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1.
Chemosphere ; : 136461, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2031191

ABSTRACT

Because of the current COVID-19 outbreak all over the world, the problem of antiviral drugs entering water has become increasingly serious. Arbidol hydrochloride (ABLH) is one of the most widely used drugs against COVID-19, which has been detected in sewage treatment plant sediments after the COVID-19 outbreak. However, there has been no report on the degradation of ABLH. In order to remove ABLH we prepared a novel photocatalyst composed of Ti3C2 MXene and supramolecular g-C3N4 (TiC/SCN) via a simple method. The properties of the material were studied by a series of characterizations (SEM, TEM, EDS, XRD, FTIR, UV-vis, DRS, XPS, TPC, PL, EIS and UPS), indicating the successful preparation of TiC/SCN. Results show that 99% of ABLH was removed within 150min under visible light illumination by the 0.5TiC/SCN (containing 0.5% of TiC). The performance of 0.5TiC/SCN was about 2.66 times that of SCN resulting from the formation of Schottky junction. Furthermore, under real sunlight illumination, 99.2% of ABLH could be removed by 0.5TiC/SCN within 120min, which was better than that of commercial P25 TiO2. The pH, anions (NO3(-) and SO4(2-)) and dissolved organic matter (fulvic acid) could significantly affect the ABLH degradation. Moreover, three possible degradation pathways of ABLH were proposed, and the toxicities of the corresponding by-products were less toxic than ABLH. Meanwhile, findings showed that the superoxide radicals played a major role in the photocatalytic degradation of ABLH by 0.5TiC/SCN. This study provides a well understanding of the mechanism of ABLH degradation and provides a valuable reference for the treatment of ABLH in water.

2.
Frontiers in Public Health ; 10:924331, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2029986

ABSTRACT

Background: The COVID-19 outbreak is no longer a pure epidemiological concern but a true digital infodemic. Numerous conflicting information and misinformation occupy online platforms and specifically social media. While we have lived in an infodemic environment for more than 2 years, we are more prone to feel overwhelmed by the information and suffer from long-term mental health problems. However, limited research has concentrated on the cause of these threats, particularly in terms of information processing and the context of infodemic. Objective: This study proposed and tested moderated mediation pathways from two types of health information behaviors (social media engagement and interpersonal communication) on information overload and mental health symptoms-long-term stress. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional online survey between May and June of 2021 among the Malaysian public. The final sample size was 676 (N = 676). A conceptual model was built to guide the data analysis. We conducted structural equation modeling (SEM), moderation and mediation analyses to examine each direct pathway, moderating and mediating effects. Results: According to the pathway analysis, we found that, during the infodemic period, engaging COVID-19 information on social media positively associated with information overload, but interpersonal communication was negatively related to it. As the proximal outcome, there was also a positive association between information overload and the final outcome, perceived stress. The moderation analysis only reported one significant interaction: risk perception weakened the association between social media engagement and information overload. A conditional indirect effect was demonstrated and the indirect associated between social media engagement and perceived stress mediated through information overload was further moderated by COVID-19 risk perception. Conclusion: This research offers new grounds for understanding health information behaviors and their consequences in the COVID-19 infodemic. We particularly highlighted the distinct functions of health information behaviors in causing information overload, as well as the importance of personal health belief in this process. Our proposed model contributes to the strategies of developing health messaging strategies that may be utilized by public health researchers and health educators in the future.

5.
Journal of Xi'an Jiaotong University (Medical Sciences) ; 43(5):658-662, 2022.
Article in Chinese | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2010481

ABSTRACT

In the emergency of the outbreak of COVID-19 in December 2019, Shaanxi Provincial Health Committee mobilized several medical teams from major hospitals in the province, and, by relying on Xi'an Chest Hospital, jointly established an anti COVID-19 consortium to control and eradicate the epidemic in a short time. Information support is an important guarantee for winning this battle. In order to realize the efficient cooperation among multiple medical teams, we have carried out some exploratory and innovative information support services on the basis of the original information system of the chest hospital. In this process, we have gone through some detours. Some compromises were made on some problems that could not be solved in the short term. Finally, in an environment full of uncertainty, a set of information support management system with basically smooth operation was built through rapid trial and error adjustment. The system mainly includes the following aspects: support of the organizational structure and operation process of the anti-epidemic consortium, support for medical collaboration related businesses of multiple medical teams, and support for statistical reports and online meetings. Information support has played a very important role in this action, and this practice has also accumulated experience for us to deal with similar situations in the future.

6.
Zhongguo dang dai er ke za zhi = Chinese journal of contemporary pediatrics ; 24(8):839-845, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2010475
7.
Respiratory Research ; 23(1), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2009400

ABSTRACT

Following publication of the original article [1], the authors would like to correct the article note of corresponding author information and equal contribution texts. It has been corrected in this correction. †Jin Yang, †Libing Ma and †Li Guo contributed equally to this work. *Lili Ren, *Weizhong Yang and *Chen Wang were the corresponding authors. The original article [1] has been corrected.

8.
Human Vaccines and Immunotherapeutics ; 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2008472

ABSTRACT

This study was designed to evaluate the emerging trends of research on mRNA vaccines. Altogether 3056 research articles related to mRNA vaccines published since 2010 were retrieved from the Web of Science database, based on which a co-citation analysis was conducted using CiteSpace. A total of 12 clusters were derived, all of which were classified into three periods according to the content and publication time of articles: (1) The preliminary exploratory period before early 2010s, when the potential of mRNA to induce immune response was evaluated;(2) the growing up period from early 2010s to 2019, when the stability and immunogenicity of mRNA vaccines were improved and the clinical development of products were pushed forward;(3) the rapid maturity period after the outbreak of COVID-19, when two products for COVID-19 were authorized for the first time. The approval of COVID-19 vaccines is an encouraging start, while the enormous potential of mRNA vaccines remains to be explored. Future research on mRNA-based infectious disease vaccines will focus on further optimizing mRNA modification and delivery, solving problems of the approved vaccines in real world, investigating mRNA vaccines for other infectious indications, and developing self-amplifying or thermostable vaccines. Future research on mRNA-based therapeutic cancer vaccines will focus on screening proper neoantigens, enhancing the delivery of mRNA into antigen-presenting cells and overcoming suppressive tumor microenvironment.

9.
Smart Biomedical and Physiological Sensor Technology Xix ; 12123, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2005290

ABSTRACT

Rapid, simple, inexpensive, and sensitive self-testing for SARS-CoV-2 is expected to be an important element of controlling the ongoing COVID pandemic. We report a novel approach in which saliva is mixed at room temperature with a Designer DNA Nanostructure (DDN) engineered to create a net-like structure that positions an array of highly specific nucleic acid aptamer-quencher locks at the locations of the trimeric spike proteins. When the spike proteins selectively unlock aptamers on the DDN, fluorescent reporter molecules are unquenched, generating an intense and easily measured optical signal. The fluorescence intensity, proportional to the virus concentration, is detected by a battery-powered palmsized fluorimeter, whose functions are managed wirelessly with a Bluetooth-linked smartphone. Because the single-step, room temperature, test is performed in a conventional 0.2 mL PCR tube that is inserted into the fluorimeter, which resembles an Apple AirPodsT headphone case, we call the technology (DDN+fluorimeter+App) a "V-Pod." We show that DDNs are highly specific only for detection of SARS-CoV-2 in both its initial form as well as common variants. The approach achieves a detection limit of 10,000 genome copies/mL, consistent with laboratory-based PCR, while requiring only one reagent and a 5-10 minute incubation time with saliva. Because DDNs are inexpensively synthesized, structurally stable nucleic acid constructs, and the V-Pod instrument is comprised of inexpensive electronic and photonic components, the approach offers potential for rapid self-monitoring of viral infection with integrated capability for contact tracing and interaction with health services.

10.
Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao ; 38(8):3090-3098, 2022.
Article in Chinese | PubMed | ID: covidwho-2002693

ABSTRACT

After the outbreak of COVID-19, the widespread application of online teaching has brought challenges and opportunities for higher education. Developing an effective teaching system is the focus of curriculum teaching reform in the post pandemic era. According to the characteristics of Human and Animal Physiology, the course teachers has developed a new teaching system by updating the teaching concept, reconstructing the contents of the course, changing the teaching modes, strengthening the integration of moral and intellectual education, and improving the assessment approaches. This teaching system is aimed at meeting the need of personalized learning for students and adapting to a new teaching environment. This article introduces the exploration and practice of the curriculum reform.

11.
Microbiology Spectrum ; : e0103422, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2001787

ABSTRACT

AZD7442, a combination of two long-acting monoclonal antibodies (tixagevimab [AZD8895] and cilgavimab [AZD1061]), has been authorized for the prevention and treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The rapid emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants requires methods capable of quickly characterizing resistance to AZD7442. To support AZD7442 resistance monitoring, a biolayer interferometry (BLI) assay was developed to screen the binding of tixagevimab and cilgavimab to SARS-CoV-2 spike proteins to reduce the number of viral variants for neutralization susceptibility verification. Six spike variants were chosen to assess the assay's performance: four with decreased affinity for tixagevimab (F486S:D614G and F486W:D614G proteins) or cilgavimab (S494L:D614G and K444R:D614G proteins) and two reference proteins (wild-type HexaPro and D614G protein). Equilibrium dissociation constant (KD) values from each spike protein were used to determine shifts in binding affinity. The assay's precision, range, linearity, and limits of quantitation were established. Qualification acceptance criteria determined whether the assay was fit for purpose. By bypassing protein purification, the BLI assay provided increased screening throughput. Although limited correlation between pseudotype neutralization and BLI data (50% inhibitory concentration versus KD) was observed for full immunoglobulins (IgGs), the correlations for antibody fragments (Fabs) were stronger and reflected a better comparison of antibody binding kinetics with neutralization potency. Therefore, despite strong assay performance characteristics, the use of full IgGs limited the screening utility of the assay;however, the Fab approach warrants further exploration as a rapid, high-throughput variant-screening method for future resistance-monitoring programs. IMPORTANCE SARS-CoV-2 variants harbor multiple substitutions in their spike trimers, potentially leading to breakthrough infections and clinical resistance to immune therapies. For this reason, a BLI assay was developed and qualified to evaluate the reliability of screening SARS-CoV-2 spike trimer variants against anti-SARS-CoV-2 monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) tixagevimab and cilgavimab, the components of AZD7442, prior to in vitro pseudovirus neutralization susceptibility verification testing. The assay bypasses protein purification with rapid assessment of the binding affinity of each MAb for each recombinant protein, potentially providing an efficient preliminary selection step, thus allowing a reduced testing burden in the more technically complex viral neutralization assays. Despite precise and specific measures, an avidity effect associated with MAb binding to the trimer confounded correlation with neutralization potency, negating the assay's utility as a surrogate for neutralizing antibody potency. Improved correlation with Fabs suggests that assay optimization could overcome any avidity limitation, warranting further exploration to support future resistance-monitoring programs.

12.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(37):e2210321119, 2022.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-2001009

ABSTRACT

Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have emerged as critical regulators of gene expression, yet their contribution to immune regulation in humans remains poorly understood. Here, we report that the primate-specific lncRNA CHROMR is induced by influenza A virus and SARS-CoV-2 infection and coordinates the expression of interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs) that execute antiviral responses. CHROMR depletion in human macrophages reduces histone acetylation at regulatory regions of ISG loci and attenuates ISG expression in response to microbial stimuli. Mechanistically, we show that CHROMR sequesters the interferon regulatory factor (IRF)-2-dependent transcriptional corepressor IRF2BP2, thereby licensing IRF-dependent signaling and transcription of the ISG network. Consequently, CHROMR expression is essential to restrict viral infection of macrophages. Our findings identify CHROMR as a key arbitrator of antiviral innate immune signaling in humans.

13.
Journal of Xi'an Jiaotong University (Medical Sciences) ; 43(4):528-533, 2022.
Article in Chinese | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1969736

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the clinical characteristics and potential mechanism of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine-related myocarditis. Methods: We made a systematic literature retrieval based on PubMed to search for all reports on COVID-19 vaccine-related myocarditis published by August 31, 2021. A total of 29 reports involving 71 patients with myocarditis were enrolled after screening. The patients' demographic data, vaccination, clinical manifestations, biochemical and imaging results, treatments, and outcomes were extracted and summarized. The patients were divided into prior COVID (n=12) and non-prior COVID (n=59) according to their previous medical history. Results: COVID vaccine-related myocarditis was more common in men (91.5%) and after the second dose of mRNA vaccine (81.7%). The average time to onset was 3 (1, 25) days, and the main symptoms included chest pain (94.4%), fever (45.1%), myalgia (26.8%), and shortness of breath (16.9%). Abnormal troponin level was present in almost all the patients, with a common elevation of C-reactive protein. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and colchicine were widely used in clinical treatment, and the symptoms of one-fifth of the patients were relieved after symptomatic therapy, with 1 to 2 weeks' length of hospital stay. However, the risk of vaccine-related myocarditis was significantly increased in patients with previous COVID-19 infection, which was more common after the first dose of vaccine (58.3%) other than the second dose. And the clinical symptoms and outcomes were somewhat different from those without COVID-19 infection previously. Conclusion: Myocarditis is one of the serious adverse events related to COVID-19 vaccine, with an overall relatively low incidence, mild clinical severity, and favorable prognosis. Vaccine-related myocarditis may be a combined result of primed immune system and individual susceptibility after infection with COVID-19.

14.
Medical Journal of Chinese People's Liberation Army ; 47(4):359-366, 2022.
Article in Chinese | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1939421

ABSTRACT

Objective To analyze the epidemiological and clinical features of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infected with the Delta variant of SARS-CoV-2. Methods Retrospectively analyze the epidemiological and clinical features of 138 confirmed cases of COVID-19 infected with the Delta variant of SARS-CoV-2 from October 25, 2021 to November 19, 2021 in Yantan Branch of the Second People's Hospital of Lanzhou City. The epidemiological and demographic information, clinical symptoms, laboratory tests, chest CT, treatment and prognosis data were collected, with a final follow-up date of November 27, 2021. Results As of November 19, 2021, a total of 144 confirmed cases of COVID-19 were reported in Gansu Province, of which 138 cases [65 males (47.1%) and 73 females (52.9%), aged 2-87 (42.7±21.0) years old, with the clinical classification of mainly common type (48.6%, 67/138)] were concentrically treated in the Yantan Branch of the Second People's Hospital of Lanzhou City. The transmission mode of the Delta variant of SARS-CoV-2 is mainly in confined spaces, with obvious tour group and family aggregation;screening the close contacts and community investigation are the main approaches of finding the infected persons;86.2% (119/138) of confirmed patients have been vaccinated with the domestic inactivated COVID-19 vaccine. The most common clinical symptoms are cough (57.2%, 79/138), followed by sore throat (28.3%, 39/138), dry throat (24.6%, 34/138), and expectoration (21.0%, 29/138). Only 20.3% (28/138) of patients have fever, and 4 patients (2.9%) have decreased or lost sense of smell and taste. Laboratory tests showed that serum amyloid A and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol increased significantly. The Ct value of SARS-CoV-2 ORF1ab gene is 26.31±7.63, and N gene is 26.35±7.17. Chest CT fined that 71.3% (72/101) of confirmed patients showed bilateral lung lobes involvement, and the lesions are mostly located in the lower lobes of both lungs;the lesions are mainly flaky and patchy ground-glass opacities. All confirmed cases are treated with integrated traditional Chinese and Western medicine, mainly prone position ventilation and traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) treatment. The TCM treatment rate is 100% for severe cases. On the basis of respiratory support, nutritional support and anticoagulation, immunotherapy such as neutralizing antibodies are combined. Conclusions The main clinical features of COVID-19 infected by the Delta variant of SARS-CoV-2 in Gansu Province are low rate of fever, long time for viral nucleic acid turned to negative, low risk of severe illness after vaccination, the good therapeutic effect, no intubation, no extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), and no deaths. "One person, one plan" personalized treatment with integrated Chinese and Western medicine can effectively control the progression of the disease and cure the disease.

15.
Energy Sources Part B-Economics Planning and Policy ; 17(1):22, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1927228

ABSTRACT

Promoting energy transformation is a major issue in achieving China's carbon neutrality target. The changes in China's energy consumption stemming from the policies related to this issue were simulated based on the energy policy simulation model. The results show the following. (1) Implementing related policies will significantly decrease total primary energy consumption, and non-fossil energy will be China's main source of energy consumption by 2050. (2) The energy consumption corresponding to buildings, transportation, and industry will be electricity-led by 2050, and electricity will mainly be generated with non-fossil energy sources. (3) In 2030, China will reach a carbon peak, and non-fossil energy will account for 43% of the country's primary energy consumption, comprising electrical (73%), solar (11%), wind (7%), hydro (7%) and biomass (2%) energy. (4) COVID-19 has had a short-term driving effect on this process, as it initially slowed down global economic cooperation, but it has had a hindering effect on the process in the long term.

16.
7th International Conference on Intelligent Computing and Signal Processing, ICSP 2022 ; : 1827-1830, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1901465

ABSTRACT

Chest radiographs clearly present the characteristics of lung lesions in patients with new coronary pneumonia, thus they can be leveraged to build a new coronary pneumonia detection model to provide doctors with favorable auxiliary diagnosis results. This paper proposes a COVID-19 localization and identification approach based on yolov5 and EfficientNet. Due to inherent reasons such as computational complexity and network structure, the features of a single model are usually limited in representation, and EfficientNet provides yolov5 with competitive feature expression through BiFPN and other advantages, and the ensemble of EfficientNet and yolov5 recognition results will significantly improve the performance of a single model. In order to evaluate the robustness of the approach proposed in this paper, we trained our network on COVID-19 Detection datasets from Kaggle platform. Evaluations and comparisons demonstrate that the ensemble approach achieves better performance on various scenes. © 2022 IEEE.

17.
Chinese Traditional and Herbal Drugs ; 53(11):3557-3563, 2022.
Article in Chinese | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1884661

ABSTRACT

Shufeng Jiedu Capsules are composed of eight traditional Chinese medicines, including Huzhang (Polygoni Cuspidati Rhizoma et Radix), Lianqiao (Forsythiae Fructus), Baijiangcao (Herba Patriniae), Chaihu (Bupleuri Radix), etc. Shufeng Jiedu Capsules has exactly effects such as dispelling wind and clearing heat, removing toxin and relieving sore-throat, which had been used in treatment of respiratory infectious diseases with symptom like fever, intolerating wind in clinic for a long time. Shufeng Jiedu Capsules are the recommended drugs for the "Influenza Diagnosis and Treatment Plan" (2020 version)issued by National Health Commission and "Diagnosis and Treatment of Pneumonia in COVID-19"(version 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9). Pharmacological mechanism and clinical application of Shufeng Jiedu Capsules weresummarized in this paper, in order to summarize characteristic and the post-marketing research path of Shufeng Jiedu Capsules, and provide ideas for more post-marketing traditional Chinese medicine products.

18.
Adverse Drug Reactions Journal ; 24(4):169-174, 2022.
Article in Chinese | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1875842

ABSTRACT

Objective To explore the occurrence and influencing factors of serum uric acid elevation in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID⁃19) treated with favipiravir. Methods Medical records of patients with COVID⁃19 who were hospitalized in Beijing Ditan Hospital between June 1, 2020 and June 30, 2021 and treated with the 5- or 10-day regimen of favipiravir were collected and retrospectively analyzed. After favipiravir withdrawal, if the elevation in serum uric acid was ≥30% of baseline level, it was defined as serum uric acid elevation. Then patients were divided into serum uric acid elevation group and non-serum uric acid elevation group. The clinical characteristics such as gender, age, body mass index, comorbidities, smoking and drinking behavior, COVID⁃19 grade, favipiravir regimen, and serum uric acid level and renal function before treatment in patients between the 2 groups were compared. Influencing factors of favipiravir⁃associated serum uric acid elevation was analyzed using multivariate logistic regression method. Results A total of 179 patients were included in the analysis, including 104 (58.1%) males and 75 (41.9%) females, aged from 19 to 70 years with a median age of 43 years. The level of serum uric acid in 179 patients after favipiravir treatment was significantly higher than before [(451±119) μmol/L vs. (332±94) μmol/L, P<0.001]. The change rate of serum uric acid from baseline level ranged from -57.1% to 157.8% with the median of 38.6%. The elevation in serum uric acid of ≥ 30% of baseline level occurred in 108 (60.3%) patients. The incidences of serum uric acid elevation in patients treated with 5-day and 10-day regi⁃ mens of favipiravir were 46.8% (36/77) and 70.6% (72/102), respectively, and the difference between them was significant (P=0.001). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that body mass index 24.0 to <28.0 kg/m2 (OR=3.109, 95%CI: 1.209-7.994, P=0.019) and 10-day regimen of favipiravir (OR=3.017, 95%CI: 1.526-5.964, P=0.001) were independent risk factors for favipiravir⁃associated serum uric acid elevation. Conclusions More than half of COVID⁃19 patients treated with favipiravir can develop serum uric acid elevation. Overweight and 10-day regimen of favipiravir are independent risk factors for serum uric acid elevation in patients. © 2022 Adverse Drug Reactions Journal.

19.
Ieee Internet Computing ; 26(2):36-41, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1868550

ABSTRACT

In this article, we propose a novel approach to address the major ethical and societal problem of misinformation on social media. Specifically, how can we identify misinformation, understand how it spreads, and produce effective interventions? Our envisioned solution is sociotechnical in that it relies upon people (specifically community leaders) to push back against the ravages of misinformation but incorporates novel computational support for doing so. Specifically, we envision a digital communication twin platform for misinformation flow in social networks. We present the motivation, components, challenges, and opportunities in the development of this platform. We illustrate the potential for this approach via misinformation about healthcare, which has flourished during the COVID-19 pandemic.

20.
Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology ; 81(6):475-475, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1866176
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