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1.
Journal of Hazardous Materials ; 401:123361-123361, 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-662221

ABSTRACT

Contaminated sites from pesticide industry have attracted global concern due to the characteristics of organic pollution with high concentrations and complete loss of habitat conditions Remediation of organophosphorus pesticide polluted soil using microwave-activated persulfate (MW/PS) oxidation was investigated in this study, with parathion as the representative pesticide Approximately 90 % of parathion was degraded after 90 min of MW/PS oxidation treatment, which was superior to those by single PS or MW treatment Relatively greater performances for parathion degradation were obtained in a relatively larger PS dosage, higher microwave temperature, and lower organic matter content Appropriate soil moisture favored parathion degradation in soil SO4-, OH, O2-, and 1O2 generated in the MW/PS system all contributed to parathion degradation Multiple spectroscopy analyses indicated that PO and PS bonds in parathion were destroyed after MW/PS oxidation, accompanied by generation of hydroxylated and carbonylated byproducts The soil safety after parathion degradation was assessed via model prediction Furthermore, MW/PS oxidation also exhibited great performance for degradation of other organophosphorus pesticides, including ethion, phorate, and terbufos

2.
Cell Metab ; 2020 Aug 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-741151

ABSTRACT

The safety and efficacy of anti-diabetic drugs are critical for maximizing the beneficial impacts of well-controlled blood glucose on the prognosis of individuals with COVID-19 and pre-existing type 2 diabetes (T2D). Metformin is the most commonly prescribed first-line medication for T2D, but its impact on the outcomes of individuals with COVID-19 and T2D remains to be clarified. Our current retrospective study in a cohort of 1,213 hospitalized individuals with COVID-19 and pre-existing T2D indicated that metformin use was significantly associated with a higher incidence of acidosis, particularly in cases with severe COVID-19, but not with 28-day COVID-19-related mortality. Furthermore, metformin use was significantly associated with reduced heart failure and inflammation. Our findings provide clinical evidence in support of continuing metformin treatment in individuals with COVID-19 and pre-existing T2D, but acidosis and kidney function should be carefully monitored in individuals with severe COVID-19.

3.
Open Access J. Clin. ; (12): 15-21, 2020.
Article in English | ELSEVIER | ID: covidwho-725554

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The first clinical trial on remdesivir for treatment of severe COVID-19 conducted in China was terminated prematurely due to limited patient enrollment, which rendered the findings inconclusive. We re-analyzed the efficacy with a statistically more powerful and clinically meaningful method based on published data using the 6-point ordinal scale of patient’s disease severity. Methods: We defined response as patient’s point reached, either 2 (hospitalized, no require-ment for supplementary oxygen therapy) or 1 (discharged or met discharge criterion), and then analyzed with logistic regression with baseline score, day of assessment, treatment group, baseline by treatment interaction, and day by treatment interaction as covariates. The binary endpoint was supported by the recent FDA’s guidance on COVID-19. Results: Eighty-two percent (82%) of the patients were in the disease severity point=3 (hospitalized, required supplemental oxygen (but not NIV/HFNC)) – the moderately severe category. The response rate was 85% for remdesivir-treated patients with baseline disease point=3 versus 70% response rate for likewise placebo-treated patients on Day 28 (OR=2.38, P=0.0012). On Day 14, the response rate for these patients was 43% for remdesivir versus 33% for placebo (OR=1.53, P=0.0022). For patients with baseline disease point=4 (critically severe category), no similar comparisons were statistically significant. Conclusion and Discussion: The Chinese trial was not really under-powered as previously perceived or portrayed by many opinions. This result supports the preliminary findings of ACTT that remdesivir is effective for patients who were not critically severe. This result also suggests that remdesivir should be given to hospitalized COVID-19 patients as soon as possible. There is no race difference in the treatment effect.

4.
Cell Metab ; 2020 Aug 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-722245

ABSTRACT

The safety and efficacy of anti-diabetic drugs are critical for maximizing the beneficial impacts of well-controlled blood glucose on the prognosis of individuals with COVID-19 and pre-existing type 2 diabetes (T2D). Metformin is the most commonly prescribed first-line medication for T2D, but its impact on the outcomes of individuals with COVID-19 and T2D remains to be clarified. Our current retrospective study in a cohort of 1,213 hospitalized individuals with COVID-19 and pre-existing T2D indicated that metformin use was significantly associated with a higher incidence of acidosis, particularly in cases with severe COVID-19, but not with 28-day COVID-19-related mortality. Furthermore, metformin use was significantly associated with reduced heart failure and inflammation. Our findings provide clinical evidence in support of continuing metformin treatment in individuals with COVID-19 and pre-existing T2D, but acidosis and kidney function should be carefully monitored in individuals with severe COVID-19.

6.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 166: 112471, 2020 Oct 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-670678

ABSTRACT

The infection and spread of pathogens (e.g., COVID-19) pose an enormous threat to the safety of human beings and animals all over the world. The rapid and accurate monitoring and determination of pathogens are of great significance to clinical diagnosis, food safety and environmental evaluation. In recent years, with the evolution of nanotechnology, nano-sized graphene and graphene derivatives have been frequently introduced into the construction of biosensors due to their unique physicochemical properties and biocompatibility. The combination of biomolecules with specific recognition capabilities and graphene materials provides a promising strategy to construct more stable and sensitive biosensors for the detection of pathogens. This review tracks the development of graphene biosensors for the detection of bacterial and viral pathogens, mainly including the preparation of graphene biosensors and their working mechanism. The challenges involved in this field have been discussed, and the perspective for further development has been put forward, aiming to promote the development of pathogens sensing and the contribution to epidemic prevention.


Subject(s)
Bacteria/isolation & purification , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Biosensing Techniques/methods , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Graphite , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Viruses/isolation & purification , Animals , Bacteria/genetics , Bacteria/pathogenicity , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Graphite/chemistry , Humans , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques , Nanotechnology , Viruses/genetics , Viruses/pathogenicity
7.
Hypertension ; 76(4): 1104-1112, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-648912

ABSTRACT

The prognostic power of circulating cardiac biomarkers, their utility, and pattern of release in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients have not been clearly defined. In this multicentered retrospective study, we enrolled 3219 patients with diagnosed COVID-19 admitted to 9 hospitals from December 31, 2019 to March 4, 2020, to estimate the associations and prognostic power of circulating cardiac injury markers with the poor outcomes of COVID-19. In the mixed-effects Cox model, after adjusting for age, sex, and comorbidities, the adjusted hazard ratio of 28-day mortality for hs-cTnI (high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I) was 7.12 ([95% CI, 4.60-11.03] P<0.001), (NT-pro)BNP (N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide or brain natriuretic peptide) was 5.11 ([95% CI, 3.50-7.47] P<0.001), CK (creatine phosphokinase)-MB was 4.86 ([95% CI, 3.33-7.09] P<0.001), MYO (myoglobin) was 4.50 ([95% CI, 3.18-6.36] P<0.001), and CK was 3.56 ([95% CI, 2.53-5.02] P<0.001). The cutoffs of those cardiac biomarkers for effective prognosis of 28-day mortality of COVID-19 were found to be much lower than for regular heart disease at about 19%-50% of the currently recommended thresholds. Patients with elevated cardiac injury markers above the newly established cutoffs were associated with significantly increased risk of COVID-19 death. In conclusion, cardiac biomarker elevations are significantly associated with 28-day death in patients with COVID-19. The prognostic cutoff values of these biomarkers might be much lower than the current reference standards. These findings can assist in better management of COVID-19 patients to improve outcomes. Importantly, the newly established cutoff levels of COVID-19-associated cardiac biomarkers may serve as useful criteria for the future prospective studies and clinical trials.

8.
Cell Metab ; 32(2): 176-187.e4, 2020 08 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-612919

ABSTRACT

Statins are lipid-lowering therapeutics with favorable anti-inflammatory profiles and have been proposed as an adjunct therapy for COVID-19. However, statins may increase the risk of SARS-CoV-2 viral entry by inducing ACE2 expression. Here, we performed a retrospective study on 13,981 patients with COVID-19 in Hubei Province, China, among which 1,219 received statins. Based on a mixed-effect Cox model after propensity score-matching, we found that the risk for 28-day all-cause mortality was 5.2% and 9.4% in the matched statin and non-statin groups, respectively, with an adjusted hazard ratio of 0.58. The statin use-associated lower risk of mortality was also observed in the Cox time-varying model and marginal structural model analysis. These results give support for the completion of ongoing prospective studies and randomized controlled trials involving statin treatment for COVID-19, which are needed to further validate the utility of this class of drugs to combat the mortality of this pandemic.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Antihypertensive Agents/therapeutic use , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Drug Repositioning/methods , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Aged , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Cytokine Release Syndrome/drug therapy , Drug Therapy, Combination , Female , Humans , Hypertension/drug therapy , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/drug effects , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Retrospective Studies
9.
Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue ; 32(4): 430-434, 2020 Apr.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-594902

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To provide a reference for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) inter-hospital transport during coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), based on the transport experience of 6 patients with severe H1N1 influenza virus pneumonia using ECMO. METHODS: Clinical data of patients with severe H1N1 influenza virus pneumonia implemented by ECMO in the First Affiliated Hospital of Wannan Medical College from October 2018 to December 2019 were retrospective analyzed, including general information, ECMO transport distance, time, clinical parameters before and after ECMO, including the patients' oxygenation index (PaO2/FiO2), respiratory rate (RR), pulse blood oxygen saturation (SpO2), arterial blood carbon dioxide partial pressure (PaCO2), and pH value, various complications during transport, mechanical ventilation time, patients' prognosis and other indicators. Experience from the aspects of personal protection, transport process and equipment, team cooperation, mid-transit monitoring, quality control, etc., was summarized to provide suggestions for patients with severe COVID-19 using ECMO during inter-hospital transport and protection. RESULTS: A total of 6 patients with severe H1N1 influenza virus pneumonia were transported on ECMO. All patients were transported to the intensive care unit (ICU) of the First Affiliated Hospital of Wannan Medical College by the ECMO transport team after the establishment of ECMO in the local hospital. The transfer distance was 11 to 197 km, with an average of (93.8±58.6) km; the transfer time was 30 to 150 minutes, with an average of (79.2±40.6) minutes. Two patients experienced a drop in ECMO flow and SpO2 during the process, and the main reason was insufficient volume, which was improved after fluid resuscitation and posture adjustment. All patients maintained SpO2 above 0.93. Six patients survived and were discharged. ECMO assisted time was 4-9 days, with an average of (6.5±1.5) days; mechanical ventilation time was 7-24 days, and median time was 10.0 (8.0, 14.5) days. No H1N1 transmission occurred in medical personnel. To achieve good therapeutic effect, the main experience was to choose the proper timing and mode of ECMO; intact transportation vehicles and equipment to reduce or avoid mechanical complications; the effective management of respiration and circulation during the transportation to avoid ventilation-associated lung injury (VALI) and serious hypoxemia; the appropriate space for the transfer team to quickly handle various critical situations; and personal protection to avoid infection. CONCLUSIONS: With an experienced ECMO transport team, good transport equipment, comprehensive protection measures, reasonable transport procedures, and a perfect emergency plan, it is safe to use ECMO transport for COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , Influenza, Human , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia/therapy , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Adult , Humans , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
14.
Hepatology ; 72(2): 389-398, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-155329

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a new infectious disease. To reveal the hepatic injury related to this disease and its clinical significance, we conducted a multicenter retrospective cohort study that included 5,771 adult patients with COVID-19 pneumonia in Hubei Province. APPROACH AND RESULTS: We reported the distributional and temporal patterns of liver injury indicators in these patients and determined their associated factors and death risk. Longitudinal liver function tests were retrospectively analyzed and correlated with the risk factors and death. Liver injury dynamic patterns differed in alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and total bilirubin (TBIL). AST elevated first, followed by ALT, in severe patients. ALP modestly increased during hospitalization and largely remained in the normal range. The fluctuation in TBIL levels was mild in the non-severe and the severe groups. AST abnormality was associated with the highest mortality risk compared with the other indicators of liver injury during hospitalization. Common factors associated with elevated liver injury indicators were lymphocyte count decrease, neutrophil count increase, and male gender. CONCLUSION: The dynamic patterns of liver injury indicators and their potential risk factors may provide an important explanation for the COVID-19-associated liver injury. Because elevated liver injury indicators, particularly AST, are strongly associated with the mortality risk, our study indicates that these parameters should be monitored during hospitalization.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Liver/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Adult , Aged , Alanine Transaminase/blood , Alkaline Phosphatase/blood , Aspartate Aminotransferases/blood , Bilirubin/blood , Biomarkers , Female , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies
15.
Cell Metab ; 31(6): 1068-1077.e3, 2020 06 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-144092

ABSTRACT

Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a major comorbidity of COVID-19. However, the impact of blood glucose (BG) control on the degree of required medical interventions and on mortality in patients with COVID-19 and T2D remains uncertain. Thus, we performed a retrospective, multi-centered study of 7,337 cases of COVID-19 in Hubei Province, China, among which 952 had pre-existing T2D. We found that subjects with T2D required more medical interventions and had a significantly higher mortality (7.8% versus 2.7%; adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 1.49) and multiple organ injury than the non-diabetic individuals. Further, we found that well-controlled BG (glycemic variability within 3.9 to 10.0 mmol/L) was associated with markedly lower mortality compared to individuals with poorly controlled BG (upper limit of glycemic variability exceeding 10.0 mmol/L) (adjusted HR, 0.14) during hospitalization. These findings provide clinical evidence correlating improved glycemic control with better outcomes in patients with COVID-19 and pre-existing T2D.


Subject(s)
Blood Glucose/analysis , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/blood , Glycemic Index/physiology , Hyperglycemia/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Aged , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Disease Susceptibility/pathology , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Hyperglycemia/complications , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Multiple Organ Failure/complications , Multiple Organ Failure/mortality , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Retrospective Studies
16.
J Infect ; 81(2): e16-e25, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-109008

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: An epidemic of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) began in December 2019 and triggered a Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC). We aimed to find risk factors for the progression of COVID-19 to help reducing the risk of critical illness and death for clinical help. METHODS: The data of COVID-19 patients until March 20, 2020 were retrieved from four databases. We statistically analyzed the risk factors of critical/mortal and non-critical COVID-19 patients with meta-analysis. RESULTS: Thirteen studies were included in Meta-analysis, including a total number of 3027 patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Male, older than 65, and smoking were risk factors for disease progression in patients with COVID-19 (male: OR = 1.76, 95% CI (1.41, 2.18), P < 0.00001; age over 65 years old: OR =6.06, 95% CI(3.98, 9.22), P < 0.00001; current smoking: OR =2.51, 95% CI(1.39, 3.32), P = 0.0006). The proportion of underlying diseases such as hypertension, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and respiratory disease were statistically significant higher in critical/mortal patients compared to the non-critical patients (diabetes: OR=3.68, 95% CI (2.68, 5.03), P < 0.00001; hypertension: OR = 2.72, 95% CI (1.60,4.64), P = 0.0002; cardiovascular disease: OR = 5.19, 95% CI(3.25, 8.29), P < 0.00001; respiratory disease: OR = 5.15, 95% CI(2.51, 10.57), P < 0.00001). Clinical manifestations such as fever, shortness of breath or dyspnea were associated with the progression of disease [fever: 0R = 0.56, 95% CI (0.38, 0.82), P = 0.003;shortness of breath or dyspnea: 0R=4.16, 95% CI (3.13, 5.53), P < 0.00001]. Laboratory examination such as aspartate amino transferase(AST) > 40U/L, creatinine(Cr) ≥ 133mol/L, hypersensitive cardiac troponin I(hs-cTnI) > 28pg/mL, procalcitonin(PCT) > 0.5ng/mL, lactatede hydrogenase(LDH) > 245U/L, and D-dimer > 0.5mg/L predicted the deterioration of disease while white blood cells(WBC)<4 × 109/L meant a better clinical status[AST > 40U/L:OR=4.00, 95% CI (2.46, 6.52), P < 0.00001; Cr ≥ 133µmol/L: OR = 5.30, 95% CI (2.19, 12.83), P = 0.0002; hs-cTnI > 28 pg/mL: OR = 43.24, 95% CI (9.92, 188.49), P < 0.00001; PCT > 0.5 ng/mL: OR = 43.24, 95% CI (9.92, 188.49), P < 0.00001;LDH > 245U/L: OR = 43.24, 95% CI (9.92, 188.49), P < 0.00001; D-dimer > 0.5mg/L: OR = 43.24, 95% CI (9.92, 188.49), P < 0.00001; WBC < 4 × 109/L: OR = 0.30, 95% CI (0.17, 0.51), P < 0.00001]. CONCLUSION: Male, aged over 65, smoking patients might face a greater risk of developing into the critical or mortal condition and the comorbidities such as hypertension, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and respiratory diseases could also greatly affect the prognosis of the COVID-19. Clinical manifestation such as fever, shortness of breath or dyspnea and laboratory examination such as WBC, AST, Cr, PCT, LDH, hs-cTnI and D-dimer could imply the progression of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Acute Disease , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Coronavirus Infections/etiology , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Disease Progression , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/etiology , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Risk Factors , Severity of Illness Index , Sex Factors
17.
J Infect ; 81(2): e16-e25, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-108735

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: An epidemic of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) began in December 2019 and triggered a Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC). We aimed to find risk factors for the progression of COVID-19 to help reducing the risk of critical illness and death for clinical help. METHODS: The data of COVID-19 patients until March 20, 2020 were retrieved from four databases. We statistically analyzed the risk factors of critical/mortal and non-critical COVID-19 patients with meta-analysis. RESULTS: Thirteen studies were included in Meta-analysis, including a total number of 3027 patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Male, older than 65, and smoking were risk factors for disease progression in patients with COVID-19 (male: OR = 1.76, 95% CI (1.41, 2.18), P < 0.00001; age over 65 years old: OR =6.06, 95% CI(3.98, 9.22), P < 0.00001; current smoking: OR =2.51, 95% CI(1.39, 3.32), P = 0.0006). The proportion of underlying diseases such as hypertension, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and respiratory disease were statistically significant higher in critical/mortal patients compared to the non-critical patients (diabetes: OR=3.68, 95% CI (2.68, 5.03), P < 0.00001; hypertension: OR = 2.72, 95% CI (1.60,4.64), P = 0.0002; cardiovascular disease: OR = 5.19, 95% CI(3.25, 8.29), P < 0.00001; respiratory disease: OR = 5.15, 95% CI(2.51, 10.57), P < 0.00001). Clinical manifestations such as fever, shortness of breath or dyspnea were associated with the progression of disease [fever: 0R = 0.56, 95% CI (0.38, 0.82), P = 0.003;shortness of breath or dyspnea: 0R=4.16, 95% CI (3.13, 5.53), P < 0.00001]. Laboratory examination such as aspartate amino transferase(AST) > 40U/L, creatinine(Cr) ≥ 133mol/L, hypersensitive cardiac troponin I(hs-cTnI) > 28pg/mL, procalcitonin(PCT) > 0.5ng/mL, lactatede hydrogenase(LDH) > 245U/L, and D-dimer > 0.5mg/L predicted the deterioration of disease while white blood cells(WBC)<4 × 109/L meant a better clinical status[AST > 40U/L:OR=4.00, 95% CI (2.46, 6.52), P < 0.00001; Cr ≥ 133µmol/L: OR = 5.30, 95% CI (2.19, 12.83), P = 0.0002; hs-cTnI > 28 pg/mL: OR = 43.24, 95% CI (9.92, 188.49), P < 0.00001; PCT > 0.5 ng/mL: OR = 43.24, 95% CI (9.92, 188.49), P < 0.00001;LDH > 245U/L: OR = 43.24, 95% CI (9.92, 188.49), P < 0.00001; D-dimer > 0.5mg/L: OR = 43.24, 95% CI (9.92, 188.49), P < 0.00001; WBC < 4 × 109/L: OR = 0.30, 95% CI (0.17, 0.51), P < 0.00001]. CONCLUSION: Male, aged over 65, smoking patients might face a greater risk of developing into the critical or mortal condition and the comorbidities such as hypertension, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and respiratory diseases could also greatly affect the prognosis of the COVID-19. Clinical manifestation such as fever, shortness of breath or dyspnea and laboratory examination such as WBC, AST, Cr, PCT, LDH, hs-cTnI and D-dimer could imply the progression of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Acute Disease , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Coronavirus Infections/etiology , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Disease Progression , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/etiology , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Risk Factors , Severity of Illness Index , Sex Factors
18.
Circ Res ; 126(12): 1671-1681, 2020 06 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-72368

ABSTRACT

RATIONALE: Use of ACEIs (angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors) and ARBs (angiotensin II receptor blockers) is a major concern for clinicians treating coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in patients with hypertension. OBJECTIVE: To determine the association between in-hospital use of ACEI/ARB and all-cause mortality in patients with hypertension and hospitalized due to COVID-19. METHODS AND RESULTS: This retrospective, multi-center study included 1128 adult patients with hypertension diagnosed with COVID-19, including 188 taking ACEI/ARB (ACEI/ARB group; median age 64 [interquartile range, 55-68] years; 53.2% men) and 940 without using ACEI/ARB (non-ACEI/ARB group; median age 64 [interquartile range 57-69]; 53.5% men), who were admitted to 9 hospitals in Hubei Province, China from December 31, 2019 to February 20, 2020. In mixed-effect Cox model treating site as a random effect, after adjusting for age, gender, comorbidities, and in-hospital medications, the detected risk for all-cause mortality was lower in the ACEI/ARB group versus the non-ACEI/ARB group (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.42 [95% CI, 0.19-0.92]; P=0.03). In a propensity score-matched analysis followed by adjusting imbalanced variables in mixed-effect Cox model, the results consistently demonstrated lower risk of COVID-19 mortality in patients who received ACEI/ARB versus those who did not receive ACEI/ARB (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.37 [95% CI, 0.15-0.89]; P=0.03). Further subgroup propensity score-matched analysis indicated that, compared with use of other antihypertensive drugs, ACEI/ARB was also associated with decreased mortality (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.30 [95% CI, 0.12-0.70]; P=0.01) in patients with COVID-19 and coexisting hypertension. CONCLUSIONS: Among hospitalized patients with COVID-19 and coexisting hypertension, inpatient use of ACEI/ARB was associated with lower risk of all-cause mortality compared with ACEI/ARB nonusers. While study interpretation needs to consider the potential for residual confounders, it is unlikely that in-hospital use of ACEI/ARB was associated with an increased mortality risk.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/adverse effects , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/adverse effects , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Hospital Mortality , Hypertension/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Aged , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Female , Humans , Hypertension/complications , Hypertension/drug therapy , Inpatients/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications
19.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2020 Apr 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-72347

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since December 2019, SARS-CoV-2 virus has extended to most parts of China with more than 80 thousand cases and to at least 100 countries with more than 60 thousand international cases by March 15, 2020. Here we applied household cohort study to determine the features of household transmission of COVID-19. METHODS: Total 105 index patients and 392 household contacts were enrolled. Both index patients and household members were inspected by SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR. The information of all recruited people was extracted from medical records and confirmed or supplemented by telephone interviews. The baseline characteristics of index cases and contact patients were described. Secondary attack rates of SARS-CoV-2 to the contact members were computed and the risk factors for transmission within household were estimated. RESULTS: Secondary transmission of SARS-CoV-2 developed in 64 of 392 household contacts (16.3%). The secondary attack rate to children was 4% comparing with 17.1% to adults. The secondary attack rate to the contacts within the households with index patients quarantined by themselves since onset of symptoms was 0% comparing with 16.9% to the contacts without index patients quarantined. The secondary attack rate to contacts who were spouses of index cases was 27.8% comparing with 17.3% to other adult members in the households. CONCLUSION: The secondary attack rate of SARS-CoV-2 in household is 16.3%. Ages of household contacts and spouse relationship with index case are risk factors for transmission of SARS-CoV-2 within household. Quarantine of index patients at home since onset of symptom is useful to prevent the transmission of SARS-Co-2 within household.

20.
Zhonghua Shiyan Yanke Zazhi Chin. J. Exp. Ophthalmol. ; 3(38): 273-275, 20200310.
Article in Chinese | ELSEVIER | ID: covidwho-45804

ABSTRACT

The prevention and control of novel coronavirus pneumonia is the most priority recently, and various measures during the prevention and control period will have varying degrees of impact on the implement of clinical trials.However, various examinations in ophthalmological clinical trials need close contact between operators and patients, which put us at risk of cross-infection.This paper indicated some suggestions based on the criteria of clinical trials under major public health emergencies, the management of clinical trials during epidemic period, including the follow-up of subjects, the treatment of epidemic serious adverse event (SAE) and the management requirements of co-sponsors, as well as the requirements and management principles for environment, subjects, examiners and inspection equipment in the process of ophthalmic clinical trials.It may be helpful to the ophthalmic clinical trial researchers and subjects during the period of novel coronavirus infection.

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