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1.
Frontiers in Public Health ; 10, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2163190

ABSTRACT

It has been nearly 35 months since the COVID-19 outbreak. The pathogen SARS-CoV-2 has evolved into several variants. Among them, Omicron is the fifth variant of concern which have rapidly spread globally during the past 8 months. Omicron variant shows different characteristics from previous variants, which is highly infectious, highly transmissible, minimally pathogenic, vaccine and antibody tolerant;however, it is less likely to cause severe illness, resulting in fewer deaths. Omicron has evolved into five main lineages, including BA.1, BA.2, BA.3, BA.4, and BA.5. Before BA.5, Omicron BA.2 sublineage was the dominant strain all over the world for several months. The experience of prevention and treatment against BA.2 is worth studying and learning for overcoming other Omicron subvariants. Although the Omicron subvariant BA.2 is significantly less severe than that caused by ancestral strains, it is still far more dangerous than influenza, and its long-term sequelae are unknown. Effective treatments are currently limited;therefore, effective defense may be the key to controlling the epidemic today, rather than just "living with" the virus.

2.
Critical Care Medicine ; 51(1):103-116, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2161200

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Severe cases of COVID-19 pneumonia can lead to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Release of interleukin (IL)-33, an epithelial-derived alarmin, and IL-33/ST2 pathway activation are linked with ARDS development in other viral infections. IL-22, a cytokine that modulates innate immunity through multiple regenerative and protective mechanisms in lung epithelial cells, is reduced in patients with ARDS. This study aimed to evaluate safety and efficacy of astegolimab, a human immunoglobulin G2 monoclonal antibody that selectively inhibits the IL-33 receptor, ST2, or efmarodocokin alfa, a human IL-22 fusion protein that activates IL-22 signaling, for treatment of severe COVID-19 pneumonia.

3.
Virus Evolution ; 8(2):veac106, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2161171

ABSTRACT

Variants of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 frequently arise within infected individuals. Here, we explored the level and pattern of intra-host viral diversity in association with disease severity. Then, we analyzed information underlying these nucleotide changes to infer the impetus including mutational signatures and immune selection from neutralizing antibody or T-cell recognition. From 23 January to 31 March 2020, a set of cross-sectional samples were collected from individuals with homogeneous founder virus regardless of disease severity. Intra-host single-nucleotide variants (iSNVs) were enumerated using deep sequencing. Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) alleles were genotyped by Sanger sequencing. Medical records were collected and reviewed by attending physicians. A total of 836 iSNVs (3-106 per sample) were identified and distributed in a highly individualized pattern. The number of iSNVs paced with infection duration peaked within days and declined thereafter. These iSNVs did not stochastically arise due to a strong bias toward C > U/G > A and U > C/A > G substitutions in reciprocal proportion with escalating disease severity. Eight nonsynonymous iSNVs in the receptor-binding domain could escape from neutralization, and eighteen iSNVs were significantly associated with specific HLA alleles. The level and pattern of iSNVs reflect the in vivo viral-host interaction and the disease pathogenesis.

4.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 2022.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-2158943

ABSTRACT

Targeting the interaction between the spike protein receptor binding domain (S-RBD) of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is a potential therapeutic strategy for treating coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, we still lack small-molecule drug candidates for this target due to the missing knowledge in the hot spots for the protein-protein interaction. Here, we used NanoBiT technology to identify three Ginkgolic acids from an in-house traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) library, and they interfere with the S-RBD/ACE2 interplay. Our pseudovirus assay showed that one of the compounds, Ginkgolic acid C17:1 (GA171), significantly inhibits the entry of original SARS-CoV-2 and its variants into the ACE2-overexpressed HEK293T cells. We investigated and proposed the binding sites of GA171 on S-RBD by combining molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulations. Site-directed mutagenesis and surface plasmon resonance revealed that GA171 specifically binds to the pocket near R403 and Y505, critical residues of S-RBD for S-RBD interacting with ACE2. Thus, we provide structural insights into developing new small-molecule inhibitors and vaccines against the proposed S-RBD binding site.

5.
BMC Nephrol ; 23(1):389, 2022.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-2153529

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Observational studies have shown home hemodialysis (HHD) to be associated with better survival than facility hemodialysis (HD) and peritoneal dialysis (PD). Patients on HHD have reported higher quality of life and independence. HHD is considered to be an economical way to manage end-stage kidney disease (ESKD). The coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic has had a significant impact on patients with ESKD. Patients on HHD may have an advantage over in-center HD patients because of a lower risk of exposure to infection. PARTICIPANTS AND METHODS: We enrolled HD patients from our dialysis center. We first established the HHD training center. The training center was approved by the Chinese government. Doctors, nurses and engineers train and assess patients separately. There are three forms of patient monitoring: home visits, internet remote monitoring, and outpatient services. Demographic and medical data included age, sex, blood pressure, and dialysis-related data. Laboratory tests were conducted in our central testing laboratory, including hemoglobin (Hgb), serum creatinine (Cr), urea nitrogen (BUN), uric acid (UA), albumin (Alb), calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), parathyroid hormone (PTH), and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) levels. RESULTS: Six patients who underwent regular dialysis in the HD center of our hospital were selected for HHD training. We enrolled 6 patients, including 4 males and 2 females. The mean age of the patients was 47.5 (34.7-55.7) years, and the mean dialysis age was 33.5 (11.2-41.5) months. After an average of 16.0 (11.2-25.5) months of training, Alb, P and BNP levels were improved compared with the baseline values. After training, three patients returned home to begin independent HD. During the follow-up, there were no serious adverse events leading to hospitalization or death, but there were several adverse events. They were solved quickly by extra home visits of the technicians or online by remote monitoring. During the follow-up time, the laboratory indicators of all the patients, including Hgb, Alb, Ca, P, PTH, BNP, and β2-MG levels, remained stable before and after HHD treatment. CONCLUSION: HHD is feasible and safe for ESKD in China, but larger-scale and longer-term studies are needed for further confirmation.

6.
Ther Adv Respir Dis ; 16:17534666221130215, 2022.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-2153467

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak might have a psychological impact on frontline healthcare workers. However, the effectiveness of coping strategies was less reported. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to investigate the sources of stress and coping strategies among frontline healthcare workers fighting against COVID-19. We also performed a literature review regarding the effects of coping methods on psychological health in this population. METHODS: We included frontline healthcare workers who completed an online survey using self-made psychological stress questionnaires in a cross-sectional study. We evaluated the association between potential factors and high-stressed status using a logistic regression model. We performed the principal component analysis with varimax rotation for factor analysis. We also performed a systematic review of published randomized controlled studies that reported the effects of coping methods on psychological health in COVID-19 healthcare workers. RESULTS: We included 107 [32 (29-36) years] respondents in the final analysis, with a response rate of 80.5%. A total of 41 (38.3%) respondents were high-stressed. Compared with the low-stressed respondents, those with high-stress were less likely to be male (46.3% versus 72.7%, p = 0.006), nurses (36.6% versus 80.3%, p < 0.001), and more likely to have higher professional titles (p = 0.008). The sources of high-stress in frontline healthcare workers were categorized into 'work factor', 'personal factor', and 'role factor'. A narrative synthesis of the randomized controlled studies revealed that most of the coping methods could improve the psychological stress in healthcare workers during the COVID-19 pandemic. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that some frontline healthcare workers experienced psychological stress during the early pandemic. Effective coping strategies are required to help relieve the stress in this population.

7.
24th International Conference on Engineering and Product Design Education: Disrupt, Innovate, Regenerate and Transform, E and PDE 2022 ; 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2147542

ABSTRACT

Digital technologies have enabled design sketching to expand into new applications and domains. Inevitably, these new forms of visualisation require re-evaluating how we use drawing to see, visualise, understand, and fabricate products and services in design education and the profession. This paper presents a selection of discoveries after the authors performed research, made presentations and mediated workshops when face-to-face collaborations and travel were impossible because of the Covid-19 epidemic restrictions. Findings add to work intending to build a modern taxonomy for design sketching and visual knowledge while accounting for immersive virtual collaboration and distributed workflows from sketching to 3D CAD and 3D printing. These are among the first indications of a drive towards synthesising historically demarked design process stages into a singularity of actions that merge and move simultaneously among ideation, design, and production. Participants in two international conference workshops shared ideas and discussed their local circumstances relating to the potential use and acceptance of new technologies already researched and adopted in other disciplines such as computer science and entertainment. A critical consensus was that the challenge of new technologies for our design education and profession is not as much about technology and its tools as the process and steps that enable change. Significantly, conversation pointed towards a strategy that enhances and augments habits in design education and the profession as the means to modify and transform culture and practice. © Proceedings of the 24th International Conference on Engineering and Product Design Education: Disrupt, Innovate, Regenerate and Transform, E and PDE 2022. All rights reserved.

8.
Frontiers in Psychology ; 13, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2142240

ABSTRACT

Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, most employees face increasing career-related stress, particularly those who work in multinational corporations (MNCs), because the international travel constraints prevent them from going back to their families. Hence, it is imperative to investigate the critical impact of employees' occupational burnout (OB) on career-related outcomes. In response, this research explores the moderating effect of OB on the relationships between career competencies (CCs) and career sustainability (CS). To achieve a more comprehensive understanding of relevant issues, we adopted a mixed-method research design that includes both qualitative and quantitative analyses. Findings indicate that all the three dimensions of CCs (i.e., reflective, communicative, and behavioral career competencies;RC, CC, and BC) were positively related to CS;moreover, OB negatively moderated the individual relationships of CC and BC with CS. The main contribution of this study is to enrich the existing career literature by addressing the critical moderating role of OB in the links of CC and BC individually with CS. Practical implications are also discussed in this study.

9.
International Review of Economics & Finance ; 83:717-735, 2023.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2122541

ABSTRACT

As the world's largest trading bloc, the agreement of RCEP, which was formalized in September 2020, is believed to play a non-neglectable role in the post-pandemic recovery. Real economies and the capital markets of the participating countries will have greater interactions due to tariff reduction and negative lists. By looking into the shocks in early 2020 that affect the stock markets of RCEP participating countries, we measure the stock market reaction to common risks just before the RCEP agreement was formalized. Following return-based, volume-based and liquidity-based event-study approaches, we use daily data from 11 Asia-Pacific countries to examine the stock market reactions. We find that RCEP economies for which the agreement took effect on January 1st, 2022 showed better risk resistance in response to COVID-19 shocks. In the long run, trading benefits brought by the RCEP agreement are expected to form and strengthen a system of circular flow of international trading activities among the participating countries, which will in turn increase the risk resistance ability of their stock markets.

10.
5th International Conference on Pattern Recognition and Artificial Intelligence, PRAI 2022 ; : 225-234, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2120784

ABSTRACT

The epidemic of infectious diseases has become a major problem threatening the world public health, and the dynamic models of virus spreading are widely used for epidemic tracking and prediction. The existing dynamic models do not consider the synergistic effects of population migration factors and changes in transmission rates on diseases. Therefore, based on the SIR (Susceptible-Infectious-Recovered) model, the time-dependent M-SIR (Migration-Susceptible-Infectious-Recovered) model was proposed by introducing the population migration (Migration) factor. Meanwhile, introducing the machine learning LightGBM (Light Gradient Boosting Machine) method to track the infection rate and recovery rate, and explored the impact of cross-regional population movement and prevention and control measures on the development of the epidemic. Take the new crown epidemic as an example, firstly, the data of population migration and epidemic spread were statistically analyzed to monitor the relationship between population mobility and epidemic development. Then, the m-sir model is used to predict the infected cases and removed cases in Beijing and Shanghai. Through comparative analysis with the SIR model, the prediction accuracy of the model has been greatly improved. At the same time, the development trend of the epidemic situation in related cities before and after control is explored, which can provide some theoretical support for future epidemic prediction and control decisions. © 2022 IEEE.

11.
2022 International Joint Conference on Neural Networks, IJCNN 2022 ; 2022-July, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2097620

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has become a worldwide epidemic. Prediction of COVID-19 is an effective way to control its spread. Recently, some research efforts have made great progress on this task. However, these works rarely combine both the temporal and spatial domains for case number prediction. Moreover, most of them are only suitable for short-term prediction tasks, which cannot achieve good long-term predicting effects. Therefore, we use a method that combines human-mobility factors and time-series factors - the Spatio-temporal convolutional network (G-TCN) to deal with these problems. Firstly, we use data on the mobility of people between regions to generate graphs of regional relationships. Secondly, to process the spatial information at each moment, we apply multi-layer graph convolutional neural networks (GCNs) to aggregate multi-layer neighborhood information. And we input the information obtained by GCNs at different moments into temporal convolutional networks (TCNs), which are used to process the time-series information. Finally, we tested the proposed G-TCN method using datasets from four countries. The experimental results show that G-TCN has lower prediction errors than other comparison methods and can better fit the trend of COVID-19 development. © 2022 IEEE.

12.
Chinese Journal of Evidence-Based Medicine ; 20(3):365-368, 2020.
Article in Chinese | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2067157

ABSTRACT

After the occurrence of public health emergencies, as the most direct front position, how to carry out medical treatment orderly, effectively, rapidly and safely in a short time has become the focus and difficulty of epidemic control. After the outbreak of 2019 novel coronavirus pneumonia (2019-nCoV), West China Hospital of Sichuan University, as a large-scale general hospital under the supervision of the CPC central committee, put people's life safety and health first, and attach great importance to the prevention and control of the epidemic. This paper introduces the ten measures taken by West China Hospital of Sichuan University to fight against the 2019-nCoV pneumonia, in order to provide reference for other hospitals. Copyright © 2020 West China University of Medical Science. All rights reserved.

13.
Chinese Journal of Evidence-Based Medicine ; 20(3):359-364, 2020.
Article in Chinese | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2067155

ABSTRACT

Objectives To estimate the basic reproduction number of the novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) and to provide support to epidemic preparedness and response. Methods Based on the susceptible-exposed-infected-removed (SEIR) compartment model and the assumption that the infection cases with symptoms occurred before January 26, 2020 were resulted from free propagation without intervention, we estimated the basic reproduction number of 2019-nCoV according to the reported confirmed cases and suspected cases, as well as theoretical estimated number of infected cases by other research teams, together with some epidemiological determinants learned from the severe acute respiratory syndrome. Results The basic reproduction number fall between 2.8 to 3.3 by using the real-time reports on the number of 2019-nCoV infected cases from People's Daily in China, and fall between 3.2 and 3.9 on the basis of the predicted number of infected cases from international colleagues. Conclusions The early transmission capability of 2019-nCoV is close to or slightly higher than SARS. It is a controllable disease with moderate-high transmissibility. Timely and effective control measures are capable to quickly reduce further transmission. Copyright © 2020 West China University of Medical Science. All rights reserved.

14.
Sustainability (Switzerland) ; 14(18), 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2066369

ABSTRACT

As a critical pattern to promote industrial growth and recover the economy, China has widely applied an electricity price-cutting policy, especially after the global spread of COVID-19. However, the current insufficient research indicates a noticeable knowledge gap around the actual outcome of this policy measure. This paper, therefore, aimed at filling this gap by focusing on the case of Zhejiang province. Recently, there have been three main kinds of price-cutting policies employed in Zhejiang, decreasing the general industrial electricity price, temporary electricity price-cutting, and targeted price reduction for large industries. Using a computable general equilibrium model that incorporates the Zhejiang electricity system’s operating characteristics, we simulated the economic impact of these electricity price adjustment policies. The results indicate that it was practical to promote the economy by reducing electricity prices, but the specific arrangements of policy have led to differences in economic stimulus consequences. This paper further obtained the multiplier effect in each industry. If electricity price adjustment policies were introduced only for industries with a higher comprehensive multiplier effect, the policy effectiveness would be further optimized. © 2022 by the authors.

15.
American Journal of Transplantation ; 22(Supplement 3):909-910, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2063523

ABSTRACT

Purpose: Kidney transplant recipients (KTRs) have poor outcomes compared to non-KTRs with acute COVID-19. To provide insight into management of immunosuppression (IS) during COVID-19, we studied immune signatures from the peripheral blood during and after COVID-19 infection from a multicenter KTR cohort. Method(s): Clinical data were collected by chart review. Paxgene blood RNA was polyA-selected and sequenced at enrollment Results: A total of 64 KTRs affected with COVID-19 were enrolled (31 Early cases (<4weeks from a positive SARS-CoV-2 PCR test) and 33 late cases). Out of the 64 patients, eight died and three encountered graft losses during follow-up. Among 31 early cases, we detected differentially expressed genes (nominal p-value < 0.01) in the blood transcriptome that were positively or negatively associated with the COVID-19 severity score (scale of 1 to 7 with increasing severity;Fig 1A). Enrichment analyses showed upregulation of neutrophil and innate immune pathways and downregulation of adaptive immune activation pathways with increasing severity score (Fig 1B). This observation was independent of lymphocyte count, despite reduction in immunosuppression (IS) in 75% of KTRs. Interestingly, compared with early cases, the blood transcriptome in late cases showed "normalization" of these enriched pathways after 4 weeks, suggesting return of adaptive immune system activation despite re-initiation of immunosuppression (Fig 1C). The latter analyses were adjusted for the severity score. Interestingly, similar pathway enrichment with worsening severity of COVID-19 was identifiable from a public dataset of non-KTRs (GSE152418), showing overlapped signatures for acute COVID-19 between KTRs and non-KTRs (overlap P<0.05) (Fig 1D). Conclusion(s): Blood transcriptome of COVID-KTRs shows marked decrease in adaptive immune system activation during acute COVID-19, even during IS reduction, which show recovery after acute illness. (Figure Presented).

16.
American Journal of Transplantation ; 22(Supplement 3):569, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2063390

ABSTRACT

Purpose: Kidney transplant recipients (KTRs) have poor outcomes vs non-KTRs with acute COVID-19. To provide insight into management of immunosuppression during acute COVID-19, we studied peripheral blood transcriptomes during and after COVID-19 from a multicenter KTR cohort. Method(s): Clinical data were collected by chart review. Paxgene blood RNA was polyA-selected and sequenced at enrollment. Result(s): A total of 64 KTRs with COVID-19 were enrolled (31 Early cases (<4weeks from a positive SARS-CoV-2 PCR test) and 33 late cases). Out of the 64 patients, eight died and three encountered graft losses during follow-up. Due to presence of mRNA reads in the blood transcriptome unmapped to the human genome, we aligned the mRNA short reads to the SARS-CoV-2 genome. Surprisingly, our strategy detected the SARS-Cov2 mRNA, especially Spike mRNA in 27 (87%) early cases, and 18 (54%) of late cases (Fig 1A and B). We then analyzed the raw reads from a public dataset of non-KTRs with Paxgene RNA (GSE172114). The SARS-CoV-2 Spike mRNA was detected in 2/47 (4.2%) critically ill COVID-19 cases and 0/25 noncritically ill cases in this non-KTR dataset (compared to KTRs, Chi-square P<0.001;Fig 1B). Among our KTRs, the amount of Spike mRNA was associated positively with the COVID-19 severity score (scale of 1 to 7 of increasing severity;Fig 1C) and inversely with time from initial positive PCR (Fig 1D). More interestingly, 7/64 patients had detectable Spike RNA-emia beyond 60 days after COVID-19 diagnosis. Of the 3 graft losses in our cohort, 2 occurred among these 7 patients. Conclusion(s): Blood transcriptome of KTRs with COVID-19 demonstrated a risk for persistent viremia with implications for pathogenesis of COVID-19 disease. This finding also supports using passive immune strategies in COVID-KTRs. (Figure Presented).

17.
European Neuropsychopharmacology ; 63:e175, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2061165

ABSTRACT

Background: Most neuropsychiatric disorders are moderately heritable but characterized by many genetic risk variants with weak effects. As such, it is difficult to point to direct causes or elucidate mechanisms of action. Despite the ease in gathering genetic data from humans, genetic data does not easily explain mechanistic effects. Gene expression on the other hand, which can more easily explain mechanistic effects, is harder to gather, especially in brain regions that are critical to the understanding of neuropsychiatric disease. To address this, we developed methods to impute genetically regulated gene expression (GReX) from genotypes and imputed GReX in over 440,000 European individuals in the Million Veteran Program (MVP) for a wide variety of tissues and cell types. Method(s): We use EpiXcan (based on PrediXcan) to develop machine learning models from training genotype, expression, and epigenetic data. We use custom scripts to impute individual GReX and perform a variety of downstream association analyses, including GReX Phenome Wide Association Studies (PheWAS) and Transcriptome Wide Association Studies (TWAS). Result(s): Results show an overlap in Schizophrenia genes identified by individual level TWAS and those identified by summary level TWAS informed by GWAS. TWASs for neuropsychiatric phenotypes identify genes established in the literature, but also novel targets. Inverse-variance meta-analyzed single gene imputation efforts across ancestries confirm clinical results obtained from COVID-19 positive individuals in both IL10RB and IFNAR2. GReX PheWAS for these particular genes using a novel negative binomial distribution for phecodes confirm COVID-19 related phenotypes. Finally, we describe various enriched pathways found in a COVID-19 TWAS, including immunological pathways. Discussion(s): GReX presents a unique solution to integrate effects across the genome and increase sample size in gene expression analyses. We are pursuing the creation of additional EpiXcan models, improved statistical methods for downstream association analyses, and replication efforts across biobanks. We plan to perform these analyses in all ancestries, available EpiXcan and PrediXcan models, and phenotypes. Disclosure: Nothing to disclose. Copyright © 2022

18.
International Conference on Green Building, Civil Engineering and Smart City, GBCESC 2022 ; 211 LNCE:465-473, 2023.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2059767

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has seen the importance of confined space ventilation to reduce the risks of cross infection. To evaluate and compare the relative impacts of different mitigation strategies is important in order to reduce the risk of infection in a given situation. Using CFD methods, this study aimed to modulate the spread of exhaled contaminants in a floor-heated and ventilated space. Three different inlet velocities and four floor temperatures were used to assess the effect of the radiant floor combined with the displacement ventilation (RFDV) on room airflow and pollutant spread. Results show that RFDV reduced exposure to infection from 87% to 50% compared to the reference case. The inlet velocity is required to increase when the floor temperature is higher to decrease the contaminant exposure risk to in the room. This research provides a timely and necessary study of the ventilation and heating systems. These findings are expected to be useful for designing future of RFDV. © 2023, The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd.

19.
Journal of Medical Pest Control ; 38(3):299-301, 2022.
Article in Chinese | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2056262

ABSTRACT

Objective To understand the contaminations of SARS-CoV-2 of imported frozen food and corresponding ke;environments in Nantong Farmers’ Wholesale Market. Methods The samples of imported frozen food, surface samples of key environmental objects and throat swabs, anal swabs and blood samples from employees were collected randomly, SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid testing as well as specific serum antibody IgM and IgG testing were implemented. Results A total of 1 685 sample: of imported frozen food in Nantong, 2 432 samples from key environment, and 1 539 samples of anal swabs and throat swabs fron key practitioners were collected, all samples were confirmed to be negative for SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid testing. A total of 299 blood samples were collected from key employees, and virus specific serum antibodies IgM and IgG were negative. Conclusion The imported frozen food and key environment sold in the Nantong have not been contaminated with SARS-CoV-2 temporarily, and it remains being necessary to further implements surveillance and control of Corona Virus Disease 2019(COVID-19). © 2022, Editorial Department of Medical Pest Control. All rights reserved.

20.
129th ASEE Annual Conference and Exposition: Excellence Through Diversity, ASEE 2022 ; 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2047137

ABSTRACT

This paper summarizes our experiences in running the REU site in a virtual environment at the University of Louisville. This is our first year to run the REU site. While our original plan when we proposed this project was to have a traditional in-person program, the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic and the concerns about safety for both faculty mentors and students involved made us decide to run it virtually. While we had to cancel some in-person activities such as face-to-face meetings, tours, and social events, we also added virtual events such as private and group MS Team meeting, Slack chat rooms (channels), and online movie nights and discussions. Nine out of the ten research projects were conducted entirely virtually. For one project that involves hardware component, we managed to mail a hardware kit to the student so that she could still work on her project remotely. Student evaluations indicate that this virtual REU site program, though in its first year, was quite successful and satisfactory. © American Society for Engineering Education, 2022.

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