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Front Pharmacol ; 11: 603830, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1058447


The global spread of the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 urgently requires discovery of effective therapeutics for the treatment of COVID-19. The spike (S) protein of SARS-CoV-2 plays a key role in receptor recognition, virus-cell membrane fusion and virus entry. Our previous studies have reported that 3-hydroxyphthalic anhydride-modified chicken ovalbumin (HP-OVA) serves as a viral entry inhibitor to prevent several kinds of virus infection. Here, our results reveal that HP-OVA can effectively inhibit SARS-CoV-2 replication and S protein-mediated cell-cell fusion in a dose-dependent manner without obvious cytopathic effects. Further analysis suggests that HP-OVA can bind to both the S protein of SARS-CoV-2 and host angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), the functional receptor of SARS-CoV-2, and disrupt the S protein-ACE2 interaction, thereby exhibiting inhibitory activity against SARS-CoV-2 infection. In summary, our findings suggest that HP-OVA can serve as a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of deadly COVID-19.

Sci Adv ; 6(33): eabb7238, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-733188


Cigarette smoking, the leading cause of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), has been implicated as a risk factor for severe disease in patients infected with the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Here we show that mice with lung epithelial cell-specific loss of function of Miz1, which we identified as a negative regulator of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) signaling, spontaneously develop progressive age-related changes resembling COPD. Furthermore, loss of Miz1 up-regulates the expression of Ace2, the receptor for SARS-CoV-2. Concomitant partial loss of NF-κB/RelA prevented the development of COPD-like phenotype in Miz1-deficient mice. Miz1 protein levels are reduced in the lungs from patients with COPD, and in the lungs of mice exposed to chronic cigarette smoke. Our data suggest that Miz1 down-regulation-induced sustained activation of NF-κB-dependent inflammation in the lung epithelium is sufficient to induce progressive lung and airway destruction that recapitulates features of COPD, with implications for COVID-19.

Epithelial Cells/metabolism , Kruppel-Like Transcription Factors/metabolism , Lung/metabolism , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Phenotype , Protein Inhibitors of Activated STAT/genetics , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/genetics , Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases/genetics , Up-Regulation/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Animals , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/metabolism , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Gene Knockout Techniques , Humans , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mice, Knockout , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Protein Inhibitors of Activated STAT/metabolism , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/etiology , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Signal Transduction/genetics , Smoking/adverse effects , Transcription Factor RelA/metabolism , Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases/metabolism
Sci Total Environ ; 744: 140935, 2020 Nov 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-640813


The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has spread globally and the meteorological factors vary greatly across the world. Understanding the effect of meteorological factors and control strategies on COVID-19 transmission is critical to contain the epidemic. Using individual-level data in mainland China, Hong Kong, and Singapore, and the number of confirmed cases in other regions, we explore the effect of temperature, relative humidity, and control measures on the spread of COVID-19. We find that high temperature mitigates the transmission of the disease. High relative humidity promotes COVID-19 transmission when temperature is low, but tends to reduce transmission when temperature is high. Implementing classical control measures can dramatically slow the spread of the disease. However, due to the occurrence of pre-symptomatic infections, the effect of the measures to shorten treatment time is markedly reduced and the importance of contact quarantine and social distancing increases.

Coronavirus Infections , Coronavirus , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , China , Hong Kong , Humans , Meteorological Concepts , SARS-CoV-2 , Singapore