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1.
Sci Total Environ ; : 155173, 2022 Apr 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1783747

ABSTRACT

Proper air distribution is crucial for airborne infection risk control of infectious respiratory diseases like COVID-19. Existing studies evaluate and compare the performances of different air distributions for airborne infection risk control, but the mechanisms of air distribution for airborne infection risk control remain unclear. This study investigates the mechanisms of air distribution for both overall and local airborne infection risk controls. The experimentally validated CFD models simulate the contaminant concentration fields in a hospital ward based on which the airborne infection risks of COVID-19 are evaluated with the dilution-based expansion of the Wells-Riley model. Different air distributions, i.e., stratum ventilation, displacement ventilation, and mixing ventilation, with various supply airflow rates are tested. The results show that the variations of the overall and local airborne infection risks under different air distributions and different supply airflow rates are complicated and non-linear. The contaminant removal and the contaminant dispersion are proposed as the mechanisms for the overall and local airborne infection risk controls, respectively, regardless of airflow distributions and supply airflow rates. A large contaminant removal ability benefits the overall airborne infection risk control, with the coefficient of determination of 0.96 between the contaminant removal index and the reciprocal of the overall airborne infection risk. A large contaminant dispersion ability benefits the local airborne infection risk control, with the coefficient of determination of 0.99 between the contaminant dispersion index and the local airborne infection risk.

2.
Immun Inflamm Dis ; 10(4): e597, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1739166

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Systemic reactivation of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) may occur in novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). However, the clinical consequences of EBV reactivation remain uncertain. METHODS: In this retrospective study, we screened 1314 patients with confirmed COVID-19 who died or were discharged between January 1, 2020 and March 12, 2020, in Wuhan Infectious Disease Hospital, Wuhan, China. Patients who had complete data for EBV serology and cytomegalovirus (CMV) serology were eligible. Serum levels of viral capsid antigen (VCA)-immunoglobulin G (IgG), Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen-IgG, VCA-IgM, early antigen (EA)-IgG, CMV-IgG, and CMV-IgM were compared between survivors and nonsurvivors. Dynamic changes of laboratory tests and outcomes were compared in patients with and without ganciclovir treatment. We used 1:1 matching based on age, gender, and illness severity to balance baseline characteristics. RESULTS: EBV reactivation was present in 55 of 217 patients. EBV reactivation was associated with age (57.91 [13.19] vs. 50.28 [12.66] years, p < .001), female gender (31 [56%] vs. 60 [37%], p = .02). Patients with EBV reactivation have statistically nonsignificant higher mortality rate (12 [22%] vs. 18 [11%], p = .08). EA-IgG levels were significantly higher in nonsurvivors than in survivors (median difference: -0.00005, 95% confidence interval, CI [-3.10, 0.00], p = .05). As compared to patients with COVID-19 who did not receive ganciclovir therapy, ganciclovir-treated patients had improved survival rate (0.98, 95% CI [0.95, 1.00] vs. 0.88, 95% CI [0.81, 0.95], p = .01). Hemoglobin (p < .001) and prealbumin (p = .02) levels were significantly higher in ganciclovir-treated patients. CONCLUSION: A high proportion of COVID-19 patients had EBV reactivation that may be associated with an increased risk of death. Whether treatment with ganciclovir may decrease the mortality of COVID-19 patients complicated with EBV reactivation warrants to be addressed in a placebo-controlled randomized trial in the future.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Epstein-Barr Virus Infections , COVID-19/drug therapy , Epstein-Barr Virus Infections/complications , Epstein-Barr Virus Infections/drug therapy , Female , Ganciclovir/therapeutic use , Herpesvirus 4, Human/physiology , Humans , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
3.
China CDC Weekly ; 4(6):1-3, 2021.
Article in English | China CDC Weekly | ID: covidwho-1699561

ABSTRACT

Vaccines are a crucial weapon in combating the global coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. At present, China is in a critical period of COVID-19 vaccination, and most of the approved vaccines are developed by inactivated vaccine technology, which contains the complete nucleic acid sequence of the virus (1-2). The inactivated COVID-19 vaccine may contaminate people and environments during the vaccination process, thus triggering a false alarm of the COVID-19 surveillance system. In this study, we selected some vaccination sites to assess the intensity and distribution of vaccine contamination.;;Before field study, we used Reverse Transcription-Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) method with kits that produced by Da An Gene and ZJ Bio-Tech to estimate the signal strength of inactivated COVID-19 vaccine (SinovacBiotech). The average Cycle threshold (Ct) value of ORF1Ab /N gene of the vaccine solution was 15.30±0.77, while the Ct value of the kit’s positive control was 28.01±2.38.

4.
Neural Regen Res ; 17(9): 2029-2035, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1687156

ABSTRACT

Excessive inflammation post-traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) induces microglial activation, which leads to prolonged neurological dysfunction. However, the mechanism underlying microglial activation-induced neuroinflammation remains poorly understood. Ruxolitinib (RUX), a selective inhibitor of JAK1/2, was recently reported to inhibit inflammatory storms caused by SARS-CoV-2 in the lung. However, its role in disrupting inflammation post-SCI has not been confirmed. In this study, microglia were treated with RUX for 24 hours and then activated with interferon-γ for 6 hours. The results showed that interferon-γ-induced phosphorylation of JAK and STAT in microglia was inhibited, and the mRNA expression levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1ß, interleukin-6, and cell proliferation marker Ki67 were reduced. In further in vivo experiments, a mouse model of spinal cord injury was treated intragastrically with RUX for 3 successive days, and the findings suggest that RUX can inhibit microglial proliferation by inhibiting the interferon-γ/JAK/STAT pathway. Moreover, microglia treated with RUX centripetally migrated toward injured foci, remaining limited and compacted within the glial scar, which resulted in axon preservation and less demyelination. Moreover, the protein expression levels of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1ß, and interleukin-6 were reduced. The neuromotor function of SCI mice also recovered. These findings suggest that RUX can inhibit neuroinflammation through inhibiting the interferon-γ/JAK/STAT pathway, thereby reducing secondary injury after SCI and producing neuroprotective effects.

5.
J Hazard Mater ; 430: 128475, 2022 05 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1676810

ABSTRACT

Vertical transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) along a vertical column of flats has been documented in several outbreaks of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Guangdong and Hong Kong. We describe an outbreak in Luk Chuen House, involving two vertical columns of flats associated with an unusually connected two-stack drainage system, in which nine individuals from seven households were infected. The index case resided in Flat 812 (8th floor, Unit 12), two flats (813, 817) on its opposite side reported one case each (i.e., a horizontal sub-cluster). All other flats with infected residents were vertically associated, forming a vertical sub-cluster. We injected tracer gas (SF6) into drainage stacks via toilet or balcony of Flat 812, monitored gas concentrations in roof vent, toilet, façade, and living room in four of the seven flats with infected residents and four flats with no infected residents. The measured gas concentration distributions agreed with the observed distribution of affected flats. Aerosols leaking into drainage stacks may generate the vertical sub-cluster, whereas airflow across the corridor probably caused the horizontal sub-cluster. Sequencing and phylogenetic analyses also revealed a common point-source. The findings provided additional evidence of probable roles of drainage systems in SARS-CoV-2 transmission.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Aerosols , COVID-19/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Housing , Humans , Phylogeny , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Sustainability ; 14(2):1029, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1639276

ABSTRACT

Economic growth is an integral part of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), especially SDG 8. We combine 10 economic constraints and build a five-variable (structural vector autoregressive) SVAR model based on China’s time series data of 1978–2017. The empirical results show: (1) The Chinese government adopted different economic policies at different stages of reform and opening up;(2) From the impulse response results, China’s excessively high government debt ratio has begun to inhibit economic growth;(3) In terms of policy selection and coordination, the Chinese government mostly adopts a “discretion” adjustment strategy. In most cases, the fiscal and monetary policies were in the same direction, and the “double expansionary” and “double contractionary” policy coordination may become mainstream;(4) The results of variance decomposition showed that both fiscal and monetary policies can effectively regulate economic growth at the present stage, and the contribution rates of exogenous shocks to the prediction variance of economic growth rate were about 25%.

7.
Sci Transl Med ; 14(635): eabm7853, 2022 03 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1630954

ABSTRACT

A damaging inflammatory response is implicated in the pathogenesis of severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), but mechanisms contributing to this response are unclear. In two prospective cohorts, early non-neutralizing, afucosylated immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies specific to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) were associated with progression from mild to more severe COVID-19. To study the biology of afucosylated IgG immune complexes, we developed an in vivo model that revealed that human IgG-Fc-gamma receptor (FcγR) interactions could regulate inflammation in the lung. Afucosylated IgG immune complexes isolated from patients with COVID-19 induced inflammatory cytokine production and robust infiltration of the lung by immune cells. In contrast to the antibody structures that were associated with disease progression, antibodies that were elicited by messenger RNA SARS-CoV-2 vaccines were highly fucosylated and enriched in sialylation, both modifications that reduce the inflammatory potential of IgG. Vaccine-elicited IgG did not promote an inflammatory lung response. These results show that human IgG-FcγR interactions regulate inflammation in the lung and define distinct lung activities mediated by the IgG that are associated with protection against, or progression to, severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , Antibody Formation , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
8.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 15(12): 1808-1812, 2021 12 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1639503

ABSTRACT

Beginning in 2019, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) rapidly resulted in a worldwide pandemic. Many patients with coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) require invasive ventilation due to severe respiratory failure. However, many medical hospitals experienced shortages of personal protective equipment, increasing the risk of healthcare workers contracting an infection. However, we report a case of acute respiratory distress syndrome during the early stage of COVID-19 treated at a university hospital outside of Wuhan, China. We described the optimization of healthcare worker personal protection and a procedure for airway management in the context of insufficient personal protective equipment. This report may provide a reference for resource-limited settings in low- and middle-income countries, even countries where healthcare systems have been overwhelmed by the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/transmission , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Personal Protective Equipment/supply & distribution , COVID-19/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Fatal Outcome , Humans , Intubation, Intratracheal/adverse effects , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Front Psychiatry ; 12: 737717, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1556277

ABSTRACT

Objectives: To explore the influencing factors of residents' psychological status during standardized training in COVID-19 for finding ways to promote their mental health. Methods: A total of 760 residents were surveyed with a structured questionnaire. Correlation analysis was used to analyze the influencing factors of psychological status of the residents, and a mediation model was constructed to verify the mediating role of satisfaction. Results: Age, willingness to study medicine, and satisfaction were positively correlated with negative psychological status (P < 0.05). And gender, only child or not, and annual household income (RMB) were negatively correlated with negative psychological status (P < 0.01). Residents' satisfaction with standardized training mode plays a complete mediating role between annual household income and negative psychological status. Conclusions: Our findings emphasize the importance of concentrating on resident's psychological status and family economic situation. And relative departments should take action to optimize the standardized training mode to improve the satisfaction.

10.
Ann Palliat Med ; 10(10): 10626-10632, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1515697

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to determine whether Arbidol has a good antiviral effect on coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was performed in one of the treatment centers for COVID-19 patients in China from January 2020 to March 2020. The antiviral drug Arbidol (ARB) was administrated to some of the patients at 0.2 g tid po for 7 to 10 days. According to whether patients were given ARB, they were divided into 2 groups: the ARB group and the Non-ARB group. The primary outcome was the 14-day COVID-19 negativity rate. RESULTS: Of 146 patients, 140 were included. A total of 79 (56.4%) patients received ARB during hospitalization. In the overall cohort, the time of COVID-19 negativity in the ARB group compared with the Non-ARB group was 12.9 days versus 12.7 days (P=0.175; >0.05). The rates of 14-day COVID-19 negativity were 60.8% and 65.6% in the ARB and non-ARB groups, respectively (P=0.559; >0.05). Using an adjusted model, there were no obvious differences in the time of COVID-19 negativity and the rates of 14-day COVID-19 negativity (P>0.05). According to Kaplan-Meier analysis, the probabilities of 14-day COVID-19 negativity were similar in the 2 groups (log-rank P=0.130; >0.05). In a multivariate Cox analysis, the variables of age [hazard ratio (HR) 0.91, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.83 to 0.99; P=0.039] and glucose (HR 0.90, 95% CI: 0.82 to 0.98; P=0.021) were independently associated with 14-day COVID-19 negativity. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that there was no apparent favorable clinical response with ARB both in clinical symptoms and the 14-day COVID-19 negativity rate.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors , Cohort Studies , Humans , Indoles , Retrospective Studies
11.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-292327

ABSTRACT

Background: The impact of corticosteroids on severe patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)/ chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) co-infection is currently unknown. We aimed to investigate effect of corticosteroid on these subgroup patients. Methods: . In this retrospective multicenter study including 5447 confirmed COVID-19 patients from Jan 1, 2020 to Apr 18, 2020, severe patients with COVID-19/HBV co-infection were identified. To minimize the bias of confounding variables on effect of corticosteroid treatment, inverse probability of treatment weighting (IPTW) based on propensity score was employed. Results: . The prevalence of HBV co-infection in hospitalization COVID-19 patients was 4.1%. 105 severe patients with COVID-19/HBV co-infection were enrolled (median age 62 years, 57.1% male). Fifty-five patients received corticosteroid treatment and 50 patients did not. Corticosteroid treatment was associated with high D-dimer level, neutrophil count (all P <0.05). With IPTW analysis, corticosteroid treatment worsen acute liver injury (OR, 1.767, 95%CI, 1.018-3.065, P =0.043). Corticosteroids might delay SARS-CoV-2 viral RNA clearance (OR, 4.963, 95%CI, 2.717-9.065, P <0.001). The 28-day and in-hospital mortality were both significantly higher in corticosteroid treatment group than non-corticosteroid treatment group (OR, 8.738, 95%CI, 2.826-27.022, P <0.001;OR, 10.122, 95%CI, 3.291-31.129, P <0.001, respectively). In multivariable analysis, higher D-dimer level (>1µg/ml) (OR, 10.686, 95%CI, 2.421-47.159, P =0.002) and corticosteroid therapy (OR, 11.236, 95%CI, 1.273-99.154, P =0.029) were independently associated with 28-day mortality. Methylprednisolone dose per day and cumulative dose in non-survivors was significantly higher than in survivors. Conclusions: . In severe patients with COVID-19/HBV co-infection, corticosteroid treatment may increase mortality. Therefore, corticosteroid therapy should be prescribed with caution in the subset of patients.

12.
Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao ; 43(5): 767-772, 2021 Oct.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1502556

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the understanding of the head and face protection of the health care workers in operating room of Peking Union Medical College Hospital during the corona virus disease-19(COVID-19) pandemic.Methods The knowledge of head and face protection of health care workers in the operating room was evaluated based on the non-registered questionnaires for protection measures collected on-line.Results The survey was conducted in two phases.In the first phase(COVID-19 outbreak),153 questionnaires were collected.In the second phase(when Beijing lowered the emergency response to level 3 and normalized the epidemic prevention and control),101 questionnaires were collected.The results showed that 98% of health care workers had used any form of protective devices during the pandemic and anesthesiologists had the highest usage rate(93.0%)of ear-loop face mask with eye shield.During the pandemic,health care workers mainly used goggles(71.2%)for protection to diagnose and treat the patients with fever and ear-loop face mask with eye shield(56.2%)for protection to diagnose and treat the non-fever patients.In the first-and second-phase survey,43% and 68% of health care workers still used protection,and they mainly used face shield(50.0% and 56.5%)and ear-loop face mask with eye shield(56.1% and 68.1%).Conclusions During the pandemic,more than 90% of the health care workers in the operating room of Peking Union Medical College Hospital were aware of head and face protection.Different healthcare workers in the operating room had different choices of head and face protection,and more than 40% of them would still keep such protection during the normalized stage of pandemic prevention and control.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Health Personnel , Hospitals , Humans , Operating Rooms , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 6(1): 342, 2021 09 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1415923

ABSTRACT

While some individuals infected by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) present mild-to-severe disease, many SARS-CoV-2-infected individuals are asymptomatic. We sought to identify the distinction of immune response between asymptomatic and moderate patients. We performed single-cell transcriptome and T-cell/B-cell receptor (TCR/BCR) sequencing in 37 longitudinal collected peripheral blood mononuclear cell samples from asymptomatic, moderate, and severe patients with healthy controls. Asymptomatic patients displayed increased CD56briCD16- natural killer (NK) cells and upregulation of interferon-gamma in effector CD4+ and CD8+ T cells and NK cells. They showed more robust TCR clonal expansion, especially in effector CD4+ T cells, but lack strong BCR clonal expansion compared to moderate patients. Moreover, asymptomatic patients have lower interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs) expression in general but large interpatient variability, whereas moderate patients showed various magnitude and temporal dynamics of the ISGs expression across multiple cell populations but lower than a patient with severe disease. Our data provide evidence of different immune signatures to SARS-CoV-2 in asymptomatic infections.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Carrier State/immunology , Lymphocytes/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Single-Cell Analysis , Transcriptome/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/immunology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Receptors, Antigen, B-Cell/genetics , Receptors, Antigen, B-Cell/immunology , Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell/genetics , Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
14.
JAMA Ophthalmol ; 139(11): 1165-1172, 2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1412933

ABSTRACT

Importance: Myopia is a common cause of vision loss, and its prevalence is increasing globally. Objective: To evaluate the effects of school-based family health education via WeChat in raising parents' awareness of myopia prevention and behavior and in controlling the development of myopia in children. Design, Setting, and Participants: A single-masked cluster randomized clinical trial of children was conducted from October 1, 2018, to December 31, 2020, among grade 1 students from 12 primary schools in Guangzhou, China. The 12 primary schools were randomly selected in 2 districts and randomized to the intervention and control groups. All grade 1 students were invited to participate, and 688 students were included in the intervention group and 752 in the control group. Interventions: Weekly health education via the social media platform WeChat was provided to the parents in the intervention group. Main Outcomes and Measures: Data include results of eye examinations of children and questionnaires completed by parents. The primary outcome was the 2-year cumulative incidence rate of myopia. Myopia was defined as a spherical equivalent (SE) refractive error (sphere of +0.5 cylinder) of at least -0.50 diopters (D). The secondary outcomes were the 2-year changes in the axis length and SE refraction, parental awareness, children's screen time, outdoor activities, and learning tools during COVID-19. Results: Among the 1525 children included at baseline (835 boys [54.8%]; mean [SD] age, 6.3 [0.5] years), 1244 competed the final assessment; the 2-year cumulative incidence rate of myopia was 106 of 544 (19.5%) in the intervention group and 171 of 700 (24.4%) in the control group (difference, 4.9% [95% CI, 0.3%-9.5%]; P = .04). The mean myopic shift in SE refraction in the intervention group (-0.82 D) was lower than that in the control group (-0.96 D; difference, -0.14 [95% CI, -0.22 to -0.06] D; P < .001). No difference in change in axial length was detected (difference, 0.02 [95% CI, -0.06 to 0.09] mm; P = .70). Conclusions and Relevance: School-based weekly family health education via WeChat resulted in a small decrease in the 2-year cumulative incidence rate of myopia with a difference in SE of less than 0.25 D not accompanied by any axial length differences. Whether these findings extrapolate elsewhere in the world or are clinically relevant in the short or long term remain to be determined. Trial Registration: Chinese Clinical Trial Registry Identifier: ChiCTR1900022236.


Subject(s)
Health Education/methods , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Myopia , Parents , Social Media , Adult , COVID-19 , Child , China , Female , Humans , Male , Myopia/epidemiology , Myopia/prevention & control , Refraction, Ocular , SARS-CoV-2 , Schools
15.
JAMA Ophthalmol ; 139(10): 1115-1121, 2021 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1412624

ABSTRACT

Importance: During the outbreak of COVID-19, outdoor activities were limited and digital learning increased. Concerns have arisen regarding the impact of these environmental changes on the development of myopia. Objective: To investigate changes in the development of myopia in young Chinese schoolchildren during the outbreak of COVID-19. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this observational study, 2 groups of students from 12 primary schools in Guangzhou, China, were prospectively enrolled and monitored from grade 2 to grade 3. Comparisons between the exposure and nonexposure groups were made to evaluate any association between environmental changes during the COVID-19 outbreak period and development of myopia. The exposure group received complete eye examinations in November and December 2019 and November and December 2020. The nonexposure group received examinations in November and December 2018 and November and December 2019. Main Outcomes and Measures: Changes in cycloplegic spherical equivalent refraction (SER), axial length (AL) elongation, and myopia incidence from grade 2 to grade 3. Results: Among the 2679 eligible students in grade 2 (mean [SD] age, 7.76 [0.32] years; 1422 [53.1%] male), 2114 (1060 in the nonexposure group and 1054 in the exposure group) were reexamined in grade 3. Compared with the period from November and December 2018 to November and December 2019, the shift of SER, AL elongation, and myopia incidence from grade 2 to grade 3 from November and December 2019 to November and December 2020 was 0.36 D greater (95% CI, 0.32-0.41; P < .001), 0.08 mm faster (95% CI, 0.06-0.10; P < .001), and 7.9% higher (95% CI, 5.1%-10.6%; P < .001), respectively. In grade 3 students, the prevalence of myopia increased from 13.3% (141 of 1060 students) in November and December 2019 to 20.8% (219 of 1054 students) in November and December 2020 (difference [95% CI], 7.5% [4.3-10.7]; P < .001); the proportion of children without myopia and with SER greater than -0.50 D and less than or equal to +0.50 D increased from 31.1% (286 of 919 students) to 49.0% (409 of 835 students) (difference [95% CI], 17.9% [13.3-22.4]; P < .001). Conclusions and Relevance: In this study, development of myopia increased during the COVID-19 outbreak period in young schoolchildren in China. Consequently, myopia prevalence and the proportion of children without myopia who were at risk of developing myopia increased. Future studies are needed to investigate long-term changes in myopia development after the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Myopia/epidemiology , Vision, Ocular , Age Factors , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Child , China/epidemiology , Humans , Incidence , Myopia/diagnosis , Myopia/physiopathology , Prevalence , Prospective Studies , Recreation , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Screen Time , Time Factors
16.
International Journal of Infectious Diseases ; 94:103-106, 2020.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1409668

ABSTRACT

Objectives: The aim of this paper was to monitor the presence of SARS-Cov-2 among hospital environment surfaces, sewage, and personal protective equipment (PPE) of staffs in isolation wards in the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University, China. Methods Surfaces of objects were routinely wiped with 1000 mg/L chlorine containing disinfectant . Air and sewage disinfection was proceeded routinely and strictly. Hospital environmental surfaces and PPE of staffs in isolation wards were sampled using swabs. The sewage from various inlet and outlets were sampled. The respiratory and stool specimens of patients were collected. The respiratory specimens of staffs in the isolation wards were also sampled once a week. Quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) methods were used to confirm the existence of SARS-Cov-2 RNA. Viral culture was done for the samples positive for SARS-Cov-2 RNA. Results During the study period, 33 laboratory-confirmed patients were hospitalized in isolation wards in the hospital. None of SARS-Cov-2 RNA was detected among the 36 objects surface samples and 9 staffs PPE samples in isolation wards. Though the 3 sewage samples from the inlet of preprocessing disinfection pool were positive for SARS-CoV-2 RNA and the sample from the outlet of preprocessing disinfection pool was weakly positive, the sewage sample from the outlet of the last disinfection pool was negative. All of the 5 sewage samples from various points were negative by viral culture of SARS-Cov-2. None of the respiratory specimens of staffs in the isolation wards were positive. Conclusions Though SARS-Cov-2 RNA of the sewage samples were positive from inlets of the sewage disinfection pool and negative from the outlet of the last sewage disinfection pool, no viable virus was detected by culture. The monitoring data in this study suggested that the strict disinfection and hand hygiene could decrease the hospital-associated COVID-19 infection risk of the staffs in isolation wards.

17.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 17(9): e1009334, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1398921

ABSTRACT

Epidemiological models can provide the dynamic evolution of a pandemic but they are based on many assumptions and parameters that have to be adjusted over the time the pandemic lasts. However, often the available data are not sufficient to identify the model parameters and hence infer the unobserved dynamics. Here, we develop a general framework for building a trustworthy data-driven epidemiological model, consisting of a workflow that integrates data acquisition and event timeline, model development, identifiability analysis, sensitivity analysis, model calibration, model robustness analysis, and projection with uncertainties in different scenarios. In particular, we apply this framework to propose a modified susceptible-exposed-infectious-recovered (SEIR) model, including new compartments and model vaccination in order to project the transmission dynamics of COVID-19 in New York City (NYC). We find that we can uniquely estimate the model parameters and accurately project the daily new infection cases, hospitalizations, and deaths, in agreement with the available data from NYC's government's website. In addition, we employ the calibrated data-driven model to study the effects of vaccination and timing of reopening indoor dining in NYC.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Disease Outbreaks/statistics & numerical data , Models, Statistical , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control , Computational Biology , Humans , New York City/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
19.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 398, 2021 Apr 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1327867

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Secondary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (sHLH) is a life-threatening hyperinflammatory event and a fatal complication of viral infections. Whether sHLH may also be observed in patients with a cytokine storm induced by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection is still uncertain. We aimed to determine the incidence of sHLH in severe COVID-19 patients and evaluate the underlying risk factors. METHOD: Four hundred fifteen severe COVID-19 adult patients were retrospectively assessed for hemophagocytosis score (HScore). A subset of 7 patients were unable to be conclusively scored due to insufficient patient data. RESULTS: In 408 patients, 41 (10.04%) had an HScore ≥169 and were characterized as "suspected sHLH positive". Compared with patients below a HScore threshold of 98, the suspected sHLH positive group had higher D-dimer, total bilirubin, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, blood urea nitrogen, serum creatinine, triglycerides, ferritin, interleukin-6, C-reactive protein, procalcitonin, lactate dehydrogenase, creatine kinase isoenzyme, troponin, Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score, while leukocyte, hemoglobin, platelets, lymphocyte, fibrinogen, pre-albumin, albumin levels were significantly lower (all P < 0.05). Multivariable logistic regression revealed that high ferritin (>1922.58 ng/mL), low platelets (<101 × 109/L) and high triglycerides (>2.28 mmol/L) were independent risk factors for suspected sHLH in COVID-19 patients. Importantly, COVID-19 patients that were suspected sHLH positive had significantly more multi-organ failure. Additionally, a high HScore (>98) was an independent predictor for mortality in COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: HScore should be measured as a prognostic biomarker in COVID-19 patients. In particular, it is important that HScore is assessed in patients with high ferritin, triglycerides and low platelets to improve the detection of suspected sHLH.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/etiology , Adult , Aged , Aspartate Aminotransferases/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , China/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Cytokine Release Syndrome/complications , Cytokine Release Syndrome/virology , Female , Ferritins/blood , Humans , Incidence , Lymphocyte Count , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/epidemiology , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/mortality , Male , Middle Aged , Mortality , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
20.
JNMA J Nepal Med Assoc ; 59(236): 417-424, 2021 Apr 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1257585

ABSTRACT

Kawasaki disease is an acute, self-limiting vasculitis in children. Early treatment is necessary to prevent cardiovascular complications. The acute phase of Kawasaki disease may present with hemodynamic instability. An association between viral respiratory infections and Kawasaki disease has been reported. Studies have shown that Kawasaki and Kawasaki-like disease may be associated with and have symptoms overlapping COVID-19. Children with COVID-19 may present as Kawasaki-like disease with pediatric inflammatory multisystem syndrome, or macrophage activation syndrome. Clinicians need to be aware of the early diagnosis and management of Kawasaki disease to prevent the development of coronary artery aneurysms. The symptoms overlap of multisystem inflammatory disease seen in COVID-19 adds to the difficulties in timely diagnosis and treatment. Children with Kawasaki disease require regular follow-up plans for coronary artery aneurysms. This adds to the difficulties during the changed environment of COVID-19 for control and prevention. Missed diagnosis and early treatment of Kawasaki disease with immunoglobulin and aspirin results in the development of coronary artery aneurysm in up to 25% of cases, with grave consequences. Here, we briefly review the management of typical and atypical Kawasaki disease which has symptoms overlapping with the multisystem inflammatory disease as seen in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome , Child , Humans , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/complications , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/diagnosis , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome
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