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1.
Front Public Health ; 9: 794167, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775955

ABSTRACT

Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), a non-invasive technique to stimulate human brain, has been widely used in stroke treatment for its capability of regulating synaptic plasticity and promoting cortical functional reconstruction. As shown in previous studies, the high electric field (E-field) intensity around the lesion helps in the recovery of brain function, thus the spatial location and angle of coil truly matter for the significant correlation with therapeutic effect of TMS. But, the error caused by coil placement in current clinical setting is still non-negligible and a more precise coil positioning method needs to be proposed. In this study, two kinds of real brain stroke models of ischemic stroke and hemorrhagic stroke were established by inserting relative lesions into three human head models. A coil position optimization algorithm, based on the genetic algorithm (GA), was developed to search the spatial location and rotation angle of the coil in four 4 × 4 cm search domains around the lesion. It maximized the average intensity of the E-field in the voxel of interest (VOI). In this way, maximum 17.48% higher E-field intensity than that of clinical TMS stimulation was obtained. Besides, our method also shows the potential to avoid unnecessary exposure to the non-target regions. The proposed algorithm was verified to provide an optimal position after nine iterations and displayed good robustness for coil location optimization between different stroke models. To conclude, the optimized spatial location and rotation angle of the coil for TMS stroke treatment could be obtained through our algorithm, reducing the intensity and duration of human electromagnetic exposure and presenting a significant therapeutic potential of TMS for stroke.


Subject(s)
Stroke , Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation , Algorithms , Brain/physiology , Humans , Stroke/therapy , Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation/methods
2.
J Biol Chem ; 296: 100759, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1219049

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the causative agent of the COVID-19 global pandemic, utilizes the host receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) for viral entry. However, other host factors might also play important roles in SARS-CoV-2 infection, providing new directions for antiviral treatments. GRP78 is a stress-inducible chaperone important for entry and infectivity for many viruses. Recent molecular docking analyses revealed putative interaction between GRP78 and the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein (SARS-2-S). Here we report that GRP78 can form a complex with SARS-2-S and ACE2 on the surface and at the perinuclear region typical of the endoplasmic reticulum in VeroE6-ACE2 cells and that the substrate-binding domain of GRP78 is critical for this interaction. In vitro binding studies further confirmed that GRP78 can directly bind to the RBD of SARS-2-S and ACE2. To investigate the role of GRP78 in this complex, we knocked down GRP78 in VeroE6-ACE2 cells. Loss of GRP78 markedly reduced cell surface ACE2 expression and led to activation of markers of the unfolded protein response. Treatment of lung epithelial cells with a humanized monoclonal antibody (hMAb159) selected for its safe clinical profile in preclinical models depleted cell surface GRP78 and reduced cell surface ACE2 expression, as well as SARS-2-S-driven viral entry and SARS-CoV-2 infection in vitro. Our data suggest that GRP78 is an important host auxiliary factor for SARS-CoV-2 entry and infection and a potential target to combat this novel pathogen and other viruses that utilize GRP78 in combination therapy.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Heat-Shock Proteins/genetics , Host-Pathogen Interactions/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Virus Internalization/drug effects , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal/pharmacology , Binding Sites , Chlorocebus aethiops , Endoplasmic Reticulum/drug effects , Endoplasmic Reticulum/metabolism , Endoplasmic Reticulum/virology , Gene Expression Regulation , Heat-Shock Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors , Heat-Shock Proteins/metabolism , Humans , Mutation , Protein Binding , Protein Domains , Protein Multimerization , RNA, Small Interfering/genetics , RNA, Small Interfering/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Signal Transduction , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Unfolded Protein Response , Vero Cells
3.
Front Psychiatry ; 12: 652296, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1202086

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has significantly caused socioeconomic impacts. However, little is known about the psychological effect of COVID-19 on home-quarantined nursing students. The present study aimed to identify the prevalence and major determinants of anxiety, depression and post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) in Chinese nursing students during the COVID-19 pandemic quarantine period. An online survey was conducted on a sample of 6,348 home-quarantined nursing students. Mental health status was assessed by the Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7-Item Scale (GAD-7), the Patient Health Questionnaire 9-Item Scale (PHQ-9) and the Post Traumatic Stress Disorder Check List-Civilian version (PCL-C), respectively. Logistic regression analyses were performed to identify risk factors of anxiety, depression and PTSS. The overall prevalence of anxiety was 34.97%, and the rates of "mild," "moderate," and "severe" anxiety were 26.24, 7.04, and 1.69%, respectively. Depression was detected in 40.22% of the nursing students, and the prevalence of "mild," "moderate," "moderately severe," and "severe" depression was 27.87, 7.18, 4.08, and 1.09%, respectively. The overall prevalence of PTSS was 14.97%, with the prevalence of "mild" and "moderate-to-severe" PTSS reported at 7.04 and 7.93%, respectively. Male gender and insufficient social support were common risk factors for anxiety, depression and PTSS. In conclusion, about one-third, two-fifths, and one-seventh of Chinese nursing students had anxiety, depression and PTSS during the period of home quarantine, respectively. Timely and appropriate psychological interventions for nursing students should be implemented to reduce the psychological harm caused by COVID-19 pandemic.

4.
Ann Transl Med ; 9(6): 512, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1184107

ABSTRACT

Even when severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2-related coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is treated with first-line drugs, it progresses and leads to irreversible loss of lung function in some critically ill patients, and lung transplantation is an effective treatment for end-stage chronic pulmonary disease. This case report mainly describes the rehabilitation of a 66-year-old female patient with severe COVID-19 after bilateral lung transplantation. The old patient had a body mass index of 31.2 kg/m2. She underwent bilateral lung transplantation due to severe and irreversible injury of both lungs. Long-term mechanical ventilation and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) treatment and preoperative and postoperative high-dose corticosteroid therapy and due to the size of the donor lung does not match the size of the recipient's diseased lung, and the right middle lobe of the graft is removed before transplantation. Weaning from the ventilator failed due to weak neuromuscular drive, and muscle strength. A full, personalized pulmonary rehabilitation program was initiated with the help of the physical therapists, the respiratory therapy, the doctors, the nurses and psychotherapist team based on the functional levels. The rehabilitation intervention was conducted on postoperative day 4, This included posture management, airway clearance techniques, respiratory training, muscle strength training, transfer training, daily therapeutic bronchoscopy and psychological support. The ECMO was removed successfully on the fifth day. the patient's physical function, muscle strength and the quality of life has been improved. The good prognosis after rehabilitation indicates that early rehabilitation intervention is effective and feasible and safety for patients after lung transplantation.

5.
J Clin Ultrasound ; 48(9): 522-526, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-694861

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the applicability of bedside ultrasonography for the diagnosis of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) in patients infected with corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) with and without treatment with low molecular weight heparin (LMWH). METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the records of deceased and surviving patients in whom ultrasonography detected or not a DVT, and in whom LMWH was or not prescribed. RESULTS: The incidence of DVT is higher in the deceased (33/35) than in the surviving (22/46) patients. LMWH was administered in a larger proportion of surviving (18/22) than of deceased (18/33) patients. D-dimer concentrations decreased in patients who received LMWH in both groups. CONCLUSIONS: There was a high incidence of DVT in patients who succumbed to COVID-19. Bedside ultrasonography can detect the presence of DVT as early as possible and help assessing the risk of venous thromboembolism, allowing early and reasonable use of LMWH.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Heparin, Low-Molecular-Weight/administration & dosage , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Venous Thrombosis/diagnostic imaging , Venous Thrombosis/virology , Adult , Anticoagulants/administration & dosage , Anticoagulants/adverse effects , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Drug Administration Schedule , Female , Heparin, Low-Molecular-Weight/adverse effects , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Point-of-Care Testing , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Ultrasonography/methods , Venous Thrombosis/drug therapy
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