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2.
Journal of Survey Statistics and Methodology ; 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1937679

ABSTRACT

Survey researchers have carefully modified their data collection operations for various reasons, including the rising costs of data collection and the ongoing Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic, both of which have made in-person interviewing difficult. For large national surveys that require household (HH) screening to determine survey eligibility, cost-efficient screening methods that do not include in-person visits need additional evaluation and testing. A new study, known as the American Family Health Study (AFHS), recently initiated data collection with a national probability sample, using a sequential mixed-mode mail/web protocol for push-to-web US HH screening (targeting persons aged 18-49 years). To better understand optimal approaches for this type of national screening effort, we embedded two randomized experiments in the AFHS data collection. The first tested the use of bilingual respondent materials where mailed invitations to the screener were sent in both English and Spanish to 50 percent of addresses with a high predicted likelihood of having a Spanish speaker and 10 percent of all other addresses. We found that the bilingual approach did not increase the response rate of high-likelihood Spanish-speaking addresses, but consistent with prior work, it increased the proportion of eligible Hispanic respondents identified among completed screeners, especially among addresses predicted to have a high likelihood of having Spanish speakers. The second tested a form of nonresponse follow-up, where a subsample of active sampled HHs that had not yet responded to the screening invitations was sent a priority mailing with a $5 incentive, adding to the $2 incentive provided for all sampled HHs in the initial screening invitation. We found this approach to be quite valuable for increasing the screening survey response rate.

3.
J Immunol ; 209(1): 118-127, 2022 Jul 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1911834

ABSTRACT

Although severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccines have demonstrated strong immunogenicity and protection against severe disease, concerns about the duration and breadth of these responses remain. In this study, we show that codelivery of plasmid-encoded adenosine deaminase-1 (pADA) with SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein DNA enhances immune memory and durability in vivo. Coimmunized mice displayed increased spike-specific IgG of higher affinity and neutralizing capacity as compared with plasmid-encoded spike-only-immunized animals. Importantly, pADA significantly improved the longevity of these enhanced responses in vivo. This coincided with durable increases in frequencies of plasmablasts, receptor-binding domain-specific memory B cells, and SARS-CoV-2-specific T follicular helper cells. Increased spike-specific T cell polyfunctionality was also observed. Notably, animals coimmunized with pADA had significantly reduced viral loads compared with their nonadjuvanted counterparts in a SARS-CoV-2 infection model. These data suggest that pADA enhances immune memory and durability and supports further translational studies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Viral Vaccines , Adenosine Deaminase/genetics , Adjuvants, Immunologic , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Mice , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Nat Microbiol ; 7(5): 716-725, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1852420

ABSTRACT

Emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants continue to cause waves of new infections globally. Developing effective antivirals against SARS-CoV-2 and its variants is an urgent task. The main protease (Mpro) of SARS-CoV-2 is an attractive drug target because of its central role in viral replication and its conservation among variants. We herein report a series of potent α-ketoamide-containing Mpro inhibitors obtained using the Ugi four-component reaction. The prioritized compound, Y180, showed an IC50 of 8.1 nM against SARS-CoV-2 Mpro and had oral bioavailability of 92.9%, 31.9% and 85.7% in mice, rats and dogs, respectively. Y180 protected against wild-type SARS-CoV-2, B.1.1.7 (Alpha), B.1.617.1 (Kappa) and P.3 (Theta), with EC50 of 11.4, 20.3, 34.4 and 23.7 nM, respectively. Oral treatment with Y180 displayed a remarkable antiviral potency and substantially ameliorated the virus-induced tissue damage in both nasal turbinate and lung of B.1.1.7-infected K18-human ACE2 (K18-hACE2) transgenic mice. Therapeutic treatment with Y180 improved the survival of mice from 0 to 44.4% (P = 0.0086) upon B.1.617.1 infection in the lethal infection model. Importantly, Y180 was also highly effective against the B.1.1.529 (Omicron) variant both in vitro and in vivo. Overall, our study provides a promising lead compound for oral drug development against SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Animals , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Disease Models, Animal , Dogs , Humans , Mice , Rats
5.
BMC Infect Dis ; 22(1): 296, 2022 Mar 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1765439

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The global pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has attracted great public health efforts across the world. Few studies, however, have described the potential impact of these measures on other important infectious diseases. METHODS: The incidence of 19 major infectious diseases in Zhejiang Province was collected from the National Notifiable Infectious Disease Surveillance System from January 2017 to October 2020. The entire epidemic control phase was divided into three stages. The government deployed the first level response from 24 January to 2 March (the most rigorous measures). When the outbreak of COVID-19 was under control, the response level changed to the second level from 3 to 23 March, and then the third level response was implemented after 24 March. We compared the epidemiological characteristics of 19 major infectious diseases during different periods of the COVID-19 epidemic and previous years. RESULTS: A total of 1,814,881 cases of 19 infectious diseases were reported in Zhejiang from January 2017 to October 2020, resulting in an incidence rate of 8088.30 cases per 1,000,000 person-years. After the non-pharmaceutical intervention, the incidence of 19 infectious diseases dropped by 70.84%, from 9436.32 cases per 1,000,000 person-years to 2751.51 cases per 1,000,000 person-years, with the large decrease in the first response period of influenza. However, we observed that the daily incidence of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) and leptospirosis increased slightly (from 1.11 cases per 1,000,000 person-years to 1.82 cases per 1,000,000 person-years for SFTS and 0.30 cases per 1,000,000 person-years to 1.24 cases per 1,000,000 person-years for leptospirosis). There was no significant difference in the distribution of epidemiological characteristic of most infectious diseases before and during the implementation of COVID-19 control measures. CONCLUSION: Our study summarizes the epidemiological characteristics of 19 infectious diseases and indicates that the rigorous control measures for COVID-19 are also effective for majority of infectious diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Diseases , Epidemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Diseases/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Epidemics/prevention & control , Humans , Incidence
6.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-311009

ABSTRACT

Purpose: To evaluate the clinical features and outcomes of rhabdomyolysis (RM) in patients with COVID-19. Method: A single center retrospective cohort study of 1,014 consecutive hospitalized patients with confirmed COVID-19 at the Huoshenshan hospital in Wuhan, China, between February 17 and April 12, 2020. Results: : The overall incidence of RM was 2.2%. Comparing with patients without RM, patients with RM tended to have a higher risk of deterioration, representing by higher ratio to be admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) (90.9 % vs 5.3%, P <0.001), and to undergo mechanical ventilation (86.4 % vs 2.7% P <0.001). Compared with patients without RM, patients with RM had laboratory test abnormalities, including indicators of inflammation, coagulation activation and kidney injury. Patients with RM had a higher risk of hospital death ( P < 0.001). Cox proportional hazard regression model confirmed that RM indicators, including peak creatine kinase (CK) >1000 IU/L (HR=6.46, 95% CI: 3.02-13.86), peak serum myoglobin (MYO) >1000 ng/mL (HR=9.85, 95% CI: 5.04-19.28) were independent risk factors for in-hospital death. Additionally, patients with COVID-19 that developed RM tended to have a delayed virus clearance. Conclusion: RM might be an important factor contributing to adverse outcomes of patients with COVID-19. Early detection and effective intervention of RM may help reduce deaths of patients with COVID-19.

9.
Innovation (N Y) ; 2(3): 100139, 2021 Aug 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1275767

ABSTRACT

The evidence for the effects of environmental factors on COVID-19 case fatality remains controversial, and it is crucial to understand the role of preventable environmental factors in driving COVID-19 fatality. We thus conducted a nationwide cohort study to estimate the effects of environmental factors (temperature, particulate matter [PM2.5, PM10], sulfur dioxide [SO2], nitrogen dioxide [NO2], and ozone [O3]) on COVID-19 case fatality. A total of 71,808 confirmed COVID-19 cases were identified and followed up for their vital status through April 25, 2020. Exposures to ambient air pollution and temperature were estimated by linking the city- and county-level monitoring data to the residential community of each participant. For each participant, two windows were defined: the period from symptom onset to diagnosis (exposure window I) and the period from diagnosis date to date of death/recovery or end of the study period (exposure window II). Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate the associations between these environmental factors and COVID-19 case fatality. COVID-19 case fatality increased in association with environmental factors for the two exposure windows. For example, each 10 µg/m3 increase in PM2.5, PM10, O3, and NO2 in window I was associated with a hazard ratio of 1.11 (95% CI 1.09, 1.13), 1.10 (95% CI 1.08, 1.13), 1.09 (95 CI 1.03, 1.14), and 1.27 (95% CI 1.19, 1.35) for COVID-19 fatality, respectively. A significant effect was also observed for low temperature, with a hazard ratio of 1.03 (95% CI 1.01, 1.04) for COVID-19 case fatality per 1°C decrease. Subgroup analysis indicated that these effects were stronger in the elderly, as well as in those with mild symptoms and living in Wuhan or Hubei. Overall, the sensitivity analyses also yielded consistent estimates. Short-term exposure to ambient air pollution and low temperature during the illness would play a nonnegligible part in causing case fatality due to COVID-19. Reduced exposures to high concentrations of PM2.5, PM10, O3, SO2, and NO2 and low temperature would help improve the prognosis and reduce public health burden.

10.
Clin Infect Dis ; 71(16): 2045-2051, 2020 11 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1153144

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The unprecedented outbreak of corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection in Wuhan City has caused global concern; the outflow of the population from Wuhan was believed to be a main reason for the rapid and large-scale spread of the disease, so the government implemented a city-closure measure to prevent its transmission considering the large amount of travel before the Chinese New Year. METHODS: Based on the daily reported new cases and the population-movement data between 1 and 31 January, we examined the effects of population outflow from Wuhan on the geographical expansion of the infection in other provinces and cities of China, as well as the impacts of the city closure in Wuhan using different closing-date scenarios. RESULTS: We observed a significantly positive association between population movement and the number of the COVID-19 cases. The spatial distribution of cases per unit of outflow population indicated that the infection in some areas with a large outflow of population might have been underestimated, such as Henan and Hunan provinces. Further analysis revealed that if the city-closure policy had been implemented 2 days earlier, 1420 (95% confidence interval, 1059-1833) cases could have been prevented, and if 2 days later, 1462 (1090-1886) more cases would have been possible. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that population movement might be one important trigger for the transmission of COVID-19 infection in China, and the policy of city closure is effective in controlling the epidemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , China/epidemiology , Cities/epidemiology , Confidence Intervals , Humans , Pandemics
11.
Shock ; 56(3): 360-367, 2021 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1028641

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Rhabdomyolysis (RM) has been associated with many viral infectious diseases, and associated with poor outcomes. We aim to evaluate the clinical features and outcomes of RM in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHOD: This was a single-center, retrospective, cohort study of 1,014 consecutive hospitalized patients with confirmed COVID-19 at the Huoshenshan Hospital in Wuhan, China, between February 17 and April 12, 2020. RESULTS: The overall incidence of RM was 2.2%. Compared with patients without RM, those with RM tended to have a higher risk of deterioration. Patients with RM also constituted a greater percentage of patients admitted to the intensive care unit (90.9% vs. 5.3%, P < 0.001) and a greater percentage of patients undergoing mechanical ventilation (86.4% vs. 2.7% P < 0.001). Moreover, patients with RM had laboratory test abnormalities, including the presence of markers of inflammation, activation of coagulation, and kidney injury. Patients with RM also had a higher risk of in-hospital death (P < 0.001). Cox's proportional hazard regression model analysis confirmed that RM indicators, including peak creatine kinase levels > 1,000 IU/L (HR = 6.46, 95% CI: 3.02-13.86) and peak serum myoglobin concentrations > 1,000 ng/mL (HR = 9.85, 95% CI: 5.04-19.28), were independent risk factors for in-hospital death. Additionally, patients with COVID-19 that developed RM tended to have delayed viral clearance. CONCLUSION: RM might be an important contributing factor to adverse outcomes in COVID-19 patients. The early detection and effective intervention of RM may help reduce mortality among COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , Hospital Mortality , Rhabdomyolysis/complications , Rhabdomyolysis/mortality , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , China/epidemiology , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Incidence , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Muscle, Skeletal/physiopathology , Proportional Hazards Models , Respiration, Artificial , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
12.
Atmos Environ (1994) ; 246: 118083, 2021 Feb 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-938762

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Nine COVID-19 (Corona Virus Disease, 2019) cases were observed in one community in Guangzhou. All the cases lived in three vertically aligned units of one building sharing the same piping system, which provided one unique opportunity to examine the transmission mode of SARS-CoV-2. METHODS: We interviewed the cases on the history of travelling and close contact with the index patients. Respiratory samples from all the cases were collected for viral phylogenetic analyses. A simulation experiment in the building and a parallel control experiment in a similar building were then conducted to investigate the possibility of transmission through air. RESULTS: Index patients living in Apartment 15-b had a travelling history in Wuhan, and four cases who lived in Apartment 25-b and 27-b were subsequently diagnosed. Phylogenetic analyses showed that virus of all the patients were from the same strain of the virus. No close contacts between the index cases and other families indicated that the transmission might not occur through droplet and close contacts. Airflow detection and simulation experiment revealed that flushing the toilets could increase the speed of airflow in the pipes and transmitted the airflow from Apartment 15-b to 25-b and 27-b. Reduced exhaust flow rates in the infected building might have contributed to the outbreak. CONCLUSIONS: The outbreak of COVID-19 in this community could be largely explained by the transmission through air, and future efforts to prevent the infection should take the possibility of transmission through air into consideration. A disconnected drain pipe and exhaust pipe for toilet should be considered in the architectural design to help prevent possible virus spreading through the air.

14.
Innovation (N Y) ; 1(2): 100022, 2020 Aug 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-692819

ABSTRACT

An increasing number of patients are being killed by coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), however, risk factors for the fatality of COVID-19 remain unclear. A total of 21,392 COVID-19 cases were recruited in the Hubei Province of China between December 2019 and February 2020, and followed up until March 18, 2020. We adopted Cox regression models to investigate the risk factors for case fatality and predicted the death probability under specific combinations of key predictors. Among the 21,392 patients, 1,020 (4.77%) died of COVID-19. Multivariable analyses showed that factors, including age (≥60 versus <45 years, hazard ratio [HR] = 7.32; 95% confidence interval [CI], 5.42, 9.89), sex (male versus female, HR = 1.31; 95% CI, 1.15, 1.50), severity of the disease (critical versus mild, HR = 39.98; 95% CI, 29.52, 48.86), comorbidity (HR = 1.40; 95% CI, 1.23, 1.60), highest body temperature (>39°C versus <39°C, HR = 1.28; 95% CI, 1.09, 1.49), white blood cell counts (>10 × 109/L versus (4-10) × 109/L, HR = 1.69; 95% CI, 1.35, 2.13), and lymphocyte counts (<0.8 × 109/L versus (0.8-4) × 109/L, HR = 1.26; 95% CI, 1.06, 1.50) were significantly associated with case fatality of COVID-19 patients. Individuals of an older age, who were male, with comorbidities, and had a critical illness had the highest death probability, with 21%, 36%, 46%, and 54% within 1-4 weeks after the symptom onset. Risk factors, including demographic characteristics, clinical symptoms, and laboratory factors were confirmed to be important determinants of fatality of COVID-19. Our predictive model can provide scientific evidence for a more rational, evidence-driven allocation of scarce medical resources to reduce the fatality of COVID-19.

15.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 146(1): 101-109.e1, 2020 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-619994

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Immunologic dysfunction due to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is closely related to clinical prognosis, and the inflammatory response of pregnant women may affect the directional differentiation and function of fetal immune cells. OBJECTIVE: We sought to analyze the immune status of newborns from mothers with COVID-19 in the third trimester. METHODS: Along with collecting the clinical data from 51 newborns and their respective mothers, we recorded the immunophenotypes and cytokine and immunoglobulin levels of the newborns. RESULTS: None of the 51 newborns showed fever or respiratory distress during hospitalization. Detection of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 nucleic acid in pharyngeal swabs was negative. Except for the low level of CD16-CD56 cells, the count and proportion of lymphocytes, CD3, CD4, CD8, and CD19 were all in the normal range. Moreover, the serum IgG and IgM levels were within the normal range, whereas IL-6 showed increased levels. There was no correlation between maternal COVID-19 duration and the lymphocyte subsets or cytokine levels (IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, and TNF-α). There was a positive correlation between IL-6 and IL-10 levels and CD16-CD56 cells. One (1.96%) infant with an extremely elevated IL-6 concentration developed necrotizing enterocolitis in the third week after birth, and the remaining 50 infants did not show abnormal symptoms through the end of the follow-up period. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 in the third trimester did not significantly affect the cellular and humoral immunity of the fetus, and there was no evidence that the differentiation of lymphocyte subsets was seriously unbalanced.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Infant, Newborn/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/immunology , Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects/immunology , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , China , Female , Humans , Lymphocyte Subsets/immunology , Male , Pandemics , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Trimester, Third , SARS-CoV-2
16.
J Infect ; 81(2): e1-e5, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-154838

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: A large number of healthcare workers (HCWs) were infected by SARS-CoV-2 during the ongoing outbreak of COVID-19 in Wuhan, China. Hospitals are significant epicenters for the human-to-human transmission of the SARS-CoV-2 for HCWs, patients, and visitors. No data has been reported on the details of hospital environmental contamination status in the epicenter of Wuhan. METHODS: We collected 626 surface swabs within the Zhongnan Medical Center in Wuhan in the mist of the COVID-19 outbreak between February 7 - February 27, 2020. Dacron swabs were aseptically collected from the surfaces of 13 hospital function zones, five major objects, and three major PPE. The SARS-CoV-2 RNAs were detected by reverse transcription-PCR. RESULTS: The most contaminated zones were the intensive care unit specialized for taking care of novel coronavirus pneumonia (NCP) (31.9%), Obstetric Isolation Ward specialized for pregnant women with NCP (28.1%), and Isolation Ward for NCP (19.6%). We classified the 13 zones into four contamination levels. The most contaminated objects were self-service printers (20.0%), desktop/keyboard (16.8%), and doorknob (16.0%). Both hand sanitizer dispensers (20.3%) and gloves (15.4%) were the most contaminated PPE. CONCLUSION: Our findings emphasize the urgent need to ensure adequate environmental cleaning, strengthen infection prevention training, and improve infection prevention among HCWs during the outbreak of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Cross Infection/transmission , Disease Outbreaks/statistics & numerical data , Environmental Monitoring , Hospitals , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Disinfection , Equipment Contamination/prevention & control , Humans , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/statistics & numerical data , Intensive Care Units , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2
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