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2.
Ann Med ; 53(1): 391-401, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1096398

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There are few effective therapies for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) upon the outbreak of the pandemic. To compare the effectiveness of a novel genetically engineered recombinant super-compound interferon (rSIFN-co) with traditional interferon-alpha added to baseline antiviral agents (lopinavir-ritonavir or umifenovir) for the treatment of moderate-to-severe COVID-19. METHOD: In this multicenter randomized (1:1) trial, patients hospitalized with moderate-to-severe COVID-19 received either rSIFN-co nebulization or interferon-alpha nebulization added to baseline antiviral agents for no more than 28 days. The primary endpoint was the time to clinical improvement. Secondary endpoints included the overall rate of clinical improvement assessed on day 28, the time to radiological improvement and virus nucleic acid negative conversion. RESULTS: A total of 94 patients were included in the safety set (46 patients assigned to rSIFN-co group, 48 to interferon-alpha group). The time to clinical improvement was 11.5 days versus 14.0 days (95% CI 1.10 to 2.81, p = .019); the overall rate of clinical improvement on day 28 was 93.5% versus 77.1% (difference, 16.4%; 95% CI 3% to 30%); the time to radiological improvement was 8.0 days versus 10.0 days (p = .002), the time to virus nucleic acid negative conversion was 7.0 days versus 10.0 days (p = .018) in the rSIFN-co and interferon alpha arms, respectively. Adverse events were balanced with no deaths among groups. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: rSIFN-co was associated with a shorter time of clinical improvement than traditional interferon-alpha in the treatment of moderate-to-severe COVID-19 when combined with baseline antiviral agents. rSIFN-co therapy alone or combined with other antiviral therapy is worth to be further studied.Key messagesThere are few effective therapies for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) upon the outbreak of the pandemic. Interferon alphas, by inducing both innate and adaptive immune responses, have shown clinical efficacy in treating severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus.In this multicenter, head-to-head, randomized, clinical trial which included 94 participants with moderate-to-severe COVID-19, the rSIFN-co plus antiviral agents (lopinavir-ritonavir or umifenovir) was associated with a shorter time of clinical improvement than interferon-alpha plus antiviral agents.

3.
Anal Chem ; 2021 Feb 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1078274

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of the pandemic caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) calls for an urgent unmet need for developing a facial and cost-effective detection method. The requirement of well-trained personnel and sophisticated instrument of current primary mean (reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, RT-PCR) may hinder the practical application worldwide. In this regard, a reverse transcription recombinase polymerase amplification (RT-RPA) coupled with CRISPR-Cas12a colorimetric assay is proposed for the SARS-CoV-2 detection. The methodology we have described herein utilizes DNA-modified gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) as a universal colorimetric readout and can specifically target ORF1ab and N regions of the SARS-CoV-2 genome. After the virus genome is amplified through RT-RPA, the resulting abundant dsDNA will bind and activate Cas12a. Under trans-cleavage degradation, the capped DNA substrate will be hydrolyzed gradually from AuNPs, demonstrating a change in the surface plasmon resonance (SPR), which can be facially monitored by UV-vis absorbance spectroscopy and naked eye observation. The high amplification efficiency from RT-RPA and Cas12a trans-cleavage process bring the sensitivity of our method to 1 copy of viral genome sequence per test. Notably, under the dual variations inspecting from the isothermal amplification and Cas12a activation process, the false positive events from other beta coronavirus members can be effectively avoided and thus significantly improve the specificity. Furthermore, the reliability of this colorimetric assay is validated by standard clinical samples from the hospital laboratory department. Through integration of the inherently high sensitivity and specificity from an RPA-coupled Cas12a system with the intrinsic simplicity of AuNP-based colorimetric assay, our method increases the practical testing availability of SARS-CoV-2.

4.
Sustainability ; 13(4):1742, 2021.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-1076669

ABSTRACT

Today, “walkability” is considered a critical component of an aging-friendly neighborhood This study examined the relationships between the neighborhood physical environment, walkability, and physical activity levels of older residents in Singapore Five neighborhoods notable for their “aging in place” strategies were selected for a site survey A questionnaire focusing on the evaluation of neighborhood walkability was administered to older adults in these neighborhoods The questionnaire included three sections: neighborhood satisfaction, walkability, and the daily physical activity of older adults The results indicated that adequate physical facilities and connectivity to the city were critical to older adults’ satisfaction with their neighborhoods The mean walking time significantly dropped as the number of nearby facilities increased, and the number of facilities was negatively correlated with the daily activity levels of older adults Thus, planners should attempt to calibrate the provision of neighborhood facilities to maintain the physical activity levels of older adults

6.
Shock ; 2021 Feb 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1069345

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The response to glucocorticoids treatment may be different between Covid-19 and SARS. METHODS: In this systematic review and meta-analysis, we searched studies on Medline, Embase, EBSCO, ScienceDirect, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, ClinicalTrials.gov, ICTRP from 2002 to October 7, 2020. We used fixed-effects and random-effects models to compute the risk ratio of death in the group receiving glucocorticoids treatment and the control group for COVID-19 and SARS, respectively. RESULTS: Ten trials and 71 observational studies, with a total of 45,935 patients, were identified. Glucocorticoids treatment, was associated with decreased all-cause mortality both in COVID-19 (risk ratio, 0.88; 95% confidence interval, 0.82 to 0.94; I2 = 26%) and SARS (0.48; 0.29 to 0.79; 10%), based on high quality evidence, as well as decreased all-cause mortality-including composite outcome of COVID-19 (0.89; 0.82 to 0.98; 0%). In subgroup analyses, all-cause mortality was significantly lower among COVID-19 patients being accompanied by severe ARDS but not mild ARDS, taking low-dose or pulse glucocorticoids, being critically severe but not only severe, being of critical severity and old but not young, being of critical severity and men but not women, non-early taking glucocorticoids, taking dexamethasone or methylprednisolone, and with the increased inflammatory state; but for SARS, lower mortality was observed among those who were taking medium-high dose glucocorticoids, being severe or critically severe, early taking glucocorticoids, and taking methylprednisolone or prednisolone. CONCLUSIONS: Glucocorticoids treatment reduced mortality in COVID-19 and SARS patients of critical severity; however, different curative effects existed between the two diseases among subpopulations, mainly regarding sex- and age-specific effects, optimal doses and use timing of glucocorticoids.

7.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(2): e21463, 2021 02 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1067540

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: During the COVID-19 pandemic, growth in citizen engagement with social media platforms has enabled public health departments to accelerate and improve health information dissemination, developing transparency and trust between governments and citizens. In light of these benefits, it is imperative to learn the antecedents and underlying mechanisms for this to maintain and enhance engagement. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to determine the factors and influencing mechanisms related to citizen engagement with the TikTok account of the National Health Commission of China during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: Using a web crawler, 355 short videos were collected from the Healthy China account on TikTok (with more than 3 million followers throughout China), covering the period from January 21, 2020, to April 25, 2020. The title and video length, as well as the number of likes, shares, and comments were collected for each video. After classifying them using content analysis, a series of negative binomial regression analyses were completed. RESULTS: Among the 355 videos, 154 (43.4%) related to guidance for clinicians, patients, and ordinary citizens, followed by information concerning the government's handling of the pandemic (n=100, 28.2%), the latest news about COVID-19 (n=61, 17.2%), and appreciation toward frontline emergency services (n=40, 11.3%). Video length, titles, dialogic loop, and content type all influenced the level of citizen engagement. Specifically, video length was negatively associated with the number of likes (incidence rate ratio [IRR]=0.19, P<.001) and comments (IRR=0.39, P<.001). Title length was positively related to the number of shares (IRR=24.25, P=.01), likes (IRR=8.50, P=.03), and comments (IRR=7.85, P=.02). Dialogic loop negatively predicted the number of shares (IRR=0.56, P=.03). In comparison to appreciative information, information about the government's handling of the situation (IRR=5.16, P<.001) and guidelines information (IRR=7.31, P<.001) were positively correlated with the number of shares, while the latest news was negatively related to the number of likes received (IRR=0.46, P=.004). More importantly, the relationship between predictors and citizen engagement was moderated by the emotional valence of video titles. Longer videos with positive titles received a higher number of likes (IRR=21.72, P=.04) and comments (IRR=10.14, P=.047). Furthermore, for short videos related to government handling of the pandemic (IRR=14.48, P=.04) and guidance for stakeholders (IRR=7.59, P=.04), positive titles received a greater number of shares. Videos related to the latest news (IRR=66.69, P=.04) received more likes if the video title displayed higher levels of positive emotion. CONCLUSIONS: During the COVID-19 pandemic, videos were frequently published on government social media platforms. Video length, title, dialogic loop, and content type significantly influenced the level of citizen engagement. These relationships were moderated by the emotional valence of the video's title. Our findings have implications for maintaining and enhancing citizen engagement via government social media.


Subject(s)
Emotions , Federal Government , Information Dissemination , Pandemics , Public Health Administration/statistics & numerical data , Social Media/statistics & numerical data , /epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Health Education , Humans , Video Recording
8.
Results in Physics ; : 103881, 2021.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-1062584

ABSTRACT

Objective It aimed to analyze the epidemic situation of new coronary pneumonia (COVID-19) based on the epidemiological Markov model, and to study the clinical risk factors of the patients based on the patient’s cardinal data and clinical symptoms Methods A total of 500 patients with COVID-19 diagnosed by nucleic acid testing in the X hospital from January 2020 to May 2020 were collected According to the severity of the disease, they were classified into general group (200 cases) and acute critical group (300 cases) Markov model to predict the number of COVID-19 infections was constructed Patient’s general information, clinical characteristics, and prevention methods were analyzed Results According to Markov model statistics, the developmental expected stay time of patients infected with COVID-19 was 14 days 2 The two groups of patients had statistically considerable differences in complications such as gender, age, hypertension, coronary heart disease, shortness of breath, myocardial damage, and thrombocytopenia (P<0 05) 3 Logistic multivariate regression analysis showed that the clinical risk factors for patients with COVID-19 mainly included the patient’s gender, age, whether they were associated with hypertension, coronary heart disease, shortness of breath, myocardial damage, and thrombocytopenia Conclusion Markov model can be utilized to judge the time course of the COVID-19 in various development states In addition, the COVID-19 spread rapidly and is extremely harmful Clinically, through active prevention, the treatment effect can be improved, the patient’s respiratory function, and the quality of life can also be improved

9.
J Transl Med ; 19(1): 30, 2021 01 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1059718

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 has caused a global pandemic and the death toll is increasing. However, there is no definitive information regarding the type of clinical specimens that is the best for SARS-CoV-2 detection, the antibody levels in patients with different duration of disease, and the relationship between antibody level and viral load. METHODS: Nasopharyngeal swabs, anal swabs, saliva, blood, and urine specimens were collected from patients with a course of disease ranging from 7 to 69 days. Viral load in different specimen types was measured using droplet digital PCR (ddPCR). Meanwhile, anti-nucleocapsid protein (anti-N) IgM and IgG antibodies and anti-spike protein receptor-binding domain (anti-S-RBD) IgG antibody in all serum samples were tested using ELISA. RESULTS: The positive detection rate in nasopharyngeal swab was the highest (54.05%), followed by anal swab (24.32%), and the positive detection rate in saliva, blood, and urine was 16.22%, 10.81%, and 5.41%, respectively. However, some patients with negative nasopharyngeal swabs had other specimens tested positive. There was no significant correlation between antibody level and days after symptoms onset or viral load. CONCLUSIONS: Other specimens could be positive in patients with negative nasopharyngeal swabs, suggesting that for patients in the recovery period, specimens other than nasopharyngeal swabs should also be tested to avoid false negative results, and anal swabs are recommended. The antibody level had no correlation with days after symptoms onset or the viral load of nasopharyngeal swabs, suggesting that the antibody level may also be affected by other factors.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , /virology , /isolation & purification , Viral Load , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anal Canal/virology , Blood/virology , China/epidemiology , False Negative Reactions , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Nasopharynx/virology , Pandemics , Saliva/virology , Specimen Handling , Time Factors , Translational Medical Research , Urine/virology
10.
Exp Hematol Oncol ; 10(1): 6, 2021 Feb 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1058277

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is associated with coagulation abnormalities which are indicators of higher mortality especially in severe cases. METHODS: We studied patients with proven COVID-19 disease in the intensive care unit of Jinyintan Hospital, Wuhan, China from 30 to 2019 to 31 March 2020. RESULTS: Of 180 patients, 89 (49.44 %) had died, 85 (47.22 %) had been discharged alive, and 6 (3.33 %) were still hospitalised by the end of data collection. A D-dimer concentration of > 0.5 mg/L on admission was significantly associated with 30 day mortality, and a D-dimer concentration of > 5 mg/L was found in a much higher proportion of non-survivors than survivors. Sepsis-induced coagulopathy (SIC) and disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) scoring systems were dichotomised as < 4 or ≥ 4 and < 5 or ≥ 5, respectively, and the mortality rate was significantly different between the two stratifications in both scoring systems. Enoxaparin was administered to 68 (37.78 %) patients for thromboembolic prophylaxis, and stratification by the D-dimer concentration and DIC score confirmed lower mortality in patients who received enoxaparin when the D-dimer concentration was > 2 than < 2 mg/L or DIC score was ≥ 5 than < 5. A low platelet count and low serum calcium concentration were also related to mortality. CONCLUSIONS: A D-dimer concentration of > 0.5 mg/L on admission is a risk factor for severe disease. A SIC score of > 4 and DIC score of > 5 may be used to predict mortality. Thromboembolic prophylaxis can reduce mortality only in patients with a D-dimer concentration of > 2 mg/L or DIC score of ≥ 5.

11.
Int J Infect Dis ; 2021 Feb 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1056706

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Almost a year after the outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), numerous hospitalized COVID-19 patients have recovered. However, little is known about the long-term follow-up (>2 months) of discharged patients. METHODS: We enrolled 527 discharged COVID-19 patients in a study from February 5 to March 11, 2020. These patients' basic characteristics, imaging features, nucleic acid detection results, and antibody levels were retrospectively reviewed. RESULTS: of the 527 discharged patients, 32 (6.1%) had re-detectable positive (RP) nucleic acid results for SARS-CoV-2 during follow-up examinations with 11 and four detections entailing stool samples and anal swabs, respectively, rather than respiratory samples. Juveniles were more accessible to "infection recurrence" than other age groups, with shorter time spans for RP RNA tests (an average of 8.8 days [6.0-9.0 days]), while the reverse was true for the middle-aged group (17.5 days on average [14.0-17.5 days]). Similar improvements in the imaging features of both RP and none RP (NRP) groups were observed. Negative antibody detections in patients 3 and 6 months after discharge were 14.2% and 25.0%, respectively. Cases evidencing negative antibodies were more common among juvenile patients (40% vs. 15.6%, p = 0.03) 6 months post-discharge. CONCLUSIONS: 6.1% of 527 discharged patients showed RP status, which may be easier to be identified from stool samples than from other samples. Given the dropping rate of SARS-CoV-2 antibody, reinfection may happen especially in juvenile patients (age less than 18 years). Our findings have implications for the long-term management of recovered COVID-19 patients.

12.
Chinese Medical Journal ; 134(1):117-119, 2021.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-1050204

ABSTRACT

Exclusion criteria included the following: systematic use of methotrexate, acitretin capsules, immunosuppressive agents, and biological agents in the past 6 months;patients under additional conditions such as infection, pregnancy, childbirth, and trauma;patients with malignant tumors or low immunity;patients with active tuberculosis, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, or abnormal liver and kidney function;and patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection Eight patients received the injections at home during the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic, and they reported no infection at the injection site Since long, the systemic treatment of psoriasis has relied on traditional medicines, including retinoic acid drugs, immunosuppressants, and light therapy [ ]biological inhibitors may lead to immunosuppression, which may increase the risk of infection [ ]patients should improve immunity during secukinumab administration

13.
Syst Rev ; 10(1): 37, 2021 01 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1042776

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Global responses to the COVID-19 pandemic have exposed and exacerbated existing socioeconomic and health inequities that disproportionately affect the sexual health and well-being of many populations, including people of color, ethnic minority groups, women, and sexual and gender minority populations. Although there have been several reviews published on COVID-19 and health disparities across various populations, none has focused on sexual health. We plan to conduct a scoping review that seeks to fill several of the gaps in the current knowledge of sexual health in the COVID-19 era. METHODS: A scoping review focusing on sexual health and COVID-19 will be conducted. We will search (from January 2020 onwards) CINAHL, Africa-Wide Information, Web of Science Core Collection, Embase, Gender Studies Database, Gender Watch, Global Health, WHO Global Literature on Coronavirus Disease Database, WHO Global Index Medicus, PsycINFO, MEDLINE, and Sociological Abstracts. Grey literature will be identified using Disaster Lit, Google Scholar, governmental websites, and clinical trials registries (e.g., ClinicalTrial.gov , World Health Organization, International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, and International Standard Randomized Controlled Trial Number Registry). Study selection will conform to the Joanna Briggs Institute Reviewers' Manual 2015 Methodology for JBI Scoping Reviews. Only English language, original studies will be considered for inclusion. Two reviewers will independently screen all citations, full-text articles, and abstract data. A narrative summary of findings will be conducted. Data analysis will involve quantitative (e.g., frequencies) and qualitative (e.g., content and thematic analysis) methods. DISCUSSION: Original research is urgently needed to mitigate the risks of COVID-19 on sexual health. The planned scoping review will help to address this gap. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATIONS: Systematic Review Registration: Open Science Framework osf/io/PRX8E.


Subject(s)
/enzymology , Ethnic Groups , Pandemics , Sexual Health , Sexual and Gender Minorities , /psychology , Female , Global Health , Humans , Male , Minority Groups
14.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 149: 111998, 2021 Jan 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1036717

ABSTRACT

Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) has spread all over the world and brings significantly negative effects on human health. To fight against COVID-19 in a more efficient way, drug-drug or drug-herb combinations are frequently used in clinical settings. The concomitant use of multiple medications may trigger clinically relevant drug/herb-drug interactions. This study aims to assay the inhibitory potentials of Qingfei Paidu decoction (QPD, a Chinese medicine compound formula recommended for combating COVID-19 in China) against human drug-metabolizing enzymes and to assess the pharmacokinetic interactions in vivo. The results demonstrated that QPD dose-dependently inhibited CYPs1A, 2A6, 2C8, 2C9, 2C19, 2D6 and 2E1 but inhibited CYP3A in a time- and NADPH-dependent manner. In vivo test showed that QPD prolonged the half-life of lopinavir (a CYP3A substrate-drug) by 1.40-fold and increased the AUC of lopinavir by 2.04-fold, when QPD (6 g/kg) was co-administrated with lopinavir (160 mg/kg) to rats. Further investigation revealed that Fructus Aurantii Immaturus (Zhishi) in QPD caused significant loss of CYP3A activity in NADPH-generating system. Collectively, our findings revealed that QPD potently inactivated CYP3A and significantly modulated the pharmacokinetics of CYP3A substrate-drugs, which would be very helpful for the patients and clinicians to avoid potential drug-interaction risks in COVID-19 treatment.

15.
JMIR Med Inform ; 9(1): e22753, 2021 Jan 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1034894

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Chest examination by auscultation is essential in patients with COVID-19, especially those with poor respiratory conditions, such as severe pneumonia and respiratory dysfunction, and intensive cases who are intubated and whose breathing is assisted with a ventilator. However, proper auscultation of these patients is difficult when medical workers wear personal protective equipment and when it is necessary to minimize contact with patients. OBJECTIVE: The objective of our study was to design and develop a low-cost electronic stethoscope enabling ear-contactless auscultation and digital storage of data for further analysis. The clinical feasibility of our device was assessed in comparison to a standard electronic stethoscope. METHODS: We developed a prototype of the ear-contactless electronic stethoscope, called Auscul Pi, powered by Raspberry Pi and Python. Our device enables real-time capture of auscultation sounds with a microspeaker instead of an earpiece, and it can store data files for later analysis. We assessed the feasibility of using this stethoscope by detecting abnormal heart and respiratory sounds from 8 patients with heart failure or structural heart diseases and from 2 healthy volunteers and by comparing the results with those from a 3M Littmann electronic stethoscope. RESULTS: We were able to conveniently operate Auscul Pi and precisely record the patients' auscultation sounds. Auscul Pi showed similar real-time recording and playback performance to the Littmann stethoscope. The phonocardiograms of data obtained with the two stethoscopes were consistent and could be aligned with the cardiac cycles of the corresponding electrocardiograms. Pearson correlation analysis of amplitude data from the two types of phonocardiograms showed that Auscul Pi was correlated with the Littmann stethoscope with coefficients of 0.3245-0.5570 for healthy participants (P<.001) and of 0.3449-0.5138 among 4 patients (P<.001). CONCLUSIONS: Auscul Pi can be used for auscultation in clinical practice by applying real-time ear-contactless playback followed by quantitative analysis. Auscul Pi may allow accurate auscultation when medical workers are wearing protective suits and have difficulties in examining patients with COVID-19. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ChiCTR.org.cn ChiCTR2000033830; http://www.chictr.org.cn/showproj.aspx?proj=54971.

16.
Eur J Radiol ; 136: 109552, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1033253

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To investigate the efficacy of radiomics in diagnosing patients with coronavirus disease (COVID-19) and other types of viral pneumonia with clinical symptoms and CT signs similar to those of COVID-19. METHODS: Between 18 January 2020 and 20 May 2020, 110 SARS-CoV-2 positive and 108 SARS-CoV-2 negative patients were retrospectively recruited from three hospitals based on the inclusion criteria. Manual segmentation of pneumonia lesions on CT scans was performed by four radiologists. The latest version of Pyradiomics was used for feature extraction. Four classifiers (linear classifier, k-nearest neighbour, least absolute shrinkage and selection operator [LASSO], and random forest) were used to differentiate SARS-CoV-2 positive and SARS-CoV-2 negative patients. Comparison of the performance of the classifiers and radiologists was evaluated by ROC curve and Kappa score. RESULTS: We manually segmented 16,053 CT slices, comprising 32,625 pneumonia lesions, from the CT scans of all patients. Using Pyradiomics, 120 radiomic features were extracted from each image. The key radiomic features screened by different classifiers varied and lead to significant differences in classification accuracy. The LASSO achieved the best performance (sensitivity: 72.2%, specificity: 75.1%, and AUC: 0.81) on the external validation dataset and attained excellent agreement (Kappa score: 0.89) with radiologists (average sensitivity: 75.6%, specificity: 78.2%, and AUC: 0.81). All classifiers indicated that "Original_Firstorder_RootMeanSquared" and "Original_Firstorder_Uniformity" were significant features for this task. CONCLUSIONS: We identified radiomic features that were significantly associated with the classification of COVID-19 pneumonia using multiple classifiers. The quantifiable interpretation of the differences in features between the two groups extends our understanding of CT imaging characteristics of COVID-19 pneumonia.

17.
J Integr Med ; 2021 Jan 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1026228

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To observe the early interventions of traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) on the conversion time of nucleic acid in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), and find possible underlying mechanisms of action. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted on 300 confirmed COVID-19 patients who were treated with TCM, at a designated hospital in China. The patients were categorized into three groups: TCM1, TCM2 and TCM3, who respectively received TCM interventions within 7, 8-14, and greater than 15 days of hospitalization. Different indicators such as the conversion time of pharyngeal swab nucleic acid, the conversion time of fecal nucleic acid, length of hospital stay, and inflammatory markers (leukocyte count, and lymphocyte count and percentage) were analyzed to observe the impact of early TCM interventions on these groups. RESULTS: The median conversion times of pharyngeal swab nucleic acid in the three groups were 5.5, 7 and 16 d (P < 0.001), with TCM1 and TCM2 being statistically different from TCM3 (P < 0.01). TCM1 (P < 0.05) and TCM3 (P < 0.01) were statistically different from TCM2. The median conversion times of fecal nucleic acid in the three groups were 7, 9 and 17 d (P < 0.001). Conversion times of fecal nucleic acid in TCM1 were statistically different from TCM3 and TCM2 (P < 0.01). The median lengths of hospital stay in the three groups were 13, 16 and 21 d (P < 0.001). TCM1 and TCM2 were statistically different from TCM3 (P < 0.01); TCM1 and TCM3 were statistically different from TCM2 (P < 0.01). Both leucocyte and lymphocyte counts increased gradually with an increase in the length of hospital stay in TCM1 group patients, with a statistically significant difference observed at each time point in the group (P < 0.001). Statistically significant differences in lymphocyte count and percentage in TCM2 (P < 0.001), and in leucocyte count (P = 0.043) and lymphocyte count (P = 0.038) in TCM3 were observed. The comparison among the three groups showed a statistically significant difference in lymphocyte percentage on the third day of admission (P = 0.044). CONCLUSION: In this study, it was observed that in COVID-19 patients treated with a combination of Chinese and Western medicines, TCM intervention earlier in the hospital stay correlated with faster conversion time of pharyngeal swab and fecal nucleic acid, as well as shorter length of hospital stay, thus helping promote faster recovery of the patient. The underlying mechanism of action may be related to improving inflammation in patients with COVID-19.

18.
Journal of Thoracic Disease ; 12(12):7429-7441, 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-1022296

ABSTRACT

Since December 2019, the pneumonia cases infected with 2019 novel coronavirus have appeared, posing a critical threat to global health In this study, we performed a meta-analysis to discover the different clinical characteristics between severe and non-severe patients with COVID-19 to find the potential risk factors and predictors of this disease's severity, as well as to serve as a guidance for subsequent epidemic prevention and control work PubMed, Cochrane Library, Medline, Embase and other databases were searched to collect studies on the difference of clinical characteristics of severe and non-severe patients Meta-analysis was performed using RevMan 5 3 software, and the funnel plots could be made to evaluate the publication bias P>0 05 means no statistical significance Furthermore, a meta-regression analysis was performed by using Stata 15 0 to find the potential factors of the high degree of heterogeneity (I²>50%) Sixteen studies have been included, with 1,172 severe patients and 2,803 non-severe patients Compared with non-severe patients, severe patients were more likely to have the symptoms of dyspnea, hemoptysis, and the complications of ARDS, shock, secondary infection, acute kidney injury, and acute cardiac injury Interestingly, the former smokers were more prevalent in severe cases as compared to non-severe cases, but there was no difference between the two groups of 'current smokers' Except for chronic liver disease and chronic kidney disease, the underlying comorbidities of hypertension, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), malignancy, cerebrovascular disease, and HIV can make the disease worse In terms of laboratory indicators, the decreased lymphocyte and platelet count, and the increased levels of white blood cell (WBC), D-dimer, creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, procalcitonin, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and C-reactive protein were more prevalent in severe patients Meta-regression analysis showed that patient age, gender, and proportion of severe cases did not significantly impact on the outcomes of any clinical indexes that showed high degree of heterogeneity in the meta-analysis In conclusion, the severity of COVID-19 could be evaluated by, radiologic finding, some symptoms like dyspnea and hemoptysis, some laboratory indicators, and smoking history, especially the exsmokers Compared with non-severe patients, severe patients were more likely to have complications and comorbidities including hypertension, cardiovascular disease etc , which were the risk factors for the disease to be severer, but the chronic liver disease and chronic kidney disease were not associated the severity of COVID-19 in China

20.
Interdiscip Sci ; 2021 Jan 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1012252

ABSTRACT

Assessing pulmonary lesions using computed tomography (CT) images is of great significance to the severity diagnosis and treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-infected patients. Such assessment mainly depends on radiologists' subjective judgment, which is inefficient and presents difficulty for those with low levels of experience, especially in rural areas. This work focuses on developing a radiomics signature to quantitatively analyze whether COVID-19-infected pulmonary lesions are mild (Grade I) or moderate/severe (Grade II). We retrospectively analyzed 1160 COVID-19-infected pulmonary lesions from 16 hospitals. First, texture features were extracted from the pulmonary lesion regions of CT images. Then, feature preselection was performed and a radiomics signature was built using a stepwise logistic regression. The stepwise logistic regression also calculated the correlation between the radiomics signature and the grade of a pulmonary lesion. Finally, a logistic regression model was trained to classify the grades of pulmonary lesions. Given a significance level of α = 0.001, the stepwise logistic regression achieved an R (multiple correlation coefficient) of 0.70, which is much larger than Rα = 0.18 (the critical value of R). In the classification, the logistic regression model achieved an AUC of 0.87 on an independent test set. Overall, the radiomics signature is significantly correlated with the grade of a pulmonary lesion in COVID-19 infection. The classification model is interpretable and can assist radiologists in quickly and efficiently diagnosing pulmonary lesions. This work aims to develop a CT-based radiomics signature to quantitatively analyze whether COVID-19-infected pulmonary lesions are mild (Grade I) or moderate/severe (Grade II). The logistic regression model established based on this radiomics signature can assist radiologists to quickly and efficiently diagnose the grades of pulmonary lesions. The model calculates a radiomics score for a lesion and is interpretable and appropriate for clinical use.

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