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2.
Shanghai Journal of Preventive Medicine ; 33(1):37-41, 2021.
Article in Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1865684

ABSTRACT

Objective: To understand the cognition, attitude and awareness on the prevention and control of COVID-19 among recent international travellers back to China(hereinafter referred to as the inbound group)and local residents(domestic group), and to provide scientific evidence for further prevention and control of the epidemic.

3.
Glob Health Res Policy ; 7(1): 12, 2022 Apr 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1817295

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: With the continuation of the COVID-19 pandemic, some COVID-19 patients have become reinfected with the virus. Viral gene sequencing has found that some of these patients were reinfected by the different and others by same strains. This has raised concerns about the effectiveness of immunity after infection and the reliability of vaccines. To this end, we conducted a systematic review to assess the characteristics of patients with reinfection and possible causes. METHODS: A systematic search was conducted across eight databases: PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, The Cochrane Library, CNKI, WanFang, VIP and SinoMed from December 1, 2019 to September 1, 2021. The quality of included studies were assessed using JBI critical appraisal tools and Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. RESULTS: This study included 50 studies from 20 countries. There were 118 cases of reinfection. Twenty-five patients were reported to have at least one complication. The shortest duration between the first infection and reinfection was 19 days and the longest was 293 days. During the first infection and reinfection, cough (51.6% and 43.9%) and fever (50% and 30.3%) were the most common symptoms respectively. Nine patients recovered, seven patients died, and five patients were hospitalized, but 97 patients' prognosis were unknown. B.1 is the most common variant strain at the first infection. B.1.1.7, B.1.128 and B.1.351 were the most common variant strains at reinfection. Thirty-three patients were infected by different strains and 9 patients were reported as being infected with the same strain. CONCLUSIONS: Our research shows that it is possible for rehabilitated patients to be reinfected by SARS-COV-2. To date, the causes and risk factors of COVID-19 reinfection are not fully understood. For patients with reinfection, the diagnosis and management should be consistent with the treatment of the first infection. The public, including rehabilitated patients, should be fully vaccinated, wear masks in public places, and pay attention to maintaining social distance to avoid reinfection with the virus.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Reinfection , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Reinfection/epidemiology , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Cell ; 2022 Apr 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1803705

ABSTRACT

Breakthrough infections by SARS-CoV-2 variants become the global challenge for pandemic control. Previously, we developed the protein subunit vaccine ZF2001 based on the dimeric receptor-binding domain (RBD) of prototype SARS-CoV-2. Here, we developed a chimeric RBD-dimer vaccine approach to adapt SARS-CoV-2 variants. A prototype-Beta chimeric RBD-dimer was first designed to adapt the resistant Beta variant. Compared with its homotypic forms, the chimeric vaccine elicited broader sera neutralization of variants and conferred better protection in mice. The protection of the chimeric vaccine was further verified in macaques. This approach was generalized to develop Delta-Omicron chimeric RBD-dimer to adapt the currently prevalent variants. Again, the chimeric vaccine elicited broader sera neutralization of SARS-CoV-2 variants and conferred better protection against challenge by either Delta or Omicron SARS-CoV-2 in mice. The chimeric approach is applicable for rapid updating of immunogens, and our data supported the use of variant-adapted multivalent vaccine against circulating and emerging variants.

5.
J Med Virol ; 94(8): 3982-3987, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1802454

ABSTRACT

There is a potential risk for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) spread through human contact with seafood and the inanimate materials contaminated by the virus. In this study, we examined the stability of the virus in artificial seawater (ASW) and on the surface of selected materials. SARS-CoV-2 (3.75 log10 TCID50 ) in ASW at 22℃ maintained infectious about 3 days and at 4℃ the virus survived more than 7 days. It should be noticed that viable virus at high titer (5.50 log10 TCID50 ) may survive more than 20 days in ASW at 4℃ and for 7 days at 22℃. SARS-CoV-2 on stainless steel and plastic bag maintained infectious for 3 days, and on nonwoven fabric for 1 day at 22℃. In addition, the virus remained infectious for 9 days on stainless steel and non-woven fabric, and on plastic bag for 12 days at 4℃. It is important to highlight the role of inanimate material surfaces as a source of infection and the necessity for surface decontamination and disinfection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Plastics , Seawater , Stainless Steel
6.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-333031

ABSTRACT

As the world continues to experience the COVID-19 pandemic, seasonal influenza remain a cause of severe morbidity and mortality globally. Worse yet, coinfection with SARS-CoV-2 and influenza A virus (IAV) leads to more severe clinical outcomes. The development of a combined vaccine against both COVID-19 and influenza is thus of high priority. Based on our established lipid nanoparticle (LNP)-encapsulated mRNA vaccine platform, we developed and characterized a novel mRNA vaccine encoding the HA antigen of influenza A (H1N1) virus, termed ARIAV. Then, ARIAV was combined with our COVID-19 mRNA vaccine ARCoV, which encodes the receptor binding domain (RBD) of the SARS-CoV-2 S protein, to formulate the final combined vaccine, AR-CoV/IAV. Further characterization demonstrated that immunization with two doses of AR-CoV/IAV elicited robust protective antibodies as well as antigen-specific cellular immune responses against SARS-CoV-2 and IAV. More importantly, AR-CoV/IAV immunization protected mice from coinfection with IAV and the SARS-CoV-2 Alpha and Delta variants. Our results highlight the potential of the LNP-mRNA vaccine platform in preventing COVID-19 and influenza, as well as other respiratory diseases.

7.
Research Square ; 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1786456

ABSTRACT

As the world continues to experience the COVID-19 pandemic, seasonal influenza remain a cause of severe morbidity and mortality globally. Worse yet, coinfection with SARS-CoV-2 and influenza A virus (IAV) leads to more severe clinical outcomes. The development of a combined vaccine against both COVID-19 and influenza is thus of high priority. Based on our established lipid nanoparticle (LNP)-encapsulated mRNA vaccine platform, we developed and characterized a novel mRNA vaccine encoding the HA antigen of influenza A (H1N1) virus, termed ARIAV. Then, ARIAV was combined with our COVID-19 mRNA vaccine ARCoV, which encodes the receptor binding domain (RBD) of the SARS-CoV-2 S protein, to formulate the final combined vaccine, AR-CoV/IAV. Further characterization demonstrated that immunization with two doses of AR-CoV/IAV elicited robust protective antibodies as well as antigen-specific cellular immune responses against SARS-CoV-2 and IAV. More importantly, AR-CoV/IAV immunization protected mice from coinfection with IAV and the SARS-CoV-2 Alpha and Delta variants. Our results highlight the potential of the LNP-mRNA vaccine platform in preventing COVID-19 and influenza, as well as other respiratory diseases.

9.
J Med Virol ; 94(7): 3223-3232, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1756617

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 has evolved into a panel of variants of concern (VOCs) and constituted a sustained threat to global health. The wildtype (WT) SARS-CoV-2 isolates fail to infect mice, while the Beta variant, one of the VOCs, has acquired the capability to infect standard laboratory mice, raising a spreading risk of SARS-CoV-2 from humans to mice. However, the infectivity and pathogenicity of other VOCs in mice remain not fully understood. In this study, we systematically investigated the infectivity and pathogenicity of three VOCs, Alpha, Beta, and Delta, in mice in comparison with two well-understood SARS-CoV-2 mouse-adapted strains, MASCp6 and MASCp36, sharing key mutations in the receptor-binding domain (RBD) with Alpha or Beta, respectively. Our results showed that the Beta variant had the strongest infectivity and pathogenicity among the three VOCs, while the Delta variant only caused limited replication and mild pathogenic changes in the mouse lung, which is much weaker than what the Alpha variant did. Meanwhile, Alpha showed comparable infectivity in lungs in comparison with MASCp6, and Beta only showed slightly lower infectivity in lungs when compared with MASCp36. These results indicated that all three VOCs have acquired the capability to infect mice, highlighting the ongoing spillover risk of SARS-CoV-2 from humans to mice during the continued evolution of SARS-CoV-2, and that the key amino acid mutations in the RBD of mouse-adapted strains may be referenced as an early-warning indicator for predicting the spillover risk of newly emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , Humans , Mice , Protein Binding , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
10.
mBio ; 13(2): e0009922, 2022 04 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1736029

ABSTRACT

Recently, highly transmissible severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants B.1.617.1 (Kappa), B.1.617.2 (Delta), and B.1.618 with mutations within the spike proteins were identified in India. The spike protein of Kappa contains the four mutations E154K, L452R, E484Q, and P681R, and Delta contains L452R, T478K, and P681R, while B.1.618 spike harbors mutations Δ145-146 and E484K. However, it remains unknown whether these variants have alterations in their entry efficiency, host tropism, and sensitivity to neutralizing antibodies as well as entry inhibitors. In this study, we found that Kappa, Delta, or B.1.618 spike uses human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) with no or slightly increased efficiency, while it gains a significantly increased binding affinity with mouse, marmoset, and koala ACE2 orthologs, which exhibit limited binding with wild-type (WT) spike. Furthermore, the P681R mutation leads to enhanced spike cleavage, which could facilitate viral entry. In addition, Kappa, Delta, and B.1.618 exhibit a reduced sensitivity to neutralization by convalescent-phase sera due to the mutation E484Q, T478K, Δ145-146, or E484K, but remain sensitive to entry inhibitors such as ACE2-Ig decoy receptor. Collectively, our study revealed that enhanced human and mouse ACE2 receptor engagement, increased spike cleavage, and reduced sensitivity to neutralization antibodies of Kappa, Delta and B.1.618 may contribute to the rapid spread of these variants. Furthermore, our results also highlight that ACE2-Ig could be developed as a broad-spectrum antiviral strategy against SARS-CoV-2 variants. IMPORTANCE SARS-CoV-2, the causative agent of pandemic COVID-19, is rapidly evolving to be more transmissible and to exhibit evasive immune properties, compromising neutralization by antibodies from vaccinated individuals or convalescent-phase sera. Recently, SARS-CoV-2 variants B.1.617.1 (Kappa), B.1.617.2 (Delta), and B.1.618 with mutations within the spike proteins were identified in India. In this study, we examined cell entry efficiencies of Kappa, Delta, and B.1.618. In addition, the variants, especially the Delta variant, exhibited expanded capabilities to use mouse, marmoset, and koala ACE2 for entry. Convalescent sera from patients infected with nonvariants showed reduced neutralization titers among the Kappa, Delta, and B.1.618 variants. Furthermore, the variants remain sensitive to ACE2-Ig decoy receptor. Our study thus could facilitate understanding how variants have increased transmissibility and evasion of established immunity and also could highlight the use of an ACE2 decoy receptor as a broad-spectrum antiviral strategy against SARS-CoV-2 variants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Animals , Antiviral Agents , COVID-19/therapy , Humans , Immune Evasion , Immunization, Passive , Mice , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Virus Internalization
13.
Nat Immunol ; 23(3): 423-430, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1713201

ABSTRACT

The global severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic requires effective therapies against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), and neutralizing antibodies are a promising therapy. A noncompeting pair of human neutralizing antibodies (B38 and H4) blocking SARS-CoV-2 binding to its receptor, ACE2, have been described previously. Here, we develop bsAb15, a bispecific monoclonal antibody (bsAb) based on B38 and H4. bsAb15 has greater neutralizing efficiency than these parental antibodies, results in less selective pressure and retains neutralizing ability to most SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (with more potent neutralizing activity against the Delta variant). We also selected for escape mutants of the two parental mAbs, a mAb cocktail and bsAb15, demonstrating that bsAb15 can efficiently neutralize all single-mAb escape mutants. Furthermore, prophylactic and therapeutic application of bsAb15 reduced the viral titer in infected nonhuman primates and human ACE2 transgenic mice. Therefore, this bsAb is a feasible and effective strategy to treat and prevent severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Bispecific/immunology , Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Bispecific/chemistry , Antibodies, Bispecific/genetics , Antibodies, Monoclonal/chemistry , Antibodies, Monoclonal/genetics , Antibodies, Neutralizing/genetics , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/chemistry , Antibodies, Viral/genetics , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , Cloning, Molecular , Disease Models, Animal , Dose-Response Relationship, Immunologic , Epitopes , Humans , Macaca mulatta , Mice , Neutralization Tests , Protein Engineering/methods , Structure-Activity Relationship
14.
Innovation (Camb) ; 3(2): 100221, 2022 Mar 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1713028

ABSTRACT

The highly pathogenic and readily transmissible SARS-CoV-2 has caused a global coronavirus pandemic, urgently requiring effective countermeasures against its rapid expansion. All available vaccine platforms are being used to generate safe and effective COVID-19 vaccines. Here, we generated a live-attenuated candidate vaccine strain by serial passaging of a SARS-CoV-2 clinical isolate in Vero cells. Deep sequencing revealed the dynamic adaptation of SARS-CoV-2 in Vero cells, resulting in a stable clone with a deletion of seven amino acids (N679SPRRAR685) at the S1/S2 junction of the S protein (named VAS5). VAS5 showed significant attenuation of replication in multiple human cell lines, human airway epithelium organoids, and hACE2 mice. Viral fitness competition assays demonstrated that VAS5 showed specific tropism to Vero cells but decreased fitness in human cells compared with the parental virus. More importantly, a single intranasal injection of VAS5 elicited a high level of neutralizing antibodies and prevented SARS-CoV-2 infection in mice as well as close-contact transmission in golden Syrian hamsters. Structural and biochemical analysis revealed a stable and locked prefusion conformation of the S trimer of VAS5, which most resembles SARS-CoV-2-3Q-2P, an advanced vaccine immunogen (NVAX-CoV2373). Further systematic antigenic profiling and immunogenicity validation confirmed that the VAS5 S trimer presents an enhanced antigenic mimic of the wild-type S trimer. Our results not only provide a potent live-attenuated vaccine candidate against COVID-19 but also clarify the molecular and structural basis for the highly attenuated and super immunogenic phenotype of VAS5.

15.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-324182

ABSTRACT

Recently, the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has caused a pandemic disease in over 200 countries, influencing billions of humans. To control the infection, identifying and separating the infected people is the most crucial step. The main diagnostic tool is the Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) test. Still, the sensitivity of the RT-PCR test is not high enough to effectively prevent the pandemic. The chest CT scan test provides a valuable complementary tool to the RT-PCR test, and it can identify the patients in the early-stage with high sensitivity. However, the chest CT scan test is usually time-consuming, requiring about 21.5 minutes per case. This paper develops a novel Joint Classification and Segmentation (JCS) system to perform real-time and explainable COVID-19 chest CT diagnosis. To train our JCS system, we construct a large scale COVID-19 Classification and Segmentation (COVID-CS) dataset, with 144,167 chest CT images of 400 COVID-19 patients and 350 uninfected cases. 3,855 chest CT images of 200 patients are annotated with fine-grained pixel-level labels of opacifications, which are increased attenuation of the lung parenchyma. We also have annotated lesion counts, opacification areas, and locations and thus benefit various diagnosis aspects. Extensive experiments demonstrate that the proposed JCS diagnosis system is very efficient for COVID-19 classification and segmentation. It obtains an average sensitivity of 95.0% and a specificity of 93.0% on the classification test set, and 78.5% Dice score on the segmentation test set of our COVID-CS dataset. The COVID-CS dataset and code are available at https://github.com/yuhuan-wu/JCS.

16.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-323703

ABSTRACT

Background: The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic has had catastrophic consequences globally. Nevertheless, the majority of the global population has not been vaccinated against the disease, and available treatments are limited. FeiDuQing (FDQ), a Chinese medicinal decoction widely used for COVID-19 pneumonia in Xianning City, China, has a cure rate of 98.21%. Therefore, evaluating the role of FDQ in successfully treating patients with COVID-19 is crucial. Methods In this retrospective cohort study, 355 consecutive patients who developed COVID-19 pneumonia between January 15 and February 18, 2020 were included;among them, 213 received FDQ. Data on the demographic characteristics, length of hospitalizations, symptoms at admission and discharge, adverse events, and laboratory parameters were analyzed. Results In contrast to patients who received FDQ, 12 patients who did not receive FDQ (8.45%) developed severe conditions, and one of them died. Furthermore, FDQ treatment was associated with a shortened duration of hospitalization (18.2 vs. 22.1 days, P  < 0.0001), even in elderly patients aged > 60 years (18.0 days vs. 26.1 days, P  < 0.0001). At discharge, three (1.40%) patients treated with FDQ had mild symptoms, whereas 16 (11.19%) patients not treated with FDQ had various symptoms. The cumulative survival rates of patients treated with FDQ and those not treated with FDQ were 79.04% and 32.60%, respectively (hazard ratio: 0.210, 95% confidence interval: 0.123–0.357, P  < 0.001). Additionally, FDQ had no severe adverse effects. Conclusions Our findings suggest that FDQ is a potential therapeutic candidate for fighting COVID-19.

17.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-319922

ABSTRACT

End-to-end question answering (QA) requires both information retrieval (IR) over a large document collection and machine reading comprehension (MRC) on the retrieved passages. Recent work has successfully trained neural IR systems using only supervised question answering (QA) examples from open-domain datasets. However, despite impressive performance on Wikipedia, neural IR lags behind traditional term matching approaches such as BM25 in more specific and specialized target domains such as COVID-19. Furthermore, given little or no labeled data, effective adaptation of QA systems can also be challenging in such target domains. In this work, we explore the application of synthetically generated QA examples to improve performance on closed-domain retrieval and MRC. We combine our neural IR and MRC systems and show significant improvements in end-to-end QA on the CORD-19 collection over a state-of-the-art open-domain QA baseline.

18.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-315682

ABSTRACT

Background: In the high incidence period of COVID-19, it is very important to quickly classify and evaluate the prognosis of patients through limited clinical antibody data. Methods Chemiluminescence immunoassay was used to detect serum IgM and IgG concentrations in 1951 patients diagnosed with COVID-19, and R language was used to analyze the influence of factors such as antibody, age, gender and concomitant diseases on the prognosis of SARS-CoV-2 patients. Results The results showed that the incidence of COVID-19 was consistent with the characteristics of the elderly, and patients with hypertension, diabetes, stroke, hypoalbuminemia and anemia were at increased risk of critical illness ( p  < 0.05). The analysis of antibodies results showed that there were no significant difference in antibodies concentration between COVID-19 patients of different ages. While there were no significant difference in antibodies concentration between mild and severe patients, the expression levels of serum IgM and IgG in critically ill patients decreased ( p  = 0.000 and 0.013), and high IgM and IgG concentration could reduce the incidence of critical illness ( p  = 0.003 and 0.015). Except in the 41–60 and 91–100 age groups, the simultaneous low expression of IgM and IgG in COVID-19 patients was significantly positively correlated with the severity of illness ( p   =  0.000). Conclusions IgM and IgG were important prognostic factors for COVID-19 patients. It was hence vital to carry out special clinical classification for the management and early intervention for patients with low IgM/IgG concentrations and with concomitant diseases.

19.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-308272

ABSTRACT

Background: Since December 2019, a severe novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) infection (Coronavirus Disease 2019,COVID-19) has occurred in Wuhan, China, and has rapidly spread to the country and around the world. This study intends to investigate the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of patients with COVID-19 in a surrounding city of Wuhan. Methods: : A retrospective study was conducted on 208 cases of COVID -19 patients from February 11, 2020 to February 29, 2020 in Xiaogan dongnan Hospital, collected basic information, history of exposure, medical history, clinical symptoms, laboratory indicators and pulmonary imaging Data, and analyzed the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of all patients. According to the clinical classification criteria, 208 patients were divided into light group and ordinary group, and the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of the two groups were compared. Results: : Among 208 patients in this study, with a median age of 50.5 years (IQR,36-64.7,range,10-91 years), among which 107 (51.4%) were males and 101 (48.6%) were females. 51 (24.5%) had a clear exposure to COVID-19 infection within 2 weeks before admission, and 40 (19.2%) had a history of residence or exposure in Wuhan within 2 weeks before admission. Among all the patients, there were 16 (7.7%) with pulmonary diseases, 41 (19.7%) with hypertension, 11 (5.3%) with coronary heart disease, 13 (6.3%) with diabetes, 12(5.8%) with a history of alcohol consumption, and 12(5.8%) with a history of smoking. Among all clinical symptoms, 146 cases (70.2%) of fever, the highest temperature range was 37.3℃-41℃ before admission, 115 (55.3%) cases of cough, and 57 (27.4%) cases of chest tightness, 47 (22.6%) cases of fatigue, 28 (13.5%) cases of inappetence, 9 (4.3%) cases of diarrhea, 7 (3.4%) cases of nasal congestion or runny nose , and 5 ( 2.4%) cases of pharyngalgia. Analysis of the laboratory results of 208 patients showed that 42 (20.2%) cases had decreased white blood cell count, and 61 (29.3%) cases had decreased lymphocyte count. There were 154 (74%) cases with elevated CRP, 50 (24%) cases with elevated fasting blood glucose, and 23 (11.1%) cases with elevated LDH (>245U/L). The comparison of clinical characteristics between the light group and the common group showed that the median age of the light group was 44.8 years (IQR 30-58), the median age of the common group was 53.1 years (IQR 38.8-67) (P<0.01). The symptoms of fever [53(80.3%) vs 93(65.5%),P<0.05], fatigue [53(80.3%) vs 93(65.5%),P<0.05] and inappetence [4(6.1%) vs 24(16.9%),P<0.05] in the light group were less than those in the common group. The white blood cell count (5.48 vs 6.37, P<0.05), lymphocyte count (1.40 vs 1.61, P<0.05) and HDL-C (1.5 vs 1.3, P<0.05) of the common group were lower than that of the light group, while CRP (26.5 vs 22.1, P<0.01), AST (22.9 vs 18.5, P<0.05), fasting blood glucose (5.8 vs 5.6, P<0.05), LDH (196.8 vs 157.9, P<0.001) of the common group were higher than that of the light group. Conclusion: COVID-19 infection is mainly in middle-aged and elderly patients, patients with other diseases are more susceptible to infection. The main symptoms of COVID-19 infection were fever, cough, chest tightness, fatigue, and inappetence. Decreased lymphocyte count, increased CRP concentration, increased LDH concentration and decreased HDL-C concentration were the laboratory features of COVID-19 infection, and were important indicators to assess the severity of COVID-19 disease.

20.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-308036

ABSTRACT

Background: COVID-19 Emerged as a novel zoonotic disease in late 2019 and quickly spread across Wuhan before spreading to other parts of China and rest of the world. Due to the rapid spread of the disease, local hospitals were inundated with COVID-19 patients putting a strain on the healthcare system. Little was known about the transmission and potential clinical management of COVID-19 at that time.Methods: A temporary COVID-19 hospital was built within one week. The confirmed COVID-19 cases were either directly recruited to the hospital or were transferred from other hospitals. Patients were admitted for both quarantine and treatment, as required. Data were collected as part of standard clinical care and retrospectively analyzed.Findings: A total of 2,959 patients were recruited during the operation period of this hospital between February 4, 2020, and April 8, 2020. These patients included 838 severe patients of which 72 were classified as critical, and 66 patients died. No infection was reported among healthcare workers.Interpretation: Setting up a dedicated hospital for COVID-19 provided a critical resource during the peak of the pandemic in Wuhan by enabling both quarantine and treatment for the infected patients. The mortality in this hospital was comparable to other hospitals at the time. These data suggest that this approach may prove beneficial in controlling infectious disease spread and limit mortality and prevent strain on existing healthcare system to enable them to care for non-COVID-19 patients.Funding Statement: This study was supported by funding from Beijing Nova Program Interdisciplinary Cooperation Project (DC;No. Z191100001119021), Chinese PLA General Hospital Youth Project (DC;No.QNF19074), Beijing Nova Program Project (DC;No. Z171100001117012), and China 13th Five-year National Key Grant (LXX;No.2018ZX09201013).Declaration of Interests: The authors declare that there are no competing interests.Ethics Approval Statement: This study was approved by the ethics committee of the Chinese PLA General Hospital, with a waiver of informed consent.

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