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1.
China CDC Wkly ; 3(49): 1039-1045, 2021 Dec 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1579156

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Seasonal influenza activity has declined globally since the widespread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) transmission. There has been scarce information to understand the future dynamics of influenza - and under different hypothesis on relaxation of non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) in particular - after the disruptions to seasonal patterns. Methods: We collected data from public sources in China, the United Kingdom, and the United States, and forecasted the influenza dynamics in the incoming 2021-2022 season under different NPIs. We considered Northern China and Southern China separately, due to the sharp difference in the patterns of seasonal influenza. For the United Kingdom, data were collected for England only. Results: Compared to the epidemics in 2017-2019, longer and blunter influenza outbreaks could occur should NPIs be fully lifted, with percent positivity varying from 10.5 to 18.6 in the studying regions. The rebounds would be smaller if the mask-wearing intervention continued or the international mobility stayed low, but sharper if the mask-wearing intervention was lifted in the middle of influenza season. Further, influenza activity could stay low under a much less stringent mask-wearing intervention coordinated with influenza vaccination. Conclusions: The results added to our understandings of future influenza dynamics after the global decline during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. In light of the uncertainty on the incoming circulation strains and the relatively low negative impacts of mask wearing on society, our findings suggested that wearing mask could be considered as an accompanying mitigation measure in influenza prevention and control, especially for seasons after long periods of low-exposure to influenza viruses.

2.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-296366

ABSTRACT

Background: Assessing the humoral immunity of patients with underlying diseases after being infected with SARS-CoV-2 is essential for determining effective prevention and control strategies. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether underlying disease is a risk factor for SARS-CoV-2 infection, reveal the seroprevalence of people with underlying disease and the characteristics of dynamic changes in anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies, and provide evidence for the scientific formulation of COVID-19 vaccination strategies. Methods: : The probability ratio sampling method was adopted to systematically select 100 communities from 13 districts in Wuhan, China, followed by a random selection of households from 100 communities according to a list provided by the local government. Individuals who have lived in Wuhan for at least 14 days since December 2019 and were ≥40 years old were included. Individuals with other serious diseases besides COVID-19, from whom a sample could not be obtained or refused to participate, were excluded. All eligible subjects signed a written informed consent form and completed a standardized electronic questionnaire before being enrolled in the group. From April 9–13, 2020, venous blood samples were collected from all individuals;from June 11–13, 2020, and from October 9–December 5, 2020, all positive and matched negative families were followed up. Results: : The seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 in people with underlying diseases was 6.30% (95% CI [5.09-7.52]), and that of people without underlying diseases was 6.12% (95% CI [5.33-6.91]). Among people with underlying diseases, retirees, health workers, and people who have been exposed to fever or respiratory symptoms since December 2019 were more likely to be infected with SARS-CoV-2. The IgG titer of people with underlying disease decreased significantly over time (P <0.05), but the neutralizing antibody titer remained relatively stable throughout the follow-up period. There was no significant difference between the IgG titer decline rate of people with underlying disease and those without. The IgG titer of people with underlying disease and asymptomatic infection was lower than that in symptomatic infection. Conclusion: These findings imply that vaccination strategies for people with and without underlying diseases may not require special adjustments.

3.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-294886

ABSTRACT

Background: Seasonal influenza activity typically peaks in winter months but plummets globally during the COVID-19 pandemic. Untangling lessons from the influenza’s unprecedented low profile is critical for informing preparedness for incoming influenza seasons.<br><br>Methods: We collect data from public sources in Northern China, Southern China, England and the United States. We estimate the individual effects of mask-wearing, mobility change (international and domestic) and SARS-CoV-2 interference, and forecast the influenza activity in the incoming 2021–2022 influenza season, using a country-specific inference model.<br><br>Findings: The one-week increase of the mask-wearing intervention has a percent reduction of 11·3% to 35·2% on influenza activity in the four regions. The one-week mobility mitigation has smaller effects, 1·7% to 6·5% for the international and 1·6% to 2·8% for the domestic. In 2020–2021, the mask-wearing intervention alone could decline 13·3 to 19·8 percent positivity. The mobility change alone could reduce 5·2 to 14·0 percent positivity, of which 79·8% to 98·2% are attributed to the deflected international travel. Only in 2019–2020, SARS-CoV-2 interference has statical significant effects, and in Northern China and England only, reducing 7·6 (2·4 to 14·4) and 10·2 (7·2 to 13·6) percent positivity respectively. Compared to the epidemics in 2017–2019, longer and blunter rebounds could occur in the incoming 2021–2022 season should the mask-wearing be lifted, but the rebound would be smaller if the international mobility stayed low.<br><br>Interpretation: Mask-wearing is more effective than mobility mitigation in all the four regions, although the relative advantage depends on the timing and duration of the interventions. Effects of SARS-CoV-2 interference vary at the timing of the influenza season and the speed of SARS-CoV-2 community transmission. The results improve our understandings of nonpharmaceutical interventions and other respiratory disease on influenza, and will inform the tailored public health measures for mitigating seasonal influenza and future pandemics.<br><br>Funding: National Natural Science Foundation, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences & Peking Union Medical College, and the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation<br><br>Declaration of Interest: The authors declare no competing interests.<br>

4.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-292324

ABSTRACT

Untangling lessons from the influenza’s plummeting during the COVID-19 pandemic is critical for mitigating seasonal and pandemic influenza. Here we explored a country-specific inference model to estimate the effects of mask-wearing, mobility changes (international and domestic) and SARS-CoV-2 interference in China, England and the United States. We found that mask wearing had a larger reduction than mobility changes in all the regions. Only in 2019-2020, SARS-CoV-2 interference had an observable effect, with values varying at the timing of the influenza season and the speed of SARS-CoV-2 community transmission. Compared to the epidemics in 2017–2019, longer and blunter rebounds could occur in the incoming 2021–2022 season, but the rebound would be smaller if less stringent mask mandates continued or the international mobility stayed low. Our results bear implications for understanding how influenza evolves under non-pharmaceutical interventions and other respiratory diseases, and will inform designing of tailored public health measures.

5.
Microbiol Spectr ; : e0028321, 2021 Nov 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1501550

ABSTRACT

The Infectious Disease Surveillance of Pediatrics (ISPED) program was established in 2015 to monitor and analyze the trends of bacterial epidemiology and antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in children. Clinical bacterial isolates were collected from 11 tertiary care children's hospitals in China in 2016 to 2020. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was carried out using the Kirby-Bauer method or automated systems, with interpretation according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute 2019 breakpoints. A total of 288,377 isolates were collected, and the top 10 predominant bacteria were Escherichia coli, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, Haemophilus influenzae, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Moraxella catarrhalis, Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Acinetobacter baumannii. In 2020, the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic year, we observed a significant reduction in the proportion of respiratory tract samples (from 56.9% to 44.0%). A comparable reduction was also seen in the primary bacteria mainly isolated from respiratory tract samples, including S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae, and S. pyogenes. Multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs) in children were commonly observed and presented higher rates of drug resistance than sensitive strains. The proportions of carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae (CRKP), carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii (CRAB), carbapenem-resistant P. aeruginosa (CRPA), and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) strains were 19.7%, 46.4%%, 12.8%, and 35.0%, respectively. The proportions of CRKP, CRAB, and CRPA strains all showed decreasing trends between 2015 and 2020. Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) and CRPA gradually decreased with age, while CRAB showed the opposite trend with age. Both CRE and CRPA pose potential threats to neonates. MDROs show very high levels of AMR and have become an urgent threat to children, suggesting that effective monitoring of AMR and antimicrobial stewardship among children in China are required. IMPORTANCE AMR, especially that involving multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs), is recognized as a global threat to human health; AMR renders infections increasingly difficult to treat, constituting an enormous economic burden and producing tremendous negative impacts on patient morbidity and mortality rates. There are many surveillance programs in the world to address AMR profiles and MDRO prevalence in humans. However, published studies evaluating the overall AMR rates or MDRO distributions in children are very limited or are of mixed quality. In this study, we showed the bacterial epidemiology and resistance profiles of primary pathogens in Chinese children from 2016 to 2020 for the first time, analyzed MDRO distributions with time and with age, and described MDROs' potential threats to children, especially low-immunity neonates. Our study will be very useful to guide antiinfection therapy in Chinese children, as well as worldwide pediatric patients.

6.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(20)2021 10 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1470880

ABSTRACT

As the country where the COVID-19 was first reported and initially broke out, China has controlled the spread of the pandemic well. The pandemic prevention process included emergency response and risk communication, both of which could notably increase public participation, people's anxiety has been alleviated, their confidence in the government has been enhanced, and the implementation of prevention and control measures has been understood. This study selected 157,283 articles published by 447 accounts across 326 cities in February 2020 from WeChat, the largest social media application in China, to systematically compare the spatial distributions in the effectiveness of emergency responses and risk communication. The results showed that there were significant regional differences in the effectiveness of emergency response and risk communication during the pandemic period in China. The effectiveness of emergency response and risk communication are related to the exposure risk to the COVID-19, the level of economy, culture, and education of the region, the type of accounts and articles, and the ranking of the articles in posts. The timeliness and distribution types of articles should take into account the psychological changes in communication recipients to avoid the dissemination of homogenized information to the masses and the resulting information receiving fatigue period.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Social Media , China/epidemiology , Communication , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Food Qual Prefer ; 96: 104428, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1466349

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of the coronavirus pandemic (Covid-19) has profoundly affected the food systems, leading to consumer concerns about the lack of reliability and safety of global foods and a growing trend towards consuming local foods. Consumers have formed multicultural identities, such as global identity and local identity, under the influences of global and local consumer culture. This study develops a conceptual model to examine the impact of consumer global-local identity, locavorism, and consumer xenocentrism on consumer attitudes towards and intentions to buy local foods during Covid-19 crisis. We conducted an online survey in China that measured the constructs using established scales. Using structural equation modelling to test the proposed hypotheses, we find that: a higher degree of global identity will lead to a higher degree of consumer xenocentrism, whereas a higher degree of local identity will lead to a lower degree of consumer xenocentrism; local identity significantly and positively predicts locavorism; contrary to the prediction, the impact of global identity on locavorism is not significant; a higher degree of consumer xenocentrism will lead to a lower degree of attitude towards buying local foods. Theoretically, our findings contribute to the understanding of literature on local food consumption, consumer global-local identity, and consumer xenocentrism. Local food marketers can obtain practical insights based on our findings.

8.
Stem Cells Int ; 2021: 9974635, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1440852

ABSTRACT

There is a population of p63+/Krt5+ distal airway stem cells (DASCs) quiescently located in the airway basal epithelium of mammals, responding to injury and airway epithelial regeneration. They hold the ability to differentiate into multiple pulmonary cell types and can repopulate the epithelium after damage. The current study aims at gaining further insights into the behavior and characteristics of the DASCs isolated from the patient lung and exploring their clinical translational potential. Human DASCs were brushed off through the bronchoscopic procedure and expanded under the pharmaceutical-grade condition. Their phenotype stability in long-term cell culture was analyzed, followed by safety evaluation and tumorigenic analysis using multiple animal models including rodents and nonhuman primate. The chimerism of the human-mouse lung model indicated that DASC pedigrees could give rise to multiple epithelial types, including type I alveolar cells as well as bronchiolar secretory cells, to regenerate the distal lung. Taken together, the results suggested that DASC transplantation could be a promising therapeutic approach for unmet needs in respiratory medicine including the COVID-19-related diseases.

9.
Front Immunol ; 12: 635942, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389176

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 infection takes a mild or clinically inapparent course in the majority of humans who contract this virus. After such individuals have cleared the virus, only the detection of SARS-CoV-2-specific immunological memory can reveal the exposure, and hopefully the establishment of immune protection. With most viral infections, the presence of specific serum antibodies has provided a reliable biomarker for the exposure to the virus of interest. SARS-CoV-2 infection, however, does not reliably induce a durable antibody response, especially in sub-clinically infected individuals. Consequently, it is plausible for a recently infected individual to yield a false negative result within only a few months after exposure. Immunodiagnostic attention has therefore shifted to studies of specific T cell memory to SARS-CoV-2. Most reports published so far agree that a T cell response is engaged during SARS-CoV-2 infection, but they also state that in 20-81% of SARS-CoV-2-unexposed individuals, T cells respond to SARS-CoV-2 antigens (mega peptide pools), allegedly due to T cell cross-reactivity with Common Cold coronaviruses (CCC), or other antigens. Here we show that, by introducing irrelevant mega peptide pools as negative controls to account for chance cross-reactivity, and by establishing the antigen dose-response characteristic of the T cells, one can clearly discern between cognate T cell memory induced by SARS-CoV-2 infection vs. cross-reactive T cell responses in individuals who have not been infected with SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Host-Pathogen Interactions/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Antigens, Viral/immunology , Biomarkers , COVID-19/metabolism , Cross Reactions/immunology , Cytokines/metabolism , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/immunology , Humans , Immunodominant Epitopes/immunology , Immunologic Memory , Peptides/immunology , Protein Binding , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/metabolism
12.
Anal Chim Acta ; 1180: 338881, 2021 Oct 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1338317

ABSTRACT

Gut ecosystem has profound effects on host physiology and health. Gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms were frequently observed in patients with COVID-19. Compared with other organs, gut antiviral response can result in more complicated immune responses because of the interactions between the gut microbiota and host immunity. However, there are still large knowledge gaps in the impact of COVID-19 on gut molecular profiles and commensal microbiome, hindering our comprehensive understanding of the pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 and the treatment of COVID-19. We performed longitudinal stool multi-omics profiling to systemically investigate the molecular phenomics alterations of gut ecosystem in COVID-19. Gut proteomes of COVID-19 were characterized by disturbed immune, proteolysis and redox homeostasis. The expression and glycosylation of proteins involved in neutrophil degranulation and migration were suppressed, while those of proteases were upregulated. The variable domains of Ig heavy chains were downregulated and the overall glycosylation of IgA heavy chain constant regions, IgGFc-binding protein, and J chain were suppressed with glycan-specific variations. There was a reduction of beneficial gut bacteria and an enrichment of bacteria derived deleterious metabolites potentially associated with multiple types of diseases (such as ethyl glucuronide). The reduction of Ig heave chain variable domains may contribute to the increase of some Bacteroidetes species. Many bacteria ceramide lipids with a C17-sphingoid based were downregulated in COVID-19. In many cases, the gut phenome did not restore two months after symptom onset. Our study indicates widely disturbed gut molecular profiles which may play a role in the development of symptoms in COVID-19. Our findings also emphasis the need for ongoing investigation of the long-term gut molecular and microbial alterations during COVID-19 recovery process. Considering the gut ecosystem as a potential target could offer a valuable approach in managing the disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Ecosystem , Feces , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; : 1-7, 2021 Jul 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1331526

ABSTRACT

It is important to understand the cognition, willingness, and psychological anxiety state of Chinese guardians toward COVID-19 vaccination for their children to predict the future vaccination rate and to help the design of policies that aim to expand the population with immunity against COVID-19. This study collected data with a professional vaccination registration platform for children named "Xiao Dou Miao" in February 2021. The psychological anxiety state of the guardians was self-evaluated using the psychological anxiety scale. Factors that might influence the willingness of guardians to vaccinate their children were identified using logistic regression analysis. This study included 12,872 questionnaires with 70.9% of guardians showing willingness to vaccinate their children. Guardians who were male, aged 40-49 and from rural area were more willing to vaccinate their children. Fathers, guardians with higher education and income, whose children have a history of adverse vaccine reactions and allergies were less willing to vaccinate their children (p < .001). More than 80% of the guardians expressed a high level of trust for vaccine information released by official and health-related agencies. Guardians who were not vaccinated were more anxious than those who were vaccinated (χ2 = 27.99, p < .001). To protect children from COVID-19, vaccine coverage in children should be expanded rapidly and public awareness on vaccine safety and effectiveness should be improved.

14.
Pacific-Basin Finance Journal ; 68:101608, 2021.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1294113

ABSTRACT

By developing a machine learning-based measure of corporate big data strategies, this study empirically explores how stock markets respond to the COVID-19 pandemic and whether corporate big data strategies make firms immune to the pandemic effect. We find that except for information technology and health care sectors, firms in most sectors in China are negatively affected by the COVID-19 outbreak. Among these firms, an increase in the number of daily new confirmed cases in the city of a firm's headquarters is associated with a decrease in its stock prices, however, such a decline is attenuated for firms with a high emphasis on big data strategies. Our results are robust when we use COVID-19 cases at the whole country level.

15.
Geophysical Research Letters ; n/a(n/a):e2021GL092987, 2021.
Article in English | Wiley | ID: covidwho-1287793

ABSTRACT

AbstractThe impacts of anthropogenic emissions on the reduction of source-specific equivalent black carbon (eBC) aerosols and their direct radiative effects (DREs) were investigated during the lockdown of the coronavirus outbreak in a megacity of China in 2020. Five eBC sources were identified using a hybrid environmental receptor model. Results showed that biomass burning, traffic-related emissions, and coal combustion were the dominant contributors to eBC. The generalized additive model indicated that the reduction of traffic-related eBC during the lockdown was entirely attributed to the decrease of emissions. Decreased biomass-burning activities and favorable meteorological factors are both important drivers for the biomass-burning eBC reduction during the lockdown. A radiative transfer model showed that the DRE efficiency of eBC from biomass burning was the strongest, followed by coal combustion and traffic-related emissions. This study highlights that aggressive reduction in the consumption of residential solid fuels would be effective in achieving climate change mitigation.

16.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 9(6)2021 Jun 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1273522

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: With the continuous large-scale development of the COVID-19 vaccine, the acceptance of vaccination and its influencing factors at the individual level have become crucial to stemming the pandemic. This study aims to explore the factors that influence the acceptance of the COVID-19 vaccine among international college students. METHODS: The target population constituted international students pursuing various degrees in Jiangsu Province through an online cross-sectional study. A cluster random sampling was performed using a self-administered questionnaire. The Health Belief Model and Knowledge, Attitude/Beliefs, and Practice Theory served as the underlying theories to understanding the factors that influence vaccine acceptance. RESULTS: We received 330 responses. About 36.4% intended to accept the vaccine. The acceptance varied across respondents' place of residence, program of study, continent of origin, knowledge, susceptibility, severity, benefits, and cues to action (p < 0.05). A multivariable logistics regression revealed cues to action (p < 0.001), the perception of COVID-19 vaccination benefits (p = 0.002), and the perception of barriers (p < 0.001) that were associated with vaccine acceptance. CONCLUSIONS: The acceptance of the COVID-19 vaccine was low among international students. The correct and comprehensive beliefs of the target groups regarding the benefits and barriers of the vaccination must be raised. Various effective social strategies must be adopted to trigger the intention of COVID-19 vaccination. The study findings will inform the decisions of public health campaigners, aimed at reducing vaccine hesitation when the COVID-19 vaccine is widely available.

17.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 3249, 2021 05 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1249208

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was detected in China during the 2019-2020 seasonal influenza epidemic. Non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) and behavioral changes to mitigate COVID-19 could have affected transmission dynamics of influenza and other respiratory diseases. By comparing 2019-2020 seasonal influenza activity through March 29, 2020 with the 2011-2019 seasons, we found that COVID-19 outbreaks and related NPIs may have reduced influenza in Southern and Northern China and the United States by 79.2% (lower and upper bounds: 48.8%-87.2%), 79.4% (44.9%-87.4%) and 67.2% (11.5%-80.5%). Decreases in influenza virus infection were also associated with the timing of NPIs. Without COVID-19 NPIs, influenza activity in China and the United States would likely have remained high during the 2019-2020 season. Our findings provide evidence that NPIs can partially mitigate seasonal and, potentially, pandemic influenza.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Models, Statistical , Pandemics , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , China/epidemiology , Humans , Influenza, Human/transmission , Influenza, Human/virology , Orthomyxoviridae/pathogenicity , Orthomyxoviridae/physiology , Personal Protective Equipment , Physical Distancing , Quarantine/organization & administration , Respiratory Tract Infections/transmission , Respiratory Tract Infections/virology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Seasons , United States/epidemiology
18.
Engineering (Beijing) ; 7(7): 948-957, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1240344

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is a global crisis, and medical systems in many countries are overwhelmed with supply shortages and increasing demands to treat patients due to the surge in cases and severe illnesses. This study aimed to assess COVID-19-related essential clinical resource demands in China, based on different scenarios involving COVID-19 spreads and interventions. We used a susceptible-exposed-infectious-hospitalized/isolated-removed (SEIHR) transmission dynamics model to estimate the number of COVID-19 infections and hospitalizations with corresponding essential healthcare resources needed. We found that, under strict non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) or mass vaccination of the population, China would be able to contain community transmission and local outbreaks rapidly. However, under scenarios involving a low intensity of implemented NPIs and a small proportion of the population vaccinated, the use of a peacetime-wartime transition model would be needed for medical source stockpiles and preparations to ensure a normal functioning healthcare system. The implementation of COVID-19 vaccines and NPIs in different periods can influence the transmission of COVID-19 and subsequently affect the demand for clinical diagnosis and treatment. An increased proportion of asymptomatic infections in simulations will not reduce the demand for medical resources; however, attention must be paid to the increasing difficulty in containing COVID-19 transmission due to asymptomatic cases. This study provides evidence for emergency preparations and the adjustment of prevention and control strategies during the COVID-19 pandemic. It also provides guidance for essential healthcare investment and resource allocation.

19.
J Hazard Mater Lett ; 2: 100027, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1233433

ABSTRACT

Facing the ongoing coronavirus infectious disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, many studies focus on severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in indoor environment, on solid surface or in wastewater. It remains unclear whether SARS-CoV-2 can spill over into outdoor environments and impose transmission risks to surrounding people and communities. In this study, we investigated the presence of SARS-CoV-2 by measuring viral RNA in 118 samples from outdoor environment of three hospitals in Wuhan. We detected SARS-CoV-2 in soils (205-550 copies/g), aerosols (285-1,130 copies/m3) and wastewaters (255-18,744 copies/L) in locations close to hospital departments receiving COVID-19 patients or in wastewater treatment sectors. These findings revealed a significant viral spillover in hospital outdoor environments that was possibly caused by respiratory droplets from patients or aerosolized particles from wastewater containing SARS-CoV-2. In contrast, SARS-CoV-2 was not detected in other areas or on surfaces with regular implemented disinfection. Soils may behave as viral warehouse through deposition and serve as a secondary source spreading SARS-CoV-2 for a prolonged time. For the first time, our findings demonstrate that there are high-risk areas out of expectation in hospital outdoor environments to spread SARS-CoV-2, calling for sealing of wastewater treatment unit and complete sanitation to prevent COVID-19 transmission risks.

20.
Environ Pollut ; 285: 117257, 2021 Sep 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1217544

ABSTRACT

Reusing treated wastewater can effectively alleviate water shortages and water contamination problems but depends on ensuring the safety of the reclaimed water that is produced. The operating and management conditions for water reclamation plants in China have been changed since the outbreak of the COVID-19 epidemic in China at the end of 2019 to prevent emerging viruses being spread through wastewater treatment processes and the reclaimed water that is produced. Removal of pathogens and trace organic compounds (e.g., pharmaceuticals and personal care products and endocrine disrupting chemicals) in a real water reclamation plant after the start of COVID-19 epidemic was studied. Disinfection byproduct formation caused by chlorine being added to meet disinfection requirements was also assessed. The pathogenic microorganism concentrations in effluent were <2 (most probable number)/L, and the removal rates for most trace organic compounds were >80% when advanced treatments were performed using ozone, ultraviolet light, and chlorine doses of 2 mg/L, 20.5 mJ/cm2, and 2-3 mg/L, respectively. The main disinfection byproduct produced at a chlorine dose of 2 mg/L and a residence time of 1 h was chloroform (at concentrations <15 µg/L). The results indicated that the water reclamation processes with modified conditions gave high pathogen and trace organic compound removal rates and reasonably well-controlled disinfection byproduct concentrations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Water Pollutants, Chemical , Water Purification , Chlorine , Disinfection , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Waste Water , Water , Water Pollutants, Chemical/analysis
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