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1.
Biosensors & bioelectronics ; 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1615442

ABSTRACT

The development of reliable, sensitive, and fast devices for the diagnosis of COVID-19 is of great importance in the pandemic of the new coronavirus. Here, we proposed a new principle of analysis based on a combination of reverse transcription and isothermal amplification of a fragment of the gene encoding the S protein of the SARS-CoV-2 and the CRISPR/Cas13a reaction for cleavage of the specific probe. As a result, the destroyed probe cannot be detected on an immunochromatographic strip using quantum fluorescent dots. Besides, the results can be obtained by an available and inexpensive portable device. By detecting SARS-CoV-2 negative (n = 25) and positive (n = 62) clinical samples including throat swabs, sputum and anal swabs, the assay showed good sensitivity and specificity of the method and could be completed within 1 h without complicated operation and expensive equipment. These superiorities showed its potential for fast point-of-care screening of SARS-CoV-2 during the outbreak, especially in remote and underdeveloped areas with limited equipment and resources.

2.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 22854, 2021 11 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1532099

ABSTRACT

Since the outbreak of COVID-19 in 2019, the rapid spread of the epidemic has brought huge challenges to medical institutions. If the pathological region in the COVID-19 CT image can be automatically segmented, it will help doctors quickly determine the patient's infection, thereby speeding up the diagnosis process. To be able to automatically segment the infected area, we proposed a new network structure and named QC-HC U-Net. First, we combine residual connection and dense connection to form a new connection method and apply it to the encoder and the decoder. Second, we choose to add Hypercolumns in the decoder section. Compared with the benchmark 3D U-Net, the improved network can effectively avoid vanishing gradient while extracting more features. To improve the situation of insufficient data, resampling and data enhancement methods are selected in this paper to expand the datasets. We used 63 cases of MSD lung tumor data for training and testing, continuously verified to ensure the training effect of this model, and then selected 20 cases of public COVID-19 data for training and testing. Experimental results showed that in the segmentation of COVID-19, the specificity and sensitivity were 85.3% and 83.6%, respectively, and in the segmentation of MSD lung tumors, the specificity and sensitivity were 81.45% and 80.93%, respectively, without any fitting.

3.
Risk Manag Healthc Policy ; 14: 4177-4183, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1477678

ABSTRACT

Objective: In order to fight against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) better and to share our experience as a reference for clinical laboratory departments. Methods: This was a retrospective study conducted in the clinical laboratory department of Chengdu Women's and Children's Central Hospital in Chengdu, China, from April 2020 to January 2021. The number of nucleic acid and antibody testing specimens of suspected COVID-19 cases was analyzed. The key points of suspected-case sample processing and detection in the clinical laboratory department were summarized. The laboratory was directly involved in the sample processing and testing of suspected cases, the release of reports, and the transfer of specimens to the fever clinic. Results: The number of COVID-19 nucleic acid test specimens in our laboratory ranged from 102 to 2170 per day, and the number of antibody test specimens ranged from 24 to 391 per day. There were four main considerations in the treatment and detection of suspected-case specimens in the clinical laboratory: biosafety management in clinical laboratory departments, measures to ensure the health of the staff, the eight time points for processing suspected-case samples (turn-around time), and key points for the detection of suspected case specimens. Conclusion: The laboratory developed a protective process for COVID-19 antibody and nucleic acid detection during the pandemic. At present, the detection of COVID-19 antibodies and nucleic acids in the clinical laboratory department is orderly, and there have been no cases of laboratory infection.

4.
Curr Psychol ; : 1-15, 2021 Jul 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1336139

ABSTRACT

Mobilizing the public to take anti-pandemic behavior (APB) by strengthening informational support has been recognized as an effective strategy to combat the COVID-19 pandemic. However, it remains unclear how health-related informational support from different channels affects individual factors and, thus, the adoption of different types of APB as the pandemic situation changes. To resolve this issue, we build a multiple mediation model to investigate the associations among informational support from three different channels, two individual internal factors, and two kinds of APB. A three-stage longitudinal study administered to Chinese citizens from February to October 2020 revealed that informational support from media played the most critical role in facilitating individuals' adoption of compliance APB, while informational support from family was the most significant predictor of the adoption of participation APB. Meanwhile, these effects were mediated by risk perception and anti-pandemic motivation, and weakened to varying degrees as the pandemic situation eased. It is recommended that authorities adjust the focus of publicity strategies in light of the changing situation, and make efforts to heighten the public's risk perception and anti-pandemic motivation. This study contributes to deepening the understanding of the dynamic efficacy of informational support from different channels on individuals' adoption of two heterogeneous APBs, and thus to the formulation of more scientific, and situation-based publicity strategies during a public health crisis.

5.
J Transl Int Med ; 9(2): 131-142, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1332092

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives: The majority of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases are nonsevere, but severe cases have high mortality and need early detection and treatment. We aimed to develop a nomogram to predict the disease progression of nonsevere COVID-19 based on simple data that can be easily obtained even in primary medical institutions. Methods: In this retrospective, multicenter cohort study, we extracted data from initial simple medical evaluations of 495 COVID-19 patients randomized (2:1) into a development cohort and a validation cohort. The progression of nonsevere COVID-19 was recorded as the primary outcome. We built a nomogram with the development cohort and tested its performance in the validation cohort. Results: The nomogram was developed with the nine factors included in the final model. The area under the curve (AUC) of the nomogram scoring system for predicting the progression of nonsevere COVID-19 into severe COVID-19 was 0.875 and 0.821 in the development cohort and validation cohort, respectively. The nomogram achieved a good concordance index for predicting the progression of nonsevere COVID-19 cases in the development and validation cohorts (concordance index of 0.875 in the development cohort and 0.821 in the validation cohort) and had well-fitted calibration curves showing good agreement between the estimates and the actual endpoint events. Conclusions: The proposed nomogram built with a simplified index might help to predict the progression of nonsevere COVID-19; thus, COVID-19 with a high risk of disease progression could be identified in time, allowing an appropriate therapeutic choice according to the potential disease severity.

6.
Journal of Composites Science ; 5(7):190, 2021.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1314677

ABSTRACT

The deadly Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) outbreak has become one of the most challenging pandemics in the last century. Clinical diagnosis reports a high infection rate within a large population and a rapid mutation rate upon every individual infection. The polymerase chain reaction has been a powerful and gold standard molecular diagnostic technique over the past few decades and hence a promising tool to detect the SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid sequences. However, it can be costly and involved in complicated processes with a high demand for on-site tests. This pandemic emphasizes the critical need for designing cost-effective and fast diagnosis strategies to prevent a potential viral source by ultrasensitive and selective biosensors. Two-dimensional (2D) transition metal dichalcogenide (TMD) nanocomposites have been developed with unique physical and chemical properties crucial for building up nucleic acid and protein biosensors. In this review, we cover various types of 2D TMD biosensors available for virus detection via the mechanisms of photoluminescence/optical, field-effect transistor, surface plasmon resonance, and electrochemical signals. We summarize the current state-of-the-art applications of 2D TMD nanocomposite systems for sensing proteins/nucleic acid from different types of lethal viruses. Finally, we identify and discuss the advantages and limitations of TMD-based nanocomposites biosensors for viral recognition.

7.
ACS Omega ; 6(13): 8837-8849, 2021 Apr 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1177080

ABSTRACT

The outbreak and pandemic of COVID-19, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has developed into a public health emergency of international concern. The rapid and accurate detection of the virus is a critical means to prevent and control the disease. Herein, we provide a novel, rapid, and simple approach, named dual reverse transcriptional colorimetric loop-mediated isothermal amplification (dRT-cLAMP) assay, to accelerate the detection of the SARS-CoV-2 virus without using expensive equipment. The result of this assay is shown by color change and is easily detected by the naked eye. To improve the detection accuracy, we included two primer sets that specifically target the viral orf1ab and N genes in the same reaction mixture. Our assay can detect the synthesized SARS-CoV-2 N and orf1ab genes at a low level of 100 copies/µL. Sequence alignment analysis of the two synthesized genes and those of 9968 published SARS-CoV-2 genomes and 17 genomes of other pathogens from the same infection site or similar symptoms as COVID-19 revealed that the primers for the dRT-cLAMP assay are highly specific. Our assay of 27 clinical samples of SARS-CoV-2 virus and 27 standard-added environmental simulation samples demonstrated that compared to the commercial kits, the consistency of the positive, negative, and probable clinical samples was 100, 92.31, and 44.44%, respectively. Moreover, our results showed that the positive, but not negative, standard-added samples displayed a naked-eye-detectable color change. Together, our results demonstrate that the dRT-cLAMP assay is a feasible detection assay for SARS-CoV-2 virus and is of great significance since rapid onsite detection of the virus is urgently needed at the ports of entry, health care centers, and for internationally traded goods.

9.
Diabetes Res Clin Pract ; 167: 108338, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-935529

ABSTRACT

AIMS: The objective of this study is to explore the association between documented diabetes, fasting plasma glucose (FPG), and the clinical outcomes of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: This retrospective study included 255 patients with COVID-19. Of these, 214 were admitted to isolation wards and 41were admitted to intensive care units (ICUs). Demographic, clinical, treatment, and laboratory data were collected and compared between ICU and non-ICU patients. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to explore the risk factors associated with poor clinical outcomes (ICU admission or death). RESULTS: There were significant changes in several clinical parameters in ICU patients (leukopenia, lymphopenia, elevated D-dimer, as well as higher levels of FPG, cardiac troponin, serum ferritin, IL-6, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein)compared with non-ICU patients. The prevalence of known diabetes was substantially higher in ICU than non-ICU patients (31.7% vs. 17.8%, P = 0.0408). Multivariable regression analysis showed that a history of diabetes [odds ratio (OR), 0.099; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.016-0.627; P = 0.014], high FPG at admission (OR, 1.587; 95% CI, 1.299-1.939, P < 0.001), high IL-6 (OR, 1.01; 95% CI, 1.002-1.018, P = 0.013), and D-dimer higher than 1 mg/L at admission (OR, 4.341; 95% CI, 1.139-16.547, P = 0.032) were independent predictors of poor outcomes. Cox proportional hazards analysis showed that compared with FPG < 7 mmol/L, FPG levels of 7.0-11.1 mmol/L and ≥ 11.1 mmol/L were associated with an increased hazard ratio (HR) for poor outcome (HR, 5.538 [95% CI, 2.269-13.51] and HR, 11.55 [95% CI, 4.45-29.99], respectively). CONCLUSION: Hyperglycemia and a history of diabetes on admission predicted poor clinical outcomes in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Blood Glucose/metabolism , Coronavirus Infections/metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus/metabolism , Hyperglycemia/metabolism , Intensive Care Units , Pneumonia, Viral/metabolism , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Female , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/metabolism , Hospitalization , Humans , Hyperglycemia/epidemiology , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Mortality , Multivariate Analysis , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Prognosis , Proportional Hazards Models , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Young Adult
10.
Chinese Journal of School Health ; (12): 661-664, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: covidwho-861203

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To investigate the current status of screen time in preschoolers during the outbreak of Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), and the influences of parent-child active play and school online education on screen time.@*Methods@#A total of 2 370 preschoolers were chosen through clustering sampling from 7 kindergartens in Wuxi urban areas. Questionnaire survey was administered to parents for child screen time, active play, online education as well as characteristics information.@*Results@#A total of 1 428(60.3%) preschoolers reported more than 1 hour screen time a day, and 1 915(80.8%) preschoolers reported more than 20 minutes consecutive screen time. Compared with the weekend before the COVID-19 outbreak, 1 551(65.4%) preschoolers reported an increase of 10 minutes in screen time perday, and 1 444(60.9%) reported an increase of 5 minutes for one sersion. Logistic regression analysis showed that after controlling for confounding factors, high frequency of parent-child active play, parents’ exercise habits, online education from kindergartens and children’s active participation in the online education were negatively associated with preschoolers’ excessive and increased screen time during this period(OR=0.39-0.79, P<0.05).@*Conclusion@#During the COVID-19 outbreak, preschoolers’ media use in Wuxi city is worrisome. Parent-child active play, parents’ exercise and online education from kindergartens may play a positive role in reducing preschoolers’ media use.

11.
Science & Technology Review ; 38(4):77-85, 2020.
Article in Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-823622

ABSTRACT

The prevention and the control of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) highlight the urgency of improving the national public health emergency management system. In the construction of an emergency management system, the development of the public psychological service system is crucial. This paper reviews the development stages, the operation mechanism, the professional contingent, and the professional support platform in the emergency management system in the U.S, including its main experience and the existing problems. In view of China's state of the public psychological services, some suggestions are made for the emergency psychological service system construction in China, which involve the following four aspects:the information system of the emergency psychological services, a classified psychological service team, the research directions of psychological services for the emergency management, and the legal system of the emergency psychological services.

12.
Nature ; 583(7816): 437-440, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-326050

ABSTRACT

In December 2019, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which is caused by the new coronavirus severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), was identified in Wuhan (Hubei province, China)1; it soon spread across the world. In this ongoing pandemic, public health concerns and the urgent need for effective therapeutic measures require a deep understanding of the epidemiology, transmissibility and pathogenesis of COVID-19. Here we analysed clinical, molecular and immunological data from 326 patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection in Shanghai. The genomic sequences of SARS-CoV-2, assembled from 112 high-quality samples together with sequences in the Global Initiative on Sharing All Influenza Data (GISAID) dataset, showed a stable evolution and suggested that there were two major lineages with differential exposure history during the early phase of the outbreak in Wuhan. Nevertheless, they exhibited similar virulence and clinical outcomes. Lymphocytopenia, especially reduced CD4+ and CD8+ T cell counts upon hospital admission, was predictive of disease progression. High levels of interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8 during treatment were observed in patients with severe or critical disease and correlated with decreased lymphocyte count. The determinants of disease severity seemed to stem mostly from host factors such as age and lymphocytopenia (and its associated cytokine storm), whereas viral genetic variation did not significantly affect outcomes.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/genetics , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Host-Pathogen Interactions/immunology , Lymphopenia/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/virology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Aging , Animals , Asymptomatic Infections/epidemiology , Betacoronavirus/classification , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Critical Illness/epidemiology , Disease Progression , Evolution, Molecular , Female , Genetic Variation , Genome, Viral/genetics , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Inflammation Mediators/immunology , Interleukin-6/blood , Interleukin-6/immunology , Interleukin-8/blood , Interleukin-8/immunology , Lymphocyte Count , Lymphopenia/complications , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Phylogeny , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , T-Lymphocytes/cytology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome , Virulence/genetics , Virus Shedding , Young Adult , Zoonoses/transmission , Zoonoses/virology
13.
J Zhejiang Univ Sci B ; 21(5): 388-393, 2020 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-8632

ABSTRACT

Since the global outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) in 2003, China has gradually built a robust prevention and control system for sudden infectious diseases. All large hospitals have a fever clinic that isolates patients with all kinds of acute communicable diseases as the first line of medical defense. The emergency department, as the second line of medical defense in hospitals, is constantly shouldering the heavy responsibility of screening communicable diseases while also treating all kinds of other non-communicable acute and critical diseases (Zhang et al., 2012; Zhu et al., 2015; Wang et al., 2017; Feng et al., 2018; Lu, 2018; Xu and Lu, 2019). An outbreak of pneumonia of unknown etiology that began in Wuhan city (China) has spread rapidly in China since December 2019 (Huang et al., 2020; WHO, 2020; Zhu et al., 2020). In February 2020, the National Health Commission of China named the disease a novel coronavirus pneumonia (NCP); then, it was formally named the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) by the World Health Organization (WHO) on Feb. 11, 2020. The Coronavirus Study Group of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses designated this causative virus as SARS coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). SARS-CoV-2 belongs to the ß coronavirus genus, and its pathogenic mechanism has not been clarified, which requires further study. To better understand the clinical characteristics of COVID-19 and more effectively prevent and control this disease, we retrospectively analyzed four representative cases of COVID-19 that had recently been screened and diagnosed in our emergency department.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Emergency Service, Hospital , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Adult , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Patient Isolation , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
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