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1.
Clinical Immunology ; Conference: 2023 Clinical Immunology Society Annual Meeting: Immune Deficiency and Dysregulation North American Conference. St. Louis United States. 250(Supplement) (no pagination), 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-20238474

ABSTRACT

Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) is a rare and severe condition that follows benign COVID-19. We report autosomal recessive deficiencies of OAS1, OAS2, or RNASEL in five unrelated children with MIS-C. The cytosolic dsRNA-sensing OAS1 and OAS2 generate 2'-5'-linked oligoadenylates (2-5A) that activate the ssRNA-degrading RNase L. Consistent with the absence of pneumonia in these patients, epithelial cells and fibroblasts defective for this pathway restricted SARS-CoV-2 normally. This contrasted with IFNAR1-deficient cells from patients prone to hypoxemic pneumonia without MIS-C. Monocytic cell lines and primary myeloid cells with OAS1, OAS2, or RNASEL deficiencies produce excessive amounts of inflammatory cytokines upon dsRNA or SARS-CoV- 2 stimulation. Exogenous 2-5A suppresses cytokine production in OAS1-but not RNase L- deficient cells. Cytokine production in RNase L-deficient cells is impaired by MDA5 or RIG-I deficiency and abolished by MAVS deficiency. Recessive OAS-RNase L deficiencies in these patients unleash the production of SARS-CoV-2-triggered, MAVS-mediated inflammatory cytokines by mononuclear phagocytes, thereby underlying MIS-C.Copyright © 2023 Elsevier Inc.

2.
Marketing Science ; 2023.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2327377

ABSTRACT

In 2020, as the novel coronavirus spread globally, face masks were recommended in public settings to protect against and slow down viral transmission. People complied to varying extents, and their reactions may have been driven by a variety of psychological fac-tors. Based on the literature on social influence and on mask-wearing, we define three cus-tomer segments: Fully-Compliant customers wear masks, and they seem motivated primarily by concerns about their own health risk. Partially-Compliant customers also wear masks, but with improper and ineffective coverage;our empirical analysis suggests that they are moti-vated primarily by a desire to comply with social norms. Finally, Unmasked customers do not wear masks. We examine changes in shopping behaviors with the onset of the pandemic to corroborate the conjectured mask-wearing motives. We find that the three groups made significantly different behavior changes: Fully-Compliant customers shopped significantly faster and practiced stricter social distancing with the onset of the pandemic, whereas the other two groups did not adjust their shopping duration or social distancing.

3.
Medical Journal of Peking Union Medical College Hospital ; 12(1):136-140, 2021.
Article in Chinese | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2319257

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the impact of the outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) as an intervention factor on residency training at different stages, and look into the enhancement effect of post-graduation medical training program based on competency of residency training, so as to provide reference for the optimization of medical education at the postgraduate stage. Methods After the initial success of COVID-19 prevention and control, 169 clinical postdoctoral trainess(clinical postdocs) and 515 graduate students specializing in clinical medicine(professional postdocs) were surveyed by an anonymous online questionnaire. To analyze the differences of cognition and self- evaluation of core competence between the two groups. Results There were 141 valid questionnaires collected from clinical postdocs (83.43%, 141/169) and 264 valid questionnaires collected from professional postdocs (51.26%, 264/515). In both groups, more than 85% of the students agreed or strongly agreed that they had a deeper understanding of the profession of doctors during the epidemic. The results of competency self-evaluation showed that, except for the items of "self-improvement", the self-evaluation scores of clinical postdoctoral students on other items were significantly higher than those of professional postdoctoral students (all P <0.05). Conclusions COVID-19, as a factor of emergency intervention, can improve the competency cognition of residents. The core-competency based post-graduation medical education model can comprehensively improve the students' comprehensive ability, which is an effective training program for residents. It is suggested that the vocational planning education for residents should be paid attention to in the stage of college education, and a new mode of college education that is closely combined with the post-graduation education should be further explored.Copyright © 2021 Thomson Reuters and Contributors.

4.
Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research ; 62(12):5125-5140, 2023.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2309536

ABSTRACT

The global supply chain is experiencing ongoing turmoil after COVID-19, which inevitably affects the supply and demand of the chemical industry. Ethylene plants are regarded as one of the most profitable chemical industry chains, and thus, there is a need to track fluctuations in the supply chain and responsively adjust their operations and scheduling decisions to achieve optimal economic benefits. However, previous studies about ethylene cracking optimization are mostly limited to fixed supply chain parameters and cannot meet the need for real-time updates according to supply chain fluctuations. To address this problem, we propose an ethylene cracking optimization framework which combines parameter prediction and receding horizon optimization (predictive RHO) for real-time optimal operation and scheduling under supply chain fluctuations. This optimization framework uses historical supply chain data (supply quantities, feedstock prices, and product prices) to predict future parameters and uses the predicted parameters to optimize the operation and scheduling of ethylene cracking furnace systems in a receding horizon way. Two industrial case studies were used to validate the efficacy of the proposed optimization framework. In case 1, the predictive-RHO framework achieved comparable economic profits of 147,370 and 146,483 $/day without violating daily inventory constraints (vs 151,204 $/day from the original model violating inventory constraints) and a faster calculation speed of 40 s (vs 32 min) under two fluctuating feed supply modes. In case 2, predictive RHO improves economic profits by 1.8% through integrating operations with scheduling and 1.1% by tracking the feed and product price fluctuations. These two cases show the strong capability of predictive RHO in tracking supply chain fluctuations and improving the inventory management level as well as the economic profits of ethylene cracking plants.

5.
Pharmacological Research - Modern Chinese Medicine ; 5 (no pagination), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2277071

ABSTRACT

The dried fruit of Amomum tsao-ko Crevost & Lemarie, a perennial herb of Cardamom in Zingiberaceae, has been widely used in food and as a folk medicine. It is used not only as an important food additive and spice for removing peculiar smell and improving taste, but also as a traditional Chinese medicine with significant efficacy in treating many kinds of disorders. Based on the high edible and medicinal value, large amounts of investigation have been reported for A. tsaoko in the past several years. This review specifically summarises its quality control, toxicology and clinical application, about which no literature had systematically reviewed, based on our best acknowledge. The current quality control of A. tsaoko is based on the content of volatile oil, which should be no less than 1.4% according to the Pharmacopoeia of the People's Republic of China (2020 edition), while a more possible Q-Markers should be developed to focus on either a specific bioactive ingredient or a component correlated with a certain clinical efficacy. Toxicity research suggests that A. tsaoko actually belongs to the non-toxic substance, although citral and 1,8-cineole, two main components of A. tsaoko, is hepatotoxic for the former and displays low acute toxicity and sub-chronic oral toxicity for the latter, but no obviously accumulative toxicity has so far been discovered for A. tsaoko. In clinical practice, A. tsaoko is often used in treatment of dampness/cold resistance, malaria, vomiting, fullness and epigastric distension across additional disorders, such as SARS, COVID-19 and hepatitis.Copyright © 2022 The Author(s)

6.
Chinese Pharmacological Bulletin ; 38(5):669-675, 2022.
Article in Chinese | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2115466

ABSTRACT

Aim To investigate the inhibitory effect of copper gluconate and disulfiran on the PLpro of SARS-CoV-2 and to explore the effect of combination of them on PLpro.Methods SARS-CoV-2 PLpro was purified by recombinant expression technology of he effects of copper gluconate and disulfiram on PLpro activity were studied by enzyme kinetic method.Results Copper gluconate and disulfiram had high inhibitory activity on SARS-CoV-2 PLpro,Ubiquitin-7-Amino-4-methylcoumarin(Ub-AMC)was used as the fluorescent substrate.The IC50 of copper gluconate was 33.02 nmol.L-1,showing competitive inhibition,and the IC50 of disulfiram was 480.4 nmol.L-1,showing non competitive inhibition,and the combination of the two inhibitors showed the advantage of synergistic inhibition.Conclusions Copper gluconate and disulfiram have a high inhibitory effect on SARS-CoV-2 PLpro protein,and the combination shows the advantage of synergistic inhibition. Copyright © 2022 Publication Centre of Anhui Medical University. All rights reserved.

7.
Acs Photonics ; 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2004745

ABSTRACT

Recent advances in the Medical Internet of Things (MIoT) and big data enable a prospering platform for pervasive healthcare and facilitate the transformation from hospital-centered to human-centered healthcare. Wearable devices as human interfaces provide first-hand data and real-time monitoring, which are key technologies in the MIoT. Several remarkable surveys have been conducted to summarize the recent progress in wearable sensors and systems for the MIoT and pervasive medicine. However, few have focused on wearable optical sensing (WOS) technologies, which is an emerging sensing modality in wearable devices. WOS can achieve high precision, high compatibility, high anti-interference, and low motion artifacts for human vital signal acquisition, which are particularly useful in special scenarios such as intensive care units (ICUs). These technologies can also be integrated with smart fabrics or mobile computing for out-of-hospital healthcare. This work provides the first literature review of WOS for pervasive medicine. We aim to systematically summarize the emerging WOS technologies in the MIoT for disease diagnosis and health monitoring. Specifically, this review covers the technical bases and design principles of major WOS technologies and their application domains for monitoring and treatment. We also discuss the opportunities and challenges, especially in the COVID-19 outbreak.

9.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 43(6): 953-959, 2022 Jun 10.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1903511

ABSTRACT

Objective: To analyze the situation of influenza vaccination among primary healthcare workers, find out the problems, and explore the strategies and measures to promote influenza vaccination among grass-roots medical staff. Methods: From April to May 2021, key insider interviews and literature research were carried out based on the perspectives of influenza vaccine suppliers (influenza vaccine manufacturers), consumers (primary medical institutions and primary healthcare workers), and managers (governments at all levels, health administrative departments and disease prevention and control departments). The SWOT (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats) analysis technique was used to comprehensively evaluate the current situation of influenza vaccination among grass-roots healthcare workers, and a SWOT analysis matrix was established. Results: Influenza vaccination of grass-roots healthcare workers have advantages and opportunities, including primary medical and health institutions' vital influenza vaccination accessibility, influenza vaccine safety is higher, COVID-19 outbreak improves the public awareness of respiratory infectious diseases and vaccine production enthusiasm, coronavirus vaccination has strengthened the capacity of the vaccine distribution system. There are also disadvantages and threats such as the high price of influenza vaccine, insufficient supply, low awareness of influenza vaccine vaccination among grass-roots healthcare workers, lack of demand assessment mechanism on influenza vaccine, poor vaccine deployment, structural imbalance in vaccine supply in different areas, and severe vaccine waste. SWOT analysis matrix of the influenza vaccination status of grass-roots healthcare workers was established, forming dominant opportunity (SO) strategy, dominant threat (ST) strategy, inferior opportunity (WO) strategy, and inferior threat (WT) strategy. Conclusion: Measures should be taken by the supplier, the demand-side, and the management side to improve the influenza vaccine coverage rate of primary healthcare workers, but the emphasis should be on the coordination and management of the management side.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza Vaccines , Influenza, Human , Health Personnel , Humans , Immunization Programs , Influenza Vaccines/therapeutic use , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Primary Health Care , Vaccination
10.
Pediatric Rheumatology ; 19(SUPPL 1), 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1571810

ABSTRACT

Introduction: At the end of April 2020, European clinicians warned the Public Health Agencies about an abnormal increase of Kawasakilike diseases and myocarditis requiring critical care support in the context of the ongoing COVID-19 epidemic in children. American clinicians also reported a large outbreak of severe inflammation in children following COVID-19 infection, a condition that is now named Pediatric Inflammatory Multisystemic Syndrome (PIMS) or Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in children (MIS-C). Objectives: As MIS-C combines clinical features of Kawasaki disease (KD) and Toxic Shock Syndrome (TSS), we aimed to compare the immunological profile of pediatric patients with these different conditions. Methods: We analysed blood cytokine expression, and the T cell repertoire and phenotype in 36 MIS-C cases, which were compared to 16 KD, 58 TSS, and 42 COVID-19 cases. Results: We observed an increase of serum inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, IL-10, IL-18, TNF-a, IFNg, CD25s, MCP1, IL-1RA) in MIS-C, TSS and KD, contrasting with low expression of HLA-DR in monocytes. We detected a specific expansion of activated T cells expressing the Vβ21.3 T cell receptor β chain variable region in both CD4 and CD8 subsets in 75% of MIS-C patients and not in any patient with TSS, KD, or acute COVID-19;this correlated with the cytokine storm detected. The T cell repertoire returned to baseline within weeks after MIS-C resolution. Vβ21.3+ T cells from MIS-C patients expressed high levels of HLA-DR, CD38 and CX3CR1 but had weak responses to SARS-CoV- 2 peptides in vitro. Consistently, the T cell expansion was not associated with specific classical HLA alleles. Conclusion: Thus, our data suggested that MIS-C is characterized by a polyclonal Vβ21.3 T cell expansion not directed against SARS-CoV-2 antigenic peptides, which is not seen in KD, TSS and acute COVID-19.

13.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 42(10): 1769-1773, 2021 Oct 10.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1534276

ABSTRACT

Objective: To describe the epidemiological characteristics of COVID-19 outbreak in Gaocheng district of Shijiazhuan. Methods: Data and epidemiological survey reports of COVID-19 cases in the outbreak were collected from China's Infectious Disease Information System, Shijazhuang Municipal Center for Diseases Prevention and Control and official information published by the National Health Commission of China. The data were analyzed, using the descriptive epidemiological method. Results: From January 2nd to February 14th, 2021, a total of 1 033 laboratory confirmed COVID-19 cases were reported in Shijiazhuang. The attack rate was 9.36/100 000. The cases were distributed in 14 counties, and most cases (859/1 033, 83.16%) were reported in Gaocheng, and the disease spread to 5 provinces. The cases in Xiaoguo village (299 cases), Liujiazhuo village (107 cases) and Nanqiaozhai village (162 cases) of Zengcun township in Gaocheng accounted for 54.99% of the total cases in Shijiazhuang. The attack rates in the villages mentioned above were 7 412.00/100 000, 10 348.16/100 000 and 6 612.24/100 000, respectively. The ratio of urban cases to rural cases was 1∶15.53. The male to female ratio of the cases was 1∶1.34. The average age of the cases was 40.49 years. The incidence peaks occurred on January 3rd (9.97%, 103 cases) and on January 9th (9.10%, 94 cases). A total of 307 clusters occurred, in which 228(74.27%) occurred in households and 48 (15.64%) occurred in schools or child care settings. But the clusters related with church ceremony had the highest case numbers (82.67 cases/time), followed by wedding feast or feast celebrating the first month of newborn (28.29 cases/time). About 33.02% (313/948) of symptomatic cases only visited the village doctors or private clinics and had no medical care seeking history before the outbreak. Conclusions: The COVID-19 epidemic in Gaocheng of Shijiazhuang was a typical one in rural area. The rapid and hiding transmission of the outbreak was mainly due to the poor health service seeking of the rural residents and the frequent mass gathering.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , China/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Female , Humans , Incidence , Infant, Newborn , Male , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Medical Journal of Peking Union Medical College Hospital ; 12(1):136-140, 2021.
Article in Chinese | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1513190

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the impact of the outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) as an intervention factor on residency training at different stages, and look into the enhancement effect of post-graduation medical training program based on competency of residency training, so as to provide reference for the optimization of medical education at the postgraduate stage. Methods After the initial success of COVID-19 prevention and control, 169 clinical postdoctoral trainess(clinical postdocs) and 515 graduate students specializing in clinical medicine(professional postdocs) were surveyed by an anonymous online questionnaire. To analyze the differences of cognition and self- evaluation of core competence between the two groups. Results There were 141 valid questionnaires collected from clinical postdocs (83.43%, 141/169) and 264 valid questionnaires collected from professional postdocs (51.26%, 264/515). In both groups, more than 85% of the students agreed or strongly agreed that they had a deeper understanding of the profession of doctors during the epidemic. The results of competency self-evaluation showed that, except for the items of "self-improvement", the self-evaluation scores of clinical postdoctoral students on other items were significantly higher than those of professional postdoctoral students (all P <0.05). Conclusions COVID-19, as a factor of emergency intervention, can improve the competency cognition of residents. The core-competency based post-graduation medical education model can comprehensively improve the students' comprehensive ability, which is an effective training program for residents. It is suggested that the vocational planning education for residents should be paid attention to in the stage of college education, and a new mode of college education that is closely combined with the post-graduation education should be further explored. © 2021 Thomson Reuters and Contributors.

15.
Zhonghua Nei Ke Za Zhi ; 60(7): 626-629, 2021 Jul 01.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463873
16.
TMR Integrative Medicine ; 5, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1449765

ABSTRACT

Objective: To explore the mechanism of Kangguan decoction in the treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and then perform preliminary verification. Methods: The effective compounds and target genes of Kangguan decoction were obtained from Traditional Chinese Medicine Systems Pharmacology Database and Analysis Platform. COVID-19 related target genes were searched in the GeneCards database. The active target genes of Kangguan decoction acting on COVID-19 were identified to perform GO function enrichment and KEGG pathway enrichment analysis. The compound-target network and protein-protein interaction were constructed;Molecular docking simulations of macromolecular protein target receptors and their corresponding compounds were performed. The clinical data of COVID-19 patients were retrieved from their electronic medical records of Nantong Third People's Hospital. Results: We screened out 137 effective compounds and 274 effective target genes of Kangguan decoction from TCMSP. The active target genes of Kangguan decoction were compared with the COVID-19 related target genes, and 63 active target genes for Kangguan decoction acting on COVID-19 were identified. GO function enrichment and KEGG pathway enrichment analysis were performed. The compound-target network and PPI network were constructed and the key compounds and key targets were selected to construct a key compound-target network. Finally, the binding of the target and its corresponding components was verified by molecular docking and two clinical cases with obvious clinical efficacy after Kangguan decoction application were demonstrated. Conclusion: The pharmacological mechanism of Kangguan decoction acting on COVID-19 has been explored, and the active compounds and targets of Kangguan decoction acting on COVID-19 and clinical efficacy for Kangguan decoction treating COVID-19 patients have been preliminarily verified.

17.
Rev Neurol (Paris) ; 177(9): 1059-1068, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1284406

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) is a rare, non-treatable and fatal neurological complication of measles, still present due to the return of the epidemic linked to the loosening of vaccination policies. Its mechanism remains unexplained. OBJECTIVE: The main objective was to investigate explanatory variables relating to the risk of developing SSPE and its pathophysiology. METHODS: Literature analysis was focused on different varieties of SSPE: perinatal forms, short-incubation forms similar to acute measles inclusion body encephalitis (MIBE), rapidly evolving forms, forms occurring in the immunosuppressed, adult forms, and family forms. In addition, several studies on the parameters of innate immunity and interferon responses of patients were analyzed. RESULTS: Two main data were highlighted: a relationship between the so-called fulminant forms and the prescription of corticosteroids was established. In familial SSPE, two groups were individualized according to the duration of the latency period, prompting an analysis of patient exomes. CONCLUSION: Treatment with corticosteroids should be banned. Knowledge of the genes involved and epigenetics should be useful for understanding the pathophysiology of SSPE and other late-onset neurological infections with RNA viruses.


Subject(s)
Communicable Diseases , Epidemics , Measles , Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis , Adult , Female , Humans , Measles/complications , Measles/epidemiology , Pregnancy , Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis/diagnosis , Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis/epidemiology , Vaccination
20.
Zhonghua Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi ; 41(4): 302-307, 2020 Apr 14.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-370588

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the clinical and coagulation characteristics in patients with critical Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and acro-ischemia. Methods: The retrospective study included 7 critical COVID-19 patients with acro-ischemia in an intensive care unit (ICU) in Wuhan, from Feb 4 to Feb 15, 2020. The clinical and laboratory data before and during the ICU stay were analyzed. Results: The median age of 7 patients was 59 years and 4 of them were men. Three patients were associated with underlying comorbidities. Fever, cough, dyspnea and diarrhea were common clinical symptoms. All patients had acro-ischemia presentations including finger/toe cyanosis, skin bulla and dry gangrene. D-dimer, fibrinogen and fibrinogen degradation product (FDP) were significantly elevated in most patients. Prothrombin time was prolonged in 4 patients. D-dimer and FDP levels progressively elevated consistent with COVID-2019 exacerbation. Four patients were diagnosed with disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) . Low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) was administrated in 6 patients, which reduced D-dimer and FDP rather than improved clinical symptoms. Five patients died finally and the median time from acro-ischemia to death was 12 days. Conclusions: Coagulation parameters should be monitored closely in critical COVID-2019 patients. The timing and protocol of anticoagulation therapy are still under investigation based on more clinical data.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Heparin, Low-Molecular-Weight/therapeutic use , Ischemia/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , China , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Female , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Humans , Ischemia/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
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