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1.
Chem Eng J ; 431: 134005, 2022 Mar 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1800163

ABSTRACT

With the outbreak of COVID-19, microbial pollution has gained increasing attention as a threat to human health. Consequently, many research efforts are being devoted to the development of efficient disinfection methods. In this context, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) stands out as a green and broad-spectrum disinfectant, which can be produced and sprayed in the air directly by cavitation in ultrasonic nebulisation. However, the yield of H2O2 obtained by ultrasonic nebulisation is too low to satisfy the requirements for disinfection by spraying and needs to be improved to achieve efficient disinfection of the air and objects. Herein, we report the introduction of a zinc layer into an ultrasonic nebuliser to improve the production of H2O2 and generate additional Zn2+ by self-corrosion, achieving good disinfecting performance. Specifically, a zinc layer was assembled on the oscillator plate of a commercial ultrasonic nebuliser, resulting in a 21-fold increase in the yield of H2O2 and the production of 4.75 µg/mL Zn2+ in the spraying droplets. When the generated water mist was used to treat a bottle polluted with Escherichia coli for 30 min, the sterilisation rate reached 93.53%. This ultrasonic nebulisation using a functional zinc layer successfully enhanced the production of H2O2 while generating Zn2+, providing a platform for the development of new methodologies of spray disinfection.

2.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-330129

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 infection leads to a broad range of outcomes and immune responses, with the development of neutralizing antibodies generally correlated with protection against reinfection. Here, we have characterized both neutralizing activity and T cell responses in a cluster of subjects with mild disease linked to a single spreading event. Surprisingly, we observed sex-specific associations between spike- and particularly nucleoprotein-specific T cell responses and neutralization, with pro-inflammatory cytokines being linked to higher titers only in males. Using single cell immunoprofiling, which provided matched transcriptome and T-cell receptor (TCR) profiles in restimulated CD4 + and CD8 + cells from these subjects, we identified differences in type I IFN signaling that may underlie this difference in antibody generation. Finally, we also identified several TCRs associated with cytokine producing T cells. Altogether, our work maps the breadth of immunological outcomes of SARS-CoV2 infections and highlight the potential role of sex-specific feedback loops during the generation of neutralizing antibodies.

3.
Transfusion ; 61(9): 2677-2687, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1268131

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Antibody response duration following severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection tends to be variable and depends on severity of disease and method of detection. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: COVID-19 convalescent plasma from 18 donors was collected longitudinally for a maximum of 63-129 days following resolution of symptoms. All the samples were initially screened by the Ortho total Ig test to confirm positivity and subsequently tested with seven additional direct sandwich or indirect binding assays (Ortho, Roche, Abbott, Broad Institute) directed against a variety of antigen targets (S1, receptor binding domain, and nucleocapsid [NC]), along with two neutralization assays (Broad Institute live virus PRNT and Vitalant Research Institute [VRI] Pseudovirus reporter viral particle neutralization [RVPN]). RESULTS: The direct detection assays (Ortho total Ig total and Roche total Ig) showed increasing levels of antibodies over the time period, in contrast to the indirect IgG assays that showed a decline. Neutralization assays also demonstrated declining responses; the VRI RVPN pseudovirus had a greater rate of decline than the Broad PRNT live virus assay. DISCUSSION: These data show that in addition to variable individual responses and associations with disease severity, the detection assay chosen contributes to the heterogeneous results in antibody stability over time. Depending on the scope of the research, one assay may be preferable over another. For serosurveillance studies, direct, double Ag-sandwich assays appear to be the best choice due to their stability; in particular, algorithms that include both S1- and NC-based assays can help reduce the rate of false-positivity and discriminate between natural infection and vaccine-derived seroreactivity.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Blood Donors , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , Host-Pathogen Interactions/immunology , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Serologic Tests/methods , Serologic Tests/standards , Severity of Illness Index
4.
Cell ; 184(12): 3205-3221.e24, 2021 06 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1201121

ABSTRACT

Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) are a focus in vaccine and therapeutic design to counteract severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and its variants. Here, we combined B cell sorting with single-cell VDJ and RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) and mAb structures to characterize B cell responses against SARS-CoV-2. We show that the SARS-CoV-2-specific B cell repertoire consists of transcriptionally distinct B cell populations with cells producing potently neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) localized in two clusters that resemble memory and activated B cells. Cryo-electron microscopy structures of selected nAbs from these two clusters complexed with SARS-CoV-2 spike trimers show recognition of various receptor-binding domain (RBD) epitopes. One of these mAbs, BG10-19, locks the spike trimer in a closed conformation to potently neutralize SARS-CoV-2, the recently arising mutants B.1.1.7 and B.1.351, and SARS-CoV and cross-reacts with heterologous RBDs. Together, our results characterize transcriptional differences among SARS-CoV-2-specific B cells and uncover cross-neutralizing Ab targets that will inform immunogen and therapeutic design against coronaviruses.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , B-Lymphocytes/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Antibodies, Monoclonal/chemistry , Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Neutralizing/chemistry , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Viral/chemistry , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antigen-Antibody Complex/chemistry , Antigen-Antibody Complex/metabolism , Antigen-Antibody Reactions , B-Lymphocytes/cytology , B-Lymphocytes/virology , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Cryoelectron Microscopy , Crystallography, X-Ray , Gene Expression Profiling , Humans , Immunoglobulin A/immunology , Immunoglobulin Variable Region/chemistry , Immunoglobulin Variable Region/genetics , Protein Domains/immunology , Protein Multimerization , Protein Structure, Quaternary , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Sequence Analysis, RNA , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
5.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 1676, 2021 03 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1135664

ABSTRACT

The recently identified Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the cause of the COVID-19 pandemic. How this novel beta-coronavirus virus, and coronaviruses more generally, alter cellular metabolism to support massive production of ~30 kB viral genomes and subgenomic viral RNAs remains largely unknown. To gain insights, transcriptional and metabolomic analyses are performed 8 hours after SARS-CoV-2 infection, an early timepoint where the viral lifecycle is completed but prior to overt effects on host cell growth or survival. Here, we show that SARS-CoV-2 remodels host folate and one-carbon metabolism at the post-transcriptional level to support de novo purine synthesis, bypassing viral shutoff of host translation. Intracellular glucose and folate are depleted in SARS-CoV-2-infected cells, and viral replication is exquisitely sensitive to inhibitors of folate and one-carbon metabolism, notably methotrexate. Host metabolism targeted therapy could add to the armamentarium against future coronavirus outbreaks.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , Carbon/metabolism , Folic Acid/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Virus Replication , A549 Cells , Animals , COVID-19/virology , Chlorocebus aethiops , Cytopathogenic Effect, Viral , Folic Acid Antagonists/pharmacology , Glucose/metabolism , Humans , Methotrexate/pharmacology , RNA, Viral/biosynthesis , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Serine/metabolism , Transcription, Genetic , Vero Cells , Viral Proteins/genetics , Virus Replication/drug effects
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