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1.
Chinese Journal of School Health ; 44(4):590-593, 2023.
Article in Chinese | Scopus | ID: covidwho-20238936

ABSTRACT

Objective To analyze the disinfection quality and influencing factors of nurseries in Nanjing during 2019-2021 so as to provide a scientific basis for optimizing preventive disinfection strategies and measures in nurseries. Methods Environmental samples from 389 nurseries in Nanjing from January 2019 to December 2021 were tested and the change of disinfection quality qualification rate was compared. Results The overall disinfection qualification rate of nurseries of year 2019-2021 were 96.32% 95.85% and 94.60% respectively showing a downward trend χ2trend = 8.67 P<0.05 . Specifically disinfection qualification rate of object surfaces staff hands and tableware showed a downward trend while the disinfection qualification rate of dynamic air showed an upward trend and the differences were statistically significant χ2trend = 23.17 12.32 5.37 21.48 P<0.05 . The total qualification rate of disinfection in Jiangning and Liuhe districts increased during 2019-2021 χ2trend = 21.46 24.05 P<0.05 . Conclusion Disinfection quality of nurseries in Nanjing has declined by year during 2019-2021 especially the object surfaces and staff hands. It is urgent to optimize and refine the strategies and measures for preventive disinfection in nurseries strengthen the training of personnel on disinfection knowledge and ensure the quality of disinfection in nurseries. © 2023 Chinese Journal of General Surgery. All rights reserved.

2.
Clinical Immunology ; Conference: 2023 Clinical Immunology Society Annual Meeting: Immune Deficiency and Dysregulation North American Conference. St. Louis United States. 250(Supplement) (no pagination), 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-20238474

ABSTRACT

Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) is a rare and severe condition that follows benign COVID-19. We report autosomal recessive deficiencies of OAS1, OAS2, or RNASEL in five unrelated children with MIS-C. The cytosolic dsRNA-sensing OAS1 and OAS2 generate 2'-5'-linked oligoadenylates (2-5A) that activate the ssRNA-degrading RNase L. Consistent with the absence of pneumonia in these patients, epithelial cells and fibroblasts defective for this pathway restricted SARS-CoV-2 normally. This contrasted with IFNAR1-deficient cells from patients prone to hypoxemic pneumonia without MIS-C. Monocytic cell lines and primary myeloid cells with OAS1, OAS2, or RNASEL deficiencies produce excessive amounts of inflammatory cytokines upon dsRNA or SARS-CoV- 2 stimulation. Exogenous 2-5A suppresses cytokine production in OAS1-but not RNase L- deficient cells. Cytokine production in RNase L-deficient cells is impaired by MDA5 or RIG-I deficiency and abolished by MAVS deficiency. Recessive OAS-RNase L deficiencies in these patients unleash the production of SARS-CoV-2-triggered, MAVS-mediated inflammatory cytokines by mononuclear phagocytes, thereby underlying MIS-C.Copyright © 2023 Elsevier Inc.

3.
Progress in Biomedical Optics and Imaging - Proceedings of SPIE ; 12397, 2023.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-20232906

ABSTRACT

A portable, inexpensive, and easy-to-manufacture microfluidic device is developed for the detection of SARS-CoV-2 dsDNA fragments. In this device, four reaction chambers separated by carbon fiber rods are pre-loaded with isothermal amplification and CRISPR-Cas12a reagents. The reaction is carried out by simply pulling the rods, without the need for manual pipetting. To facilitate power-free pathogen detection, the entire detection is designed to be heated with a disposable hand warmer. After the CRISPR reaction, the fluorescence signal generated by positive samples is identified by naked eye, using an inexpensive flashlight. This simple and sensitive device will serve as a new model for the next-generation viral diagnostics in either hospital or resource-limited settings. © 2023 SPIE.

4.
Infectious Microbes and Diseases ; 3(4):187-197, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-20232813

ABSTRACT

CD4+CD25+FOXP3+regulatory T cells (Tregs) contribute to the maintenance of immune homeostasis and tolerance in the body. The expression levels and functional stability of FOXP3 control the function and plasticity of Tregs. Tregs critically impact infectious diseases, especially by regulating the threshold of immune responses to pathogenic microorganisms. The functional regulatory mechanism and cell-specific surface markers of Tregs in different tissues and inflammatory microenvironments have been investigated in depth, which can provide novel ideas and strategies for immunotherapies targeting infectious diseases.Copyright © 2021. All rights reserved.

5.
Public Health ; 220: 88-95, 2023 Jun 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20230651

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: COVID-19 has brought challenges to the health of all mankind. It is particularly important to promote the construction of a 'Healthy China' and build a 'healthy community'. The aims of this study were to construct a reasonable conceptual framework for the Healthy City concept and to assess Healthy City construction in China. STUDY DESIGN: This study combined qualitative and quantitative research. METHODS: This study proposes the concept model of 'nature-human body-Healthy City' and accordingly constructs an evaluation index system for the construction of a Healthy City that integrates five dimensions, namely, the medical level, economic basis, cultural development, social services, and ecological environment to explore the spatial and temporal heterogeneity of Healthy City construction in China. Finally, the influencing factors of Healthy City construction patterns are explored using GeoDetector. RESULTS: (1) The pace of Healthy City construction is generally on the rise; (2) the construction of Healthy Cities exhibits significant global spatial autocorrelation and gradually increasing agglomeration. The spatial distribution of cold hotspot areas was relatively stable; (3) medical and health progress is an important factor; the level of economic development is the leading support; the endowment of resources and environment is the basic condition; public service support provides important support; and scientific and technological innovation capabilities provide technical support for the construction of a Healthy City. CONCLUSIONS: The spatial heterogeneity of Healthy City construction in China is evident, and the state of spatial distribution is relatively stable. The spatial pattern of Healthy City construction is shaped by a combination of factors. Our research will provide a scientific basis for promoting the construction of Healthy Cities and helping to implement the Health China Strategy.

6.
Frontiers in Sustainable Food Systems ; 7, 2023.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2324514

ABSTRACT

In this study, a complex network method was employed to quantify the changing role of countries in fish trade and the dynamic characteristics of fish globalization. Based on the United Nations Comtrade Database, the International Trade Network for Fish and Fish Products (ITN-Fish) was constructed as a series of weighted-directed networks for each year from 1990 to 2018. Almost all countries and territories worldwide have participated in the fish trade. In 2018, the network identified 229 fish traders. The share of developing countries in imports and exports has increased. Traders actively establish new trade relations, which improve network connectivity. However, these relations only account for a small part of the fish trade. The high connectivity allows risks to spread rapidly in the world through hubs such as the United States and China, which raises concerns about the robustness of these weak links in the Sino-US trade conflict and the outbreak of COVID-19. However, we have optimistic expectations on this issue. The dynamic of network topology property shows that the globalization of fish trade flourished between 1990 and 2018. Although, due to the financial crisis and its subsequent impact, the total amount of fish trade declined in 2009 and 2015, the network structure was not seriously affected, and the trend of topology property remained unchanged. Based on the construction of the international trade network, its node attribute, and its structural attribute, fish trade maintains the trend of globalization. Countries should actively adhere to trade globalization to promote the development of the fish trade.

7.
Marketing Science ; 2023.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2327377

ABSTRACT

In 2020, as the novel coronavirus spread globally, face masks were recommended in public settings to protect against and slow down viral transmission. People complied to varying extents, and their reactions may have been driven by a variety of psychological fac-tors. Based on the literature on social influence and on mask-wearing, we define three cus-tomer segments: Fully-Compliant customers wear masks, and they seem motivated primarily by concerns about their own health risk. Partially-Compliant customers also wear masks, but with improper and ineffective coverage;our empirical analysis suggests that they are moti-vated primarily by a desire to comply with social norms. Finally, Unmasked customers do not wear masks. We examine changes in shopping behaviors with the onset of the pandemic to corroborate the conjectured mask-wearing motives. We find that the three groups made significantly different behavior changes: Fully-Compliant customers shopped significantly faster and practiced stricter social distancing with the onset of the pandemic, whereas the other two groups did not adjust their shopping duration or social distancing.

8.
2022 Asia Communications and Photonics Conference, ACP 2022 and International Conference on Information Photonics and Optical Communications, IPOC 2022 ; 2022-November:2025-2028, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2320959

ABSTRACT

The emergence of the Covid-19 pandemic has drawn great attention to vulnerable people affected by major diseases. Among them, Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most prevalent disease. However, a long-standing challenge is to achieve early diagnosis of AD by detecting biomarkers such as amyloid beta (Aβ42), thus avoiding the labor of specialized hospital personnel and the high cost of imaging examinations using positron emission tomography. In this paper, we report a straightforward approach to realize a non-invasive lab-around fiber (LaF) optical sensor for AD biomarker detection, which is based on a tilted fiber Bragg grating (TFBG) combined with a nanoscale metallic thin film. We successfully demonstrated the detection of Aβ42 in complex biological matrices with a detection limit of 5 pg/mL. Therefore, our TFBG-SPR biosensor platform enables large-scale early disease screening and has great potential for clinical applications in early AD diagnosis. © 2022 IEEE.

9.
Medical Journal of Peking Union Medical College Hospital ; 12(1):136-140, 2021.
Article in Chinese | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2319257

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the impact of the outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) as an intervention factor on residency training at different stages, and look into the enhancement effect of post-graduation medical training program based on competency of residency training, so as to provide reference for the optimization of medical education at the postgraduate stage. Methods After the initial success of COVID-19 prevention and control, 169 clinical postdoctoral trainess(clinical postdocs) and 515 graduate students specializing in clinical medicine(professional postdocs) were surveyed by an anonymous online questionnaire. To analyze the differences of cognition and self- evaluation of core competence between the two groups. Results There were 141 valid questionnaires collected from clinical postdocs (83.43%, 141/169) and 264 valid questionnaires collected from professional postdocs (51.26%, 264/515). In both groups, more than 85% of the students agreed or strongly agreed that they had a deeper understanding of the profession of doctors during the epidemic. The results of competency self-evaluation showed that, except for the items of "self-improvement", the self-evaluation scores of clinical postdoctoral students on other items were significantly higher than those of professional postdoctoral students (all P <0.05). Conclusions COVID-19, as a factor of emergency intervention, can improve the competency cognition of residents. The core-competency based post-graduation medical education model can comprehensively improve the students' comprehensive ability, which is an effective training program for residents. It is suggested that the vocational planning education for residents should be paid attention to in the stage of college education, and a new mode of college education that is closely combined with the post-graduation education should be further explored.Copyright © 2021 Thomson Reuters and Contributors.

10.
Frontiers of Engineering Management ; 10(1):96-106, 2023.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2311823

ABSTRACT

Building an effective resilient supply chain system (RSCS) is critical and necessary to reduce the risk of supply chain disruptions in unexpected scenarios such as COVID-19 pandemic and trade wars. To overcome the impact of insufficient raw material supply on the supply chain in mass disruption scenarios, this study proposes a novel RSCS considering product design changes (PDC). An RSCS domain model is first developed from the perspective of PDC based on a general conceptual framework, i.e., function-context-behavior-principle-state-structure (FCBPSS), which can portray complex systems under unpredictable situations. Specifically, the interaction among the structure, state and behavior of the infrastructure system and substance system is captured, and then a quantitative analysis of the change impact process is presented to evaluate the resilience of both the product and supply chain. Next, a case study is conducted to demonstrate the PDC strategy and to validate the feasibility and effectiveness of the RSCS domain model. The results show that the restructured RSCS based on the proposed strategy and model can remedy the huge losses caused by the unavailability of raw materials.

13.
Transformations in Business & Economics ; 21(2B):938-958, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2310939

ABSTRACT

This paper focused on role-based public leadership's impact and internal mechanism on subordinate taking charge behavior (TCB). The explanatory model of rationality and value dual paths was proposed and verified through hierarchical regression and bootstrap tests, with the data from a questionnaire survey to the Bureau of Commerce. The main conclusions are as follows: (1) Public service motivation is a mediating variable between public leadership and TCB;(2) political skills have a double-edged sword effect. Political skills positively moderate the impact of public leadership on TCB. Meanwhile, it negatively moderates the effects of public leadership on public service motivation and the effects of public service motivation on TCB;(3) under the high political skill level of subordinates, public leadership has a direct impact on the TCB, while under the low political skill level of subordinates, the direct effect of public leadership on the TCB is insignificant.

14.
Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research ; 62(12):5125-5140, 2023.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2309536

ABSTRACT

The global supply chain is experiencing ongoing turmoil after COVID-19, which inevitably affects the supply and demand of the chemical industry. Ethylene plants are regarded as one of the most profitable chemical industry chains, and thus, there is a need to track fluctuations in the supply chain and responsively adjust their operations and scheduling decisions to achieve optimal economic benefits. However, previous studies about ethylene cracking optimization are mostly limited to fixed supply chain parameters and cannot meet the need for real-time updates according to supply chain fluctuations. To address this problem, we propose an ethylene cracking optimization framework which combines parameter prediction and receding horizon optimization (predictive RHO) for real-time optimal operation and scheduling under supply chain fluctuations. This optimization framework uses historical supply chain data (supply quantities, feedstock prices, and product prices) to predict future parameters and uses the predicted parameters to optimize the operation and scheduling of ethylene cracking furnace systems in a receding horizon way. Two industrial case studies were used to validate the efficacy of the proposed optimization framework. In case 1, the predictive-RHO framework achieved comparable economic profits of 147,370 and 146,483 $/day without violating daily inventory constraints (vs 151,204 $/day from the original model violating inventory constraints) and a faster calculation speed of 40 s (vs 32 min) under two fluctuating feed supply modes. In case 2, predictive RHO improves economic profits by 1.8% through integrating operations with scheduling and 1.1% by tracking the feed and product price fluctuations. These two cases show the strong capability of predictive RHO in tracking supply chain fluctuations and improving the inventory management level as well as the economic profits of ethylene cracking plants.

15.
Applied Sciences (Switzerland) ; 13(6), 2023.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2305954

ABSTRACT

Due to the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic, many students are unable to attend face-to-face courses, Therefore, in this case, distance education should be promoted to replace face-to-face education. However, because of the imbalance of education in different regions, such as the imbalance of education resources between rural and urban areas, the quality of distance education may not be guaranteed. Therefore, in China and some regions, there have been efforts made to carry out blended synchronous classroom attempts. In hybrid synchronous classroom situations, teachers' workloads have increased, and it is difficult to fully understand students' learning efficiency and class participation. We use deep learning to identify the behaviors of teachers and students in a blended synchronous classroom-based situation, aiming to automate the analysis of classroom videos, which can help teachers in classroom reflection and summary in a blended synchronous classroom or face-to-face classroom. In the behavior recognition of students and teachers, we combine the head, hand, and body posture information of teachers and students and add the feature pyramid (FPN) and convolutional block attention module (CBAM) for comparative experiments. Finally, S–T (student–teacher) analysis and engagement analysis were carried out on the identification results. © 2023 by the authors.

16.
Medical Journal of Peking Union Medical College Hospital ; 14(1):50-59, 2023.
Article in Chinese | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2305496

ABSTRACT

With the adjustment of China's COVID-19 policies and measures, the treatment of infected patients, especially the severe and critically ill patients, has become the focus of all medical staff at this stage. Since the outbreak of the pandemic, Peking Union Medical College Hospital has accumulated rich experience in this field. Based on the updated international evidence-based knowledge, the multidisciplinary expert group of COVID-19 at Peking Union Medical College Hospital has compiled a set of operational recommendations. Adhering to the evidence-based, concise, and clinically operable principles, these recommendations for diagnosis and treatment integrate the latest research evidence. For clinical issues that lack evidence, certain recommendations are given based on the frontline clinical working experience and expert opinions. The purpose is to enhance medical staff's understanding of COVID-19 infection and its critical illness and improve patient care.Copyright © 2023, Peking Union Medical College Hospital. All rights reserved.

17.
Current Issues in Tourism ; 2023.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2297188

ABSTRACT

The high infectivity and uncertainty of COVID-19 could intensify the tourists' psychological anxiety, and further greatly hinder the tourist flow and tourism recovery. Finding ways to ease tourist anxiety and renew their travel confidence is a critical issue that has remained unsolved during COVID-19. The government and tourist destination, providing and guaranteeing tourism activities, are helpful to alleviate tourist anxiety. Therefore, fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA) and social support theory were used to explore how to alleviate tourist anxiety from the dual perspectives of the government and the destination. The results indicate that there are seven configurations for alleviating tourists' psychological anxiety, and the role of both government and destination are core factors. Among them, the positive destination image is indispensable. Moreover, there is a substitution between crisis management effectiveness and destination sustainability. The research deepens the matching relationship between multidimensional antecedents and tourist anxiety, promotes the application of social support theory in tourist negative emotion, and expands the research framework of tourist anxiety influenced by major crisis events. Our findings provide practical implications for the government and tourist destinations in dealing with major crises and contribute to tourism recovery and competitiveness remodelling during COVID-19. © 2023 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.

18.
Fangzhi Xuebao/Journal of Textile Research ; 44(1):56-63, 2023.
Article in Chinese | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2306591

ABSTRACT

Objective The epidemic of COVID-19 and its variants is endangering human health. Wearing protective masks can effectively reduce the infection risk by resisting the inhalation of the polluted air containing the coronavirus. Electrospun polyamide nanofibers can be used as the core layer of protective masks and have lately received growing attention because of their high filtration performance and robust mechanical properties. However, existing electrospun polyamide nanofiber filters are usually prepared from toxic solvents which could cause severe environmental pollution and endanger workers' health, hence, their practical application should be restricted. Therefore, it is imperative to seek and develop green-solvent-based polyamide nanofiber filters. Method Innovative polyamide nanofiber filters were developed by direct electrospinning technique based on green solvents (Fig. 1). Ethanol as the solvent and water as the nonsolvent were adopted to prepare the green-solvent-based polyamide (GSPA) nanofibers by designing spinning solutions with different ethanol/water mass ratios (i.e., 10: 0, 9: 1, 8: 2, 7: 3, and 6: 4) . During electrospinning process, the working voltage, tip-to-collector distance, and solution extrusion speed were set as 30 kV, 15 cm and 1 mL/h, respectively. The nanofibers prepared with the different ethanol/water ratios were denoted as GSPA - 0, GSPA - 1, GSPA - 2, GSPA-3, and GSPA-4, respectively. Results It was found that water content had a great influence on the morphological structures of polyamide nanofibers (Fig. 2) - After introducing a small amount of water, the obtained GSPA - 1 nanofibers featuring thinner diameter of 332 nm were compared to the GSPA-0 nanofibers (499 nm). The enhanced conductivity (10. 5 μS/cm) of waterborne spinning solutions (Fig. 3) stimulated more charges on spinning jets and led to larger electrostatic force, thus greatly elongating the jets and thinning the fiber diameter. However, with the further increment of water concentrations from 20% to 40%, the obtained fibers exhibited an increased average diameter ranging from 443 to 1 553 nm, which was mainly attributed to the larger viscosity of spinning solutions. Although water cannot dissolve polyamide, homogenous waterborne polyamide/ethanol solutions can still be obtained with different ethanol/water mass ratios within a broad area in the stable region (Fig. 3) - The average pore size of GSPA -1 membranes decreased by 55% compared with that of GSPA-0 membranes, contributing to high filtration efficiency. Moreover, with different concentrations (10%, 20%, 30%) of water, the fluffy structure of GSPA nanofibers were achieved with a high porosity (> 80%), which would offer more passageways to transmit air rapidly. As the water concentration increased, the breaking strength of membranes increased at first and then decreased (Fig. 5), and the GSPA- 1 membranes exhibited the highest breaking strength of 5. 6 MPa, which was believed to be related to the enhanced entanglements and contacts among the adjacent fibers because of the small fiber diameter. The GSPA -1 membranes displayed the highest filtration efficiency (99. 02%) for the most penetration particles (PM0.3) by virtue of the small fiber diameter but suffered from poor permeability with a pressure drop of 158 Pa. Moreover, the GSPA- 1 membranes possessed the highest quality factor of 0. 029 3 Pa, suggesting the optimal filtration performance among different GSPA membranes. A high PM0.3 removal efficiency (>95%) was achieved for GSPA-1 filters under various airflow velocities ranging from 10 to 90 L/min (Fig. 7). Compared with conventional melt-blown fibers, the GSPA nanofibers featured a smaller diameter and higher Knudsen number (Fig. 8), and PM0.3 were captured mainly on the surfaces of green polyamide nanofibers (Fig. 9), demonstrating the higher adsorption ability benefiting from the larger specific surface area. Conclusion A cleaner production of polyamide nanofibers for air filtration was proposed by direct electrospinning based on green and sustaina le binary solvents of water and ethanol. For the first time, the structure including fiber diameter, porosity, and pore size of electrospun polyamide nanofibers were precisely tailored by manipulating water concentration in spinning solutions. The prepared environmentally friendly polyamide nanofiber filters feature the interconnected porous structure with the nanoscale ID building blocks (332 nm), mean pore size (0.7 μm), and porosity (84%), thus achieving efficient PM0.3 capture performance with the filtration efficiency of 99. 02% and pressure drop of 158 Pa, which could be comparable to previous toxic-solvent-processed nanofibers. Moreover, the GSPA nanofibers exhibit robust mechanical properties with an impressive breaking strength (5 . 6 MPa) and elongation (163. 9%), contributing to withstanding the external forces and deformation in the practical assembly and usage of resultant filters. It is envisaged that the green-solvent-based polyamide nanofibers could be used as promising candidates for next-generation air filters, and the proposed waterborne spinning strategy can provide valuable insights for cleaner production of advanced polyamide textiles. © 2023 China Textile Engineering Society. All rights reserved.

19.
Carbon ; 209, 2023.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2306451

ABSTRACT

The global pandemic of COVID-19 poses significant challenge to the recycling of disposable polypropylene (PP)-based waste masks. Herein, a simple but effective sulfonation route has been proposed to transform PP-based waste masks into value-added hard carbon (CM) anode materials for advanced sodium-ion batteries. The sulfonation treatment improves the thermal stability of the PP molecule, preventing their complete decomposition and the release of massive gas molecules during the carbonization process. Meanwhile, the oxygen functional groups introduced during sulfonation effectively facilitates the cross-linking between the PP chains, hindering the rearrangement of carbon microcrystalline structures and enhancing its structural disorder. As a result, the prepared hard carbon anode (CM-180) with a high disorder degree and minimal surface defects realizes a high sodium storage capacity of 327.4 mAh g−1 with excellent cycle and rate capability. In addition, when coupled with O3–NaNi1/3Fe1/3Mn1/3O2 cathode, the fabricated sodium-ion full cell delivers a high energy density of 238 Wh kg−1 and achieves an outstanding rate capability with a retained capacity of 75 mAh g−1 even at an ultrahigh current rate of 50 C. This work offers a novel insight into transforming the waste masks to value-added hard carbons with promising prospects for sodium-ion batteries. © 2023

20.
IEEE Access ; 11:27693-27701, 2023.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2306447

ABSTRACT

Vaccines need to be urgently allocated in pandemics like the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. In the literature, vaccines are optimally allocated using various mathematical models, including the extensively used Susceptible-Infected-Recovered epidemic model. However, these models do not account for the time duration concerning multi-dose vaccines, time duration from infection to recovery or death, the vaccine hesitancy (i.e., delay in acceptance or refusal of vaccination), and vaccine efficacy (i.e., the time-varying protection capability of the vaccine). To make the vaccine allocation model more applicable to reality, this paper presents an optimal model considering the above mentioned time duration concerning multi-dose vaccination, time duration from infection to recovery or death, hesitancy rates, efficacy levels, and also breakthrough rates - the rates at which individuals get infected after vaccination. This vaccine allocation model is constructed using a revised Susceptible-Infected-Recovered model. The concept of people∗week infections is introduced to measure the number of infected people within a certain time duration, and in this paper, the amount of people∗week infections is minimized by the proposed vaccine allocation model. Our case study of the New York State 2021 population of 19,840,000 shows that this optimal allocation method can avoid 0.05%2.75% people∗week infections than the baseline allocation method when 2 to 11 million vaccines are optimally allocated. In conclusion, the obtained optimal allocation method can effectively reduce people∗week infections and avoid vaccine waste when more vaccines are available. © 2013 IEEE.

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