source is CORD-19, a collection of published scientific articles related to COVID-19. We combined both chemo genomic entities in AG with entities extracted from CORD-19 to expand knowledge in the COVID-19 domain. Before populating KG with those entities, we perform entity disambiguation on CORD-19 collections using Wikidata. Our newly built KG contains at least 21,700 genes, 2500 diseases, 94,000 phenotypes, and other biological entities (e.g., compound, species, and cell lines). We define 27 relationship types and use them to label each edge in our KG. This research presents two cases to evaluate the KG's usability: analyzing a subgraph (ego-centered network) from the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) and revealing paths between biological entities (hydroxychloroquine and IL-6 receptor; chloroquine and STAT1). The ego-centered network captured information related to COVID-19. We also found significant COVID-19-related information in top-ranked paths with a depth of three based on our path evaluation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Knowledge Bases , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/etiology , Chloroquine/pharmacology , Computer Graphics , Databases, Factual , Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola/drug therapy , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/pharmacology , Pattern Recognition, Automated , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/genetics , PubMed , Receptors, Interleukin-6/blood , SARS-CoV-2 , STAT1 Transcription Factor
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