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1.
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med ; 2022: 3744618, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2098039

ABSTRACT

Panaxnotoginseng saponins (PNS) is one of the active components of traditional Chinese medicine Panax notoginseng which has the function of reducing oxygen consumption, expansion of the cerebrovascular system, and is antithrombotic. PNS also plays a role in the treatment of pulmonary fibrosis. In this study, we found that PNS suppresses fibroblast-like changes in A549 cells through epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). PNS promoted E-cadherin (E-cad) in epithelial cells and decreased Fibronectin (FN) and Vimentin (Vim) expression in myofibroblasts in a dose-dependent manner. Further mechanism studies have shown that PNS inhibits the EMT process by regulating p38, JNK, and Erk signaling factors in the MAPK signaling pathway and then blocking Snail and TWIST1 transcription factors from entering the nucleus. This indicates that PNS can regulate epithelial-mesenchymal transition through MAPK and the Snail/TWIST1 signaling pathway, thereby exerting its antipulmonary fibrosis effect.

2.
iScience ; 25(11): 105319, 2022 Nov 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2061302

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 infection induces imbalanced immune response such as hyperinflammation in patients with severe COVID-19. Here, we studied the immunometabolic regulatory mechanisms for the pathogenesis of COVID-19. We depicted the metabolic landscape of immune cells, especially macrophages, from bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of patients with COVID-19 at single-cell level. We found that most metabolic processes were upregulated in macrophages from lungs of patients with mild COVID-19 compared to cells from healthy controls, whereas macrophages from severe COVID-19 showed downregulation of most of the core metabolic pathways including glutamate metabolism, fatty acid oxidation, citrate cycle, and oxidative phosphorylation, and upregulation of a few pathways such as glycolysis. Rewiring cellular metabolism by amino acid supplementation, glycolysis inhibition, or PPARγ stimulation reduces inflammation in macrophages stimulated with SARS-CoV-2. Altogether, this study demonstrates that metabolic imbalance of bronchoalveolar macrophages may contribute to hyperinflammation in patients with severe COVID-19 and provides insights into treating COVID-19 by immunometabolic modulation.

3.
Exp Hematol Oncol ; 11(1): 60, 2022 Sep 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2038944

ABSTRACT

Targeting B-cell receptor signalling using Bruton tyrosine kinase (BTK) inhibitors (BTKis) has become a highly successful treatment modality for B-cell malignancies, especially for chronic lymphocytic leukaemia. However, long-term administration of BTKis can be complicated by adverse on- and/or off-target effects in particular cell types. BTK is widely expressed in cells of haematopoietic origin, which are pivotal components of the tumour microenvironment. BTKis, thus, show broad immunomodulatory effects on various non-B immune cell subsets by inhibiting specific immune receptors, including T-cell receptor and Toll-like receptors. Furthermore, due to the off-target inhibition of other kinases, such as IL-2-inducible T-cell kinase, epidermal growth factor receptor, and the TEC and SRC family kinases, BTKis have additional distinct effects on T cells, natural killer cells, platelets, cardiomyocytes, and other cell types. Such mechanisms of action might contribute to the exceptionally high clinical efficacy as well as the unique profiles of adverse effects, including infections, bleeding, and atrial fibrillation, observed during BTKi administration. However, the immune defects and related infections caused by BTKis have not received sufficient attention in clinical studies till date. The broad involvement of BTK in immunological pathways provides a rationale to combine BTKis with specific immunotherapies, such as immune checkpoint inhibitor or chimeric antigen receptor-T-cell therapy, for the treatment of relapsed or refractory diseases. This review discusses and summarises the above-mentioned issues as a reference for clinicians and researchers.

4.
Early childhood research quarterly ; 62:17-30, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1999701

ABSTRACT

This study provides a comprehensive, census-level evaluation of the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on the county child care market in a large and diverse state, North Carolina, and the disproportionate impacts of the pandemic on different types of providers and communities. We use county-level panel data from 2016 to 2020 and a difference-in-differences design to isolate the effects of the pandemic from unobservable seasonal trends in enrollments and closures. We found that the COVID-19 pandemic reduced county-level child care enrollment by 40% and the number of providers by 2% as of December 2020. Heterogeneity analyses revealed that the family child care sector experienced not only less severe reductions in enrollment and closure than center providers, but also a small growth in the number of family providers. Declines in enrollment were most substantial for preschool-aged children. There was a significant drop in the number of 5-star providers and an increase in the number of lower-quality providers. Provider closures were more concentrated in communities with a higher percentage of Hispanic residents. Higher-SES communities experienced larger drops in enrollment as well as provider closures. Implications for child development and future research and policies are discussed.

5.
Int J Biol Sci ; 18(12): 4648-4657, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1954693

ABSTRACT

Asymptomatic infection with SARS-CoV-2 is a major concern in the control of the COVID-19 pandemic. Many questions concerning asymptomatic infection remain to be answered, for example, what are the differences in infectivity and the immune response between asymptomatic and symptomatic infections? In this study, based on a cohort established by the Wuchang District Health Bureau of Wuhan in the early stage of the COVID-19 pandemic in Wuhan in 2019, we conducted a comprehensive analysis of the clinical, virological, immunological, and epidemiological data of asymptomatic infections. The major findings of this study included: 1) the asymptomatic cohort enrolled this study exhibited low-grade but recurrent activity of viral replication; 2) despite a lack of overt clinical symptoms, asymptomatic infections exhibited ongoing innate and adaptive immune responses; 3) however, the immune response from asymptomatic infections was not activated adequately, which may lead to delayed viral clearance. Given the fragile equilibrium between viral infection and host immunity, and the delayed viral clearance in asymptomatic individuals, close viral monitoring should be scheduled, and therapeutic intervention may be needed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Asymptomatic Infections , Humans , Immunity , Immunity, Innate , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
6.
iScience ; 25(6): 104415, 2022 Jun 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1851360

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 outbreaks have crushed our healthcare systems, which requires clinical guidance for the healthcare following the outbreaks. We conducted retrospective cohort studies with Pearson's pattern-based analysis of clinical parameters of 248 hospitalized patients with COVID-19. We found that dysregulated neutrophil densities were correlated with hospitalization duration before death (p = 0.000066, r = -0.45 for % neutrophil; p = 0.0001, r = -0.47 for neutrophil count). As such, high neutrophil densities were associated with mortality (p = 4.23 × 10-31 for % neutrophil; p = 4.14 × 10-27 for neutrophil count). These findings were further illustrated by a representative "second week crash" pattern and validated by an independent cohort (p = 5.98 × 10-11 for % neutrophil; p = 1.65 × 10-7 for neutrophil count). By contrast, low aspartate aminotransferase (AST) or lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels were correlated with quick recovery (p ≤ 0.00005). Collectively, these correlational at-admission findings may provide healthcare guidance for patients with COVID-19 in the absence of targeted therapy.

7.
Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr ; : 1-16, 2022 Apr 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1815817

ABSTRACT

Soybean functional peptides (SFPs) are obtained via the hydrolysis of soybean protein into polypeptides, oligopeptides, and a small amount of amino acids. They have nutritional value and a variety of functional properties, including regulating blood lipids, lowering blood pressure, anti-diabetes, anti-oxidant, preventing COVID-19, etc. SFPs have potential application prospects in food processing, functional food development, clinical medicine, infant milk powder, special medical formulations, among others. However, bitter peptides containing relatively more hydrophobic amino acids can be formed during the production of SFPs, seriously restricting the application of SFPs. High-quality confirmatory human trials are needed to determine effective doses, potential risks, and mechanisms of action, especially as dietary supplements and special medical formulations. Therefore, the physiological activities and potential risks of soybean polypeptides are summarized, and the existing debitterness technologies and their applicability are reviewed. The technical challenges and research areas to be addressed in optimizing debittering process parameters and improving the applicability of SFPs are discussed, including integrating various technologies to obtain higher quality functional peptides, which will facilitate further exploration of physiological mechanism, metabolic pathway, tolerance, bioavailability, and potential hazards of SFPs. This review can help promote the value of SFPs and the development of the soybean industry.

8.
Chinese Journal of Oil Crop Sciences ; 43(4):551-561, 2021.
Article in Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1789784

ABSTRACT

To effectively cope with the shock of COVID-19 and its subsequent impact, and to promote stable and healthy development of rape industry, this paper systematically analyzed the impact of COVID-19 on China's rape industry. It includes perspectives of farmer's life, rape production and rapeseed processing enterprises, based on micro survey data provided by the National Rapeseed Industrial Technology System. The results showed that in terms of farmers' life, only 0.98% of the respondents were in a shortage of edible vegetable oil and 76.06% of them reflected no impact or a little impact on total household income. However, rural tourism decreased by 10.24 percentage points, and honey collecting behavior of bee farmers decreased by 4.6 points. On field production, 85.47% of the respondents reported "no change" and "small reduction" in field management workload, 90.38% reflected "no impact" and "a littlel impact" on rapeseed production employment, 79.06% considered "overall stability" in the price of agricultural materials, and 98.48% believed that it had a little impact on final output. However, the pest reporting rate increased by 4.99 points than last season. On rapeseed processing, it varied from region to region on the rapeseed processing enterprises' resumption rate, starting-up rate, specific difficulties faced by enterprises and government policies. Based on these results, future strategies should be taken to ensure improving development of rape industry. The strategies should include perfect construction of China's oil reserve system, more attention to diversification of imports, more innovation and technology promotion, optimization on marketing system and construction of information platform, and a"package"subsidy plan for the industry.

9.
Pathogens ; 11(4)2022 Apr 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1785869

ABSTRACT

During the COVID-19 pandemic, many general hospitals have been transformed into designated infectious disease care facilities, where a large number of patients with COVID-19 infections have been treated and discharged. With declines in the number of hospitalizations, a major question for our healthcare systems, especially for these designated facilities, is how to safely resume hospital function after these patients have been discharged. Here, we take a designated COVID-19-care facility in Wuhan, China, as an example to share our experience in resuming hospital function while ensuring the safety of patients and medical workers. After more than 1200 patients with COVID-19 infections were discharged in late March, 2020, our hospital resumed function by setting up a three-level hospital infection management system with four grades of risk of exposure. Moreover, we also took measures to ensure the safety of medical personnel in different departments including clinics, wards, and operation rooms. After all patients with COVID-19 infections were discharged, during the five months of regular function from April to September in 2020, no positive cases have been found among more than 40,000 people in our hospital, including hospital staff and patients.

10.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 11(1): 902-913, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1730557

ABSTRACT

The immune memory of over 400 million COVID-19 convalescents is not completely understood. In this integrated study, we recorded the post-acute sequelae symptoms and tested the immune memories, including circulating antibodies, memory B cell, and memory CD4 or CD8 T cell responses of a cohort of 65 COVID-19 patients over 1-year after infection. Our data show that 48% of them still have one or more sequelae symptoms and all of them maintain at least one of the immune components. The chances of having sequelae symptoms or having better immune memory are associated with peak disease severity. We did four-time points sampling per subject to precisely understand the kinetics of durability of SARS-CoV-2 circulating antibodies. We found that the RBD IgG levels likely reach a stable plateau at around 6 months, albeit it is waning at the first 6 months after infection. At 1-year after infection, more than 90% of the convalescents generated memory CD4 or CD8 T memory responses, preferably against the SARS-CoV-2 M peptide pool. The convalescents also have polyfunctional and central memory T cells that could provide rapid and efficient response to SARS-CoV-2 re-infection. Based on this information, we assessed the immune protection against the Omicron variant and concluded that convalescents should still induce effective T cell immunity against the Omicron. By studying the circulating antibodies and memory B or T cell responses to SARS-CoV-2 in an integrated manner, our study provides insight into the understanding of protective immunity against diseases caused by secondary SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Antibodies, Viral , Humans , Immunity, Cellular , Longitudinal Studies , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Oncologist ; 27(3): 236-243, 2022 03 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1713711

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Amid continued uncertainty about the management of cancer patients during the pandemic, this study sought to obtain real-world data on the use of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) before COVID-19 diagnosis and its association with severity and survival outcomes in cancer patients who contracted COVID-19. METHODS: Cancer patients diagnosed with COVID-19 were identified from a large electronic health record database; those treated with ICIs before COVID-19+ diagnosis were matched in a 1:2 ratio to those not treated with ICIs, using a 2-step matching procedure. A descriptive analysis examined the difference in COVID-19 mortality (30-day and overall) and severity outcomes between the 2 cohorts, and overall survival was compared. RESULTS: Among 17 545 adults ≥18 years with cancer who tested positive for COVID-19 between February 20, 2020, and January 28, 2021, in the US, 228 ICI-treated patients were matched to 456 non-ICI-treated patients, comprising the 2 study cohorts. Clinical characteristics differed significantly between the 2 cohorts before matching, with metastatic disease, lung cancer, a history of smoking, and the presence of pulmonary comorbidities being more common in the ICI-treated cohort; after matching, the 2 cohorts were similar. There were no significant differences between the ICI-treated and non-ICI-treated cohorts for 30-day mortality (12.7% vs. 14.9%, P = .235), overall mortality (22.4% vs. 22.4%, P = 1.000), hospitalization (38.6% vs. 39.0%, P = .912), or emergency department visits (16.7% vs. 14.7%, P = .500). Overall survival was similar between the 2 cohorts. CONCLUSION: This analysis adds to the clinical evidence base that use of ICIs before SARS-CoV-2 infection does not affect COVID-19 severity or survival outcomes, supporting the continued use of ICIs in cancer patients during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lung Neoplasms , Adult , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19 Testing , Humans , Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors/pharmacology , Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2
12.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-321868

ABSTRACT

Background: Could nutritional status serve as prognostic factors for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)? The present study evaluated the clinical and nutritional characteristics of COVID-19 patients and explored the relationship between nutritional risk at admission and in-hospital mortality. Methods: : A retrospective, observational study was conducted in two hospitals in Hubei, China. Confirmed cases of COVID-19 were typed as mild/moderate, severe, or critically ill. Clinical data and in-hospital death were collected. Nutritional risk was assessed using the Geriatric Nutritional Risk Index (GNRI), the Prognostic Nutritional Index (PNI), and the Controlling Nutritional Status (CONUT) via objective parameters at admission. Results: : 295 patients were enrolled, including 66 severe patients and 41 critically ill patients. 25 deaths were observed, making 8.47% in the whole population and 37.88% in the critically ill subgroup. Patients had significant differences in nutrition-related parameters and inflammatory biomarkers among three types of disease severity. Patients with lower GNRI and PNI score, as well as higher CONUT, had a higher risk of in-hospital mortality. The receiver operating characteristic curves demonstrated the good prognostic implication of GNRI and CONUT score. The multivariate logistic regression showed that baseline nutritional status, assessed by GNRI, PNI, or CONUT score, was a prognostic indicator for in-hospital mortality. Conclusions: : Despite variant assessment tools, poor nutritional status was associated with in-hospital death in patients infected with COVID-19. This study highlighted the importance of nutritional screening at admission and the new insight of nutritional monitoring or therapy.

13.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-321465

ABSTRACT

Background: Previous studies showed that the effect of antivirals for COVID-19 was promising but varied across patient population, and was modest among severe cases. Chinese Medicine (CM) was extensively used and reported effective in China, awaiting further evidence support. We aimed to evaluate the real-world effectiveness of add-on semi-individualized.Methods: A retrospective total sampling cohort of 1788 adult confirmed COVID-19 patients were recruited from all 2235 consecutive records retrieved from 5 hospitals in Wuhan during15 January to 13 March 2020. Consultation notes, laboratory/imaging investigations, pharmacy and prognosis records were linked by an electronic medical record system and verified by at least 2 researchers independently. The mortality of add-on semi-individualized CM users and non-users was compared by weighted hazard ratios of multivariable Cox regression and by propensity score matching. Change of biomarkers was compared between groups and the frequency of CMs used was analysed. Subgroup analysis was performed to stratify disease severity and dose of CM exposure. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to test the robustness.Findings: The crude mortality was 3.8% in the semi-individualized CM user group and 17.0% among the non-users. Add-on CM was associated with a significant mortality reduction of 58% (HR=0.42, 95%CI: 0.23 to 0.77, p=0.005) and 66% (HR=0.34, 95%CI: 0.15 to 0.76, p=0.009) among all and severe/critical COVID-19 cases with dose-dependent response, after inversely weighted with propensity score calculated by age, gender, history of hypertension, diabetes, coronary artery disease and disease severity. The result was robust in various stratified, weighted, matched, adjusted and sensitivity analyses. Severe/critical patients received add-on CM had a trend of stabilized D-dimer level after 3-7 days of admission compared to baseline.Interpretation: Add-on semi-individualized CM was associated with reduced mortality demonstrating dose-dependent response, especially among severe/critical COVID-19 patients. Chinese medicine could be considered as an add-on regimen for trial use.Funding Statement: This work is partially supported by the National Key Research and Development Program (2017YFC1703506 and 2020YFC0841600). Declaration of Interests: No financial relationships with any organisations that might have an interest in the submitted work in the previous three years;no other relationships or activities that could appear to have influenced the submitted work.Ethics Approval Statement: This study was approved by the ethics review board of Hubei Provincial Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine (HBZY2020-C01-01). Written consent was waived due to the retrospective nature.

14.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-321367

ABSTRACT

Objectives: A pneumonia associated with 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV, subsequently named SARS-CoV2) emerged worldwide since December, 2019. We aimed to describe the epidemiological characteristics of 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in Shaanxi province of China. Results: : 1. Among the 245 patients, 132 (53.9%) were males and 113 (46.1%) were females. The average age was 46.15±16.43 years, ranging from 3 to 89 years. 2. For the clinical type, 1.63% (4/245) patients were mild type , 84.90% (208/245) were moderate type, 7.76% (19/245) were severe type, 5.31% (13/245) were critical type and only 0.41% (1/245) was asymptomatic. 3. Of the 245 patients, 116 (47.35%) were input case, 114 (46.53%) were non-input case , and 15 (6.12%) were unknown exposure. 4. 48.57% (119/245) cases were family cluster , involving 42 families. The most common pattern of COVID-19 family cluster was between husband and wife or between parents and children.

15.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-315656

ABSTRACT

The ongoing CCNP was established to plot normative growth curves for brain structure and function across the human lifespan, and link age-related changes in brain imaging measures with psycho-behavioral functions at the behavioral, cognitive and emotional levels using an accelerated longitudinal design. It comprises three phases: developmental CCNP (devCCNP: 6-20 years), standardizing CCNP (stdCCNP: 20-60 years) and aging CCNP (ageCCNP: 60-90 years). The devCCNP started in 2013 and has successfully acquired CCNP-SWU data with three repeated measurements ( the trial stage of devCCNP), and accumulated CCNP-CAS baseline data (the second stage of devCCNP). CCNP-SWU consists of 201 age-sex stratified schoolchildren at enrollment (100 children followed up for 2.5 years at 1.25-year intervals) while CCNP-CAS has been recruiting participants since July 2018, and has collected data from 133 eligible children so far. A T1-weighted MRI and two resting functional MRI scans were acquired across three waves in CCNP-SWU with the same imaging protocols on a Siemens Trio 3T scanner at Southwest University in Chongqing, China. CCNP-SWU obtained longitudinal biophysical, social, behavioral and cognitive data via parent-reported questionnaires, self-reported questionnaires, behavioral assessment, as well as E-Prime computer tasks. Data were collected on the impact of COVID-19 on children’s learning and daily life from 46 children between March and May 2020. Children’s emotional states during COVID-19 pandemic were also measured. Data are accessed by researchers and collaborators of CCNP upon agreement with the principal investigator.

16.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-315212

ABSTRACT

Background: Multiorgan damage by SARS-CoV-2 results in alterations of many clinical measures associated with mortality of COVID-19. This research discussed the pioneering pathogenicity factors that lead to the extensive damage elusive. Objectives: A cohort of COVID-19 patients. Methods: : We conducted a correlational analysis of hospital outcomes with an independent cohort of COVID-19 patients and we also presented a death case to illustrate for time course of immune cell density. Results: : The results showed that dysregulated immune cell densities were correlated with hospitalization duration before death, not before discharge. High neutrophil densities allowed sorting out one third of total death cases while a density of less than 70% of the white blood cells allowed sorting out 70% of surviving cases. Conclusion: Collectively surged neutrophil was a top trigger for mortality in patients with COVID-19.

17.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-315211

ABSTRACT

Background: Worldwide spread of the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has made hundreds of thousands people sick and fortunately many of them have been treated and discharged. However, it remains unclear how well the discharged patients were recovering. Chest CT scan, with demonstrated high sensitivity to COVID-19, was used here to examine clinical manifestations in patients at discharge. Methods: This study registered retrospectively single-center case series of 180 discharged patients, all confirmed with COVID-19 at Wuhan Red Cross Hospital in Wuhan, China. Epidemiological, demographic, clinical, laboratory and treatment data were collected. CT imaging features of absorption vs progressive stage were compared and analyzed. Results: Five pulmonary lobes were affected in 54 (30%) of the 180 patients at the absorption stage, comparing to 66% of them at the progressive stage ( P=1.45×10 -11 ). Forty five (25%) patients had pleural effusion on admission and 13 of them still carried hydrothorax when discharged as per standard discharge criteria( P=4.48×10 -6 ). Besides, compared with those at progressive stage, 97 (54%) discharged patients had interlobular thickening ( P=6.95×10 -3 ) and 43% of them still presented adjacent pleura thickening ( P=5.58×10 -5 ). The median total CT score of discharged patients at absorption stage was lower than progressive stage (3 vs 12.5 ). The median total CT score recovery rate was 67% (range, 0-100%) and 139 (77%) patients showed less than 90% improvement at discharge. Conclusions: A majority (77%) of the discharged patients had not recovered completely. The current discharge criteria may need to include 90% or higher CT score-based recovery rate.Authors Jingwen Li, Xi Long, Fang Fang, and Xuefei Lv contributed equally to this work.Authors Zhicheng Lin and Nian Xiong are joint last coauthors.

18.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-308351

ABSTRACT

Background: There is a current worldwide outbreak of a new type of coronavirus COVID-19. The number of confirmed infected cases is rapidly increasing. Method: This paper analyzes the characteristics of COVID-19 in comparison with Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (SARS-CoV), Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) and influenza. Diagnostic data for foreign citizens evacuated from Wuhan were collected and compiled. Current prevention and control strategies have been analyzed. Results: COVID-19 is similar to SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV virologically and etiologically, but similar to influenza in epidemiology and virulence. The prevalence rate in Wuhan was inferred to be close to 1%. The comparison provides a new perspective for the future of the disease, and offers some advice in the prevention and control management strategy. Conclusion: The large number of patients and the strong occult nature are two big problems, making the virus difficult to eradicate. We need to contemplate the possibility of long-term co-existence with COVID-19.

19.
Am J Emerg Med ; 54: 107-110, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1664598

ABSTRACT

Data on the prognosis of patients treated with oral anticoagulation (OAC) prior to hospital admission for COVID-19 remains controversial and insufficient. Therefore, we endeavored to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the effect of chronic use of OAC prior to the diagnosis of COVID-19 on intensive care unit (ICU) admission and mortality. An electronic search of the Pubmed, Embase, Cochrane library databases was conducted. Meta-analysis and statistical analyses were completed with using the RevMan 5.3 and Stata 12.0. A total of 13 articles representing data from 1,266,231 participants were included in this study. The meta-analysis of unadjusted results showed no decrease in mortality (OR = 1.31, 95% CI: 0.99 to 1.73, P = 0.059) or ICU admission rate (OR = 0.71, 95% CI: 0.29 to 1.77, P = 0.46) in COVID-19 patients with prior OAC therapy at hospital admission compared to patients without prior use of OAC. Moreover, the meta-analysis of adjusted results showed no lower risk of mortality (OR = 1.08, 95% CI: 0.90 to 1.30, P = 0.415) or ICU admission (OR = 1.50, 95% CI: 0.72 to 3.12, P = 0.284) in patients with prior OAC use compared to patients without previous OAC use. In conclusion, the results of this study revealed that the use of OAC prior to hospital admission appeared to be ineffective in reducing the risk of intensive care need and mortality in COVID-19 patients. Randomized controlled trials are needed to evaluate and optimize the use of OAC in COVID-19 infection.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants , COVID-19 , Administration, Oral , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Risk Factors
20.
J Tradit Chin Med ; 41(6): 974-981, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1579544

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the clinical effectiveness of Shumian capsule in improving the symptoms of insomnia, anxiety, depression, and other symptoms of convalescent patients of COVID-19. METHODS: Totally 200 patients were collected and randomly divided into experiment group (n = 100) and control group (n = 100). The control group was treated with Shumian capsule simulator, and the experiment group was treated with Shumian capsule. The improvement of TCM symptom score, the total effective rate and symptom disappearance rate of TCM symptoms in the two groups before and after treatment were observed, and the clinical effect was evaluated. RESULTS: One week after treatment, the scores of anxiety symptoms in the experiment group were significantly different from those in the control group (P < 0.05), but there was no significant difference in the scores of insomnia and depression between the experiment group and the control group (P > 0.05). There was no significant difference in the total effective rate and disappearance rate of TCM symptoms of insomnia, anxiety and depression between the experiment group and the control group (P > 0.05). After 2 weeks of treatment, the scores of insomnia, anxiety, depression and the total effective rate of TCM symptoms in the experiment group were significantly different from those in the control group (P < 0.05). There was no significant difference in the disappearance rate of insomnia, anxiety and depression between the experiment group and the control group (P > 0.05). There were no significant differences in heart rate, respiration, systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure between the experiment group and the control group (P > 0.05). CONCLUSION: Shumian capsule can significantly improve the symptoms of insomnia, anxiety and depression in COVID-19's convalescent patients with sleep and mood disorders.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Mood Disorders/drug therapy , Sleep Wake Disorders/drug therapy , Adult , Anxiety , Depression , Female , Humans , Male , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Middle Aged , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders
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