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1.
Int J Infect Dis ; 98: 353-358, 2020 Jul 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-703040

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has spread widely. The aim of this study was to investigate the dynamic changes in peripheral blood lymphocyte subsets in adult patients with COVID-19. METHODS: The electronic medical records were reviewed. Data including demographic characteristics, clinical manifestations, comorbidities, laboratory data, and radiological examinations of 435 hospitalized COVID-19 patients with a confirmed SARS-CoV-2 viral infection were extracted and analyzed retrospectively. Lymphocyte subset counts at each week after the onset of the illness were compared with those of the other weeks of illness and with those of control individuals. RESULTS: The various lymphocyte subsets (CD3+, CD4+, CD8+, CD19+, and CD16/56+) were below the normal ranges at 1 week after the onset of illness, reaching a nadir during the second week. They increased gradually during the third week and returned to normal levels in the fifth week, but were still lower than those of the healthy controls. The CD3+, CD4+, and CD8+ counts were significantly lower in patients with severe disease compared to those with non-severe disease, and in patients who died compared to those who recovered. DISCUSSION: This research indicates that the levels of peripheral blood lymphocyte subsets (CD3+, CD4+, and CD8+) are associated with disease progression and severity, and with the prognosis in patients with COVID-19. Dynamic monitoring of human immune function is one of the indicators for evaluating the severity of disease and the prognosis of COVID-19 patients, and is useful for formulating appropriate treatment strategies.

2.
The American Journal of Emergency Medicine ; 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-696758

ABSTRACT

Introduction Influenza has been linked to the crowding in emergency departments (ED) across the world The impact of the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic on China EDs has been quite different from those during past influenza outbreaks Our objective was to determine if COVID-19 changed ED visit disease severity during the pandemic Methods This was a retrospective cross sectional study conducted in Nanjing, China We captured ED visit data from 28 hospitals We then compared visit numbers from October 2019 to February 2020 for a month-to-month analysis and every February from 2017 to 2020 for a year-to-year analysis Inter-group chi-square test and time series trend tests were performed to compare visit numbers The primary outcome was the proportion of severe disease visits in the EDs Results Through February 29 th 2020, there were 93 laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 patients in Nanjing, of which 40 cases (43 01%) were first seen in the ED The total number of ED visits in Nanjing in February 2020, were dramatically decreased (n = 99,949) in compared to January 2020 (n = 313,125) and February 2019 (n = 262,503) Except for poisoning, the severe diseases in EDs all decreased in absolute number, but increased in proportion both in year-to-year and month-to-month analyses This increase in proportional ED disease severity was greater in higher-level referral hospitals when compared year by year Conclusion The COVID-19 outbreak has been associated with decreases in ED visits in Nanjing, China, but increases in the proportion of severe ED visits

3.
IEEE Trans Med Imaging ; 39(8): 2584-2594, 2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-690554

ABSTRACT

Automated Screening of COVID-19 from chest CT is of emergency and importance during the outbreak of SARS-CoV-2 worldwide in 2020. However, accurate screening of COVID-19 is still a massive challenge due to the spatial complexity of 3D volumes, the labeling difficulty of infection areas, and the slight discrepancy between COVID-19 and other viral pneumonia in chest CT. While a few pioneering works have made significant progress, they are either demanding manual annotations of infection areas or lack of interpretability. In this paper, we report our attempt towards achieving highly accurate and interpretable screening of COVID-19 from chest CT with weak labels. We propose an attention-based deep 3D multiple instance learning (AD3D-MIL) where a patient-level label is assigned to a 3D chest CT that is viewed as a bag of instances. AD3D-MIL can semantically generate deep 3D instances following the possible infection area. AD3D-MIL further applies an attention-based pooling approach to 3D instances to provide insight into each instance's contribution to the bag label. AD3D-MIL finally learns Bernoulli distributions of the bag-level labels for more accessible learning. We collected 460 chest CT examples: 230 CT examples from 79 patients with COVID-19, 100 CT examples from 100 patients with common pneumonia, and 130 CT examples from 130 people without pneumonia. A series of empirical studies show that our algorithm achieves an overall accuracy of 97.9%, AUC of 99.0%, and Cohen kappa score of 95.7%. These advantages endow our algorithm as an efficient assisted tool in the screening of COVID-19.

4.
European Journal of Education ; n/a(n/a), 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-684752

ABSTRACT

Abstract This paper reviews research on private supplementary tutoring, widely known as shadow education, during the initial decades of the present century It takes as its starting point the first global study of the phenomenon, published in 1999, though notes some scattered national and subnational literature prior to that date During the initial two decades, great expansion of the research on shadow education brought more depth and stronger awareness of commonalities and differences in different cultures From initial mapping and identification of factors shaping demand came work on ecosystems with deeper sociological and economic analyses, together with greater attention to research methods The agenda ahead will need to keep up with changing times, e g , through the impact of technology, and develop stronger interdisciplinarity to explore additional domains It will also need continued attention to definitions and methods

5.
Open Access (OA) Online-First Publ. Res. Pap. COVID-19 ; 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-661143

ABSTRACT

A review on the consensus adheres to the principle of integrating traditional chinese and western medicine in disease diagnosis and treatment, and refine and optimized the treatment scheme, by taking the climate characteristics and residents' physiques in Lingnan area of Guangdong Province into consideration

6.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 517, 2020 Jul 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-651422

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has become a public health emergency of major international concern. Real-time RT-PCR assays are recommended for diagnosis of COVID-19. Here we report a rare case of COVID-19 with multiple negative results for PCR assays outside Wuhan, China. CASE PRESENTATION: A 32-year old male was admitted to our hospital because of 6 days of unexplained fever on January 29, 2020. He had come from Wuhan city 10 days before admission. Five days before admission, no abnormality was noted in laboratory test, chest radiography, and nasopharyngeal swab test for the SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid. The patient was treated with ibuprofen for alleviating fever. On admission, chest computed tomography showed multiple ground-glass opacities in right lower lung field. COVID-19 was suspected. Three times of nasopharyngeal swab specimens were collected after admission. However, none of the specimens were positive. The patient was confirmed with COVID-19 after fifth SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid test. He was treated with lopinavir/ritonavir, recombinant human interferon alfa-2b inhalation, methylprednisolone. After 18 days of treatment, he was discharged with improved symptoms, lung lesions and negative results of nasopharyngeal swab. CONCLUSION: This case reminds clinician that a patient with high clinical suspicion of COVID-19 but multiple negative RT-PCR result should not be taken out of isolation. A combination of patient's exposure history, clinical manifestations, laboratory tests, and typical imaging findings plays a vital role in making preliminary diagnosis and guide early isolation and treatment. Repeat swab tests are helpful in diagnosis for this kind of patients.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Negative Results , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Adult , Betacoronavirus/genetics , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Fever/etiology , Fever/virology , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Quarantine , Radiography , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Sensitivity and Specificity , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Uncertainty
8.
Int J Hematol ; 2020 Jul 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-638548

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to identify the changes of hematologic and immunological parameters in COVID-19 patients. We collected and analyzed the data of 117 patients who were laboratory confirmed as SARS-CoV-2 infection. The cases were divided into regular group, severe group and critically ill group according to the sixth edition scheme for COVID-19 diagnosis and treatment of China. The laboratory tests included blood routine, cellular and humoral immunity indices, biochemical detections and inflammatory biomarker. Compared with regular patients, severe and critically ill patients had significantly lower lymphocyte count (p < 0.01), decreased red blood cell and hemoglobin (p < 0.01), low levels of immunoglobulin G (p < 0.05) and significantly higher in D-dimer (p < 0.0001), fibrinogen (p < 0.01), white blood cell count (p < 0.01), neutrophil count (p < 0.0001), interleukin-6 (p < 0.05), C-reactive protein (p < 0.01), procalcitonin (p < 0.01), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (p < 0.05), ferritin (p < 0.01) and lactate dehydrogenase (p < 0.0001). The specific immunoglobulin G antibodies to the SARS-CoV-2 in severe and critically ill patients were significantly lower than that in regular patients (p < 0.05). Our findings suggest that the lymphocyte counts, red blood cell counts and the immunoglobulin G antibodies of COVID-19 patients were impaired to varying degrees and the blood was in a state of hypercoagulation, which were more obvious in critically ill patients.

9.
QJM ; 2020 Jul 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-638421

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Nearly 20% novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients have abnormal coagulation function. Padua prediction score (PPS) is a validated tools for venous thromboembolism (VTE) risk assessment. However, its clinical value in COVID-19 patients evaluation was unclear. METHODS: We prospectively evaluated the VTE risk of COVID-19 patients using PPS. Demographic and clinical data were collected. Association of PPS with 28-days mortality was analyzed by multivariate logistic regression and Kaplan-Meier analysis. RESULTS: 274 continuous patients were enrolled, with total mortality of 17.2%. Patients in high PPS group, with significantly abnormal coagulation, have a higher levels of interleukin 6 (25.27 pg/ml vs.2.55 pg/ml, P < 0.001), prophylactic anticoagulation rate (60.7% vs. 6.5%, P<0.001) and mortality (40.5% vs. 5.9%, P<0.001) as compared with that in low PPS group. Critical patients showed higher PPS (6 score vs. 2 score, P<0.001) than that in severe patients. Multivariate logistic regression revealed the independent risk factors of in-hospital mortality included high PPS (OR: 7.35, 95%CI: 3.08 - 16.01), increased interleukin-6 (OR: 11.79, 95%CI: 5.45 - 26.20) and elevated d-dimer (OR: 4.65, 95%CI: 1.15 - 12.15). Kaplan-Meier analysis indicated patients with higher PPS had a significant survival disadvantage. Prophylactic anticoagulation in higher PPS patients show a mild advantage of mortality but without statistical significance (37.1% vs. 45.7%, P=0.42). CONCLUSION: Higher PPS associated with in-hospital poor prognosis in COVID-19 patients. Prophylactic anticoagulation showed a mild advantage of mortality in COVID-19 patients with higher PPS, but it remain need further investigation.

10.
JAMA Ophthalmol ; 2020 Jul 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-640020

ABSTRACT

Importance: The influence on the psychology and ocular surface of ophthalmologists and ophthalmic nurses in Wuhan, China, during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is not yet fully understood. Objective: To characterize mental state and ocular surface state of ophthalmologists and ophthalmic nurses in Wuhan, China, and similar areas during the COVID-19 outbreak. Design, Setting, and Participants: This survey study assessed ophthalmologists and ophthalmic nurses in Wuhan, China, and Jiangxi, China, a province approximately 300 km south of Wuhan. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, the Van Dream Anxiety Scale, and the Ocular Surface Disease Index were used to conduct questionnaire surveys via a messaging and social media app. Main Outcomes and Measures: Mean scores from the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (0-10 points), the Van Dream Anxiety Scale (0-100 points), and the Ocular Surface Disease Index (0-100 points). Results: Of 126 individuals, there were 42 ophthalmologists (33.3%) and 21 ophthalmic nurses (16.7%) from Wuhan and 42 ophthalmologists (33.3%) and 21 nurses (16.7%) from Jiangxi. The mean (SD) age of ophthalmologists was 36.1 (7.6) years in Wuhan and 41.2 (8.8) years in Jiangxi. For ophthalmic nurses, the mean (SD) age was 35.2 (7.4) years in Wuhan and 33.4 (7.9) years in Jiangxi. The response rate for ophthalmologists was 90.3% (84 of 93) and for nurses was 91.3% (42 of 46). The participation rate of ophthalmologists and nurses in Wuhan was 0.06% (42 of 70 000) and 0.07% (21 of 30 000), respectively; the participation rate in Jiangxi was 0.06% (42 of 70 000; 21 of 35 000) for both groups. In Wuhan, the mean (SD) Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (anxiety and depression were counted as separate scores), Van Dream Anxiety Scale, and the Ocular Surface Disease Index scores were 6.90 (2.30), 7.38 (2.19), 24.52 (5.86), and 43.90 (3.74), respectively, in ophthalmologists and 8.67 (3.04), 9.38 (2.64), 21.48 (6.15), and 40.05 (6.67), respectively, in ophthalmic nurses. In Jiangxi, these scores were 5.67 (2.89), 4.90 (3.15), 12.76 (7.27), and 38.79 (7.78), respectively, in ophthalmologists and 4.67 (3.20), 4.33 (3.23), 10.10 (7.62), and 41.52 (5.92), respectively, in ophthalmic nurses. The difference (95% CI) between the 2 regions for these scores in ophthalmologists was 2.48 (95% CI, 1.30-3.65), 11.76 (95% CI, 8.90-14.63), 5.12 (95% CI, 2.45-7.79), and 5.12 (95% CI, 2.47-7.77), respectively, and in ophthalmic nurses was 4.16 (95% CI, 2.05-5.95), 5.05 (95% CI, 3.21-6.89), 11.38 (95% CI, 7.06-15.70), and -1.48 (95% CI, -5.41 to 2.25), respectively. Conclusions and Relevance: These findings suggest that ophthalmologists and ophthalmic nurses in Wuhan experienced more anxiety and depression and reported greater ocular surface abnormalities than counterparts outside of Wuhan, but the wide CIs preclude concluding confidently that there were differences.

11.
Int J Infect Dis ; 98: 353-358, 2020 Jul 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-634242

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has spread widely. The aim of this study was to investigate the dynamic changes in peripheral blood lymphocyte subsets in adult patients with COVID-19. METHODS: The electronic medical records were reviewed. Data including demographic characteristics, clinical manifestations, comorbidities, laboratory data, and radiological examinations of 435 hospitalized COVID-19 patients with a confirmed SARS-CoV-2 viral infection were extracted and analyzed retrospectively. Lymphocyte subset counts at each week after the onset of the illness were compared with those of the other weeks of illness and with those of control individuals. RESULTS: The various lymphocyte subsets (CD3+, CD4+, CD8+, CD19+, and CD16/56+) were below the normal ranges at 1 week after the onset of illness, reaching a nadir during the second week. They increased gradually during the third week and returned to normal levels in the fifth week, but were still lower than those of the healthy controls. The CD3+, CD4+, and CD8+ counts were significantly lower in patients with severe disease compared to those with non-severe disease, and in patients who died compared to those who recovered. DISCUSSION: This research indicates that the levels of peripheral blood lymphocyte subsets (CD3+, CD4+, and CD8+) are associated with disease progression and severity, and with the prognosis in patients with COVID-19. Dynamic monitoring of human immune function is one of the indicators for evaluating the severity of disease and the prognosis of COVID-19 patients, and is useful for formulating appropriate treatment strategies.

12.
Open Forum Infect. Dis. ; 5(7)20200501.
Article in English | ELSEVIER | ID: covidwho-623975

ABSTRACT

Background. There is currently a lack of nonspecific laboratory indicators as a quantitative standard to distinguish between the 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) and an influenza A or B virus infection. Thus, the aim of this study was to establish a nomogram to detect COVID-19. Methods. A nomogram was established using data collected from 457 patients (181 with COVID-19 and 276 with influenza A or B infection) in China. The nomogram used age, lymphocyte percentage, and monocyte count to differentiate COVID-19 from influenza. Results. Our nomogram predicted probabilities of COVID-19 with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.913 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.883-0.937), greater than that of the lymphocyte:monocyte ratio (0.849; 95% CI, 0.812-0.880; P = .0007), lymphocyte percentage (0.808; 95% CI, 0.768-0.843; P < .0001), monocyte count (0.780; 95% CI, 0.739-0.817; P < .0001), or age (0.656; 95% CI, 0.610-0.699; P < .0001). The predicted probability conformed to the real observation outcomes of COVID-19, according to the calibration curves. Conclusions. We found that age, lymphocyte percentage, and monocyte count are risk factors for the early-stage prediction of patients infected with the 2019 novel coronavirus. As such, our research provides a useful test for doctors to differentiate COVID-19 from influenza.

13.
Cell ; 182(3): 722-733.e11, 2020 Aug 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-628738

ABSTRACT

Vaccines are urgently needed to control the ongoing pandemic COVID-19 and previously emerging MERS/SARS caused by coronavirus (CoV) infections. The CoV spike receptor-binding domain (RBD) is an attractive vaccine target but is undermined by limited immunogenicity. We describe a dimeric form of MERS-CoV RBD that overcomes this limitation. The RBD-dimer significantly increased neutralizing antibody (NAb) titers compared to conventional monomeric form and protected mice against MERS-CoV infection. Crystal structure showed RBD-dimer fully exposed dual receptor-binding motifs, the major target for NAbs. Structure-guided design further yielded a stable version of RBD-dimer as a tandem repeat single-chain (RBD-sc-dimer) which retained the vaccine potency. We generalized this strategy to design vaccines against COVID-19 and SARS, achieving 10- to 100-fold enhancement of NAb titers. RBD-sc-dimers in pilot scale production yielded high yields, supporting their scalability for further clinical development. The framework of immunogen design can be universally applied to other beta-CoV vaccines to counter emerging threats.

14.
Nonlinear Dyn ; 2020.
Article in English | ELSEVIER | ID: covidwho-612712

ABSTRACT

Due to the strong infectivity of COVID-19, it spread all over the world in about three months and thus has been studied from different aspects including its source of infection, pathological characteristics, diagnostic technology and treatment. Yet, the influences of control strategies on the transmission dynamics of COVID-19 are far from being well understood. In order to reveal the mechanisms of disease spread, we present dynamical models to show the propagation of COVID-19 in Wuhan. Based on mathematical analysis and data analysis, we systematically explore the effects of lockdown and medical resources on the COVID-19 transmission in Wuhan. It is found that the later lockdown is adopted by Wuhan, the fewer people will be infected in Wuhan, and nevertheless it will have an impact on other cities in China and even the world. Moreover, the richer the medical resources, the higher the peak of new infection, but the smaller the final scale. These findings well indicate that the control measures taken by the Chinese government are correct and timely.

15.
Ther Innov Regul Sci ; 2020 Jun 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-612764

ABSTRACT

When conducting clinical trials under COVID-19 pandemic, protocol deviations and/or protocol violations are inevitably encountered due to possible environment change which may have an impact on the accuracy and reliability of clinical evaluation of the test treatment under investigation. Protocol deviations and/or violations include, but are not limited to, eligibility criteria, testing procedure, dose and dose regiment, treatment duration and clinical operation of the intended trial. FDA published guidance in March 2020 to assist investigators and institutional boards (IRBs) in assuring the safety of trial participants, maintaining compliance with good clinical practice, and minimizing risks to trial integrity during the COVID-19 pandemic. The purpose of this article is to proposal methods for statistical evaluation in terms of (i) possible shift in target patient population and (ii) assessment of reproducibility of clinical studies conduct under COVID-19 pandemic environment. The proposed methods can be used to determine whether the clinical results of the intended trials are acceptable from both statistical and regulatory perspectives.

16.
Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging ; 2020 Jun 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-610751

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: In the absence of a virus nucleic acid real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) test and experienced radiologists, clinical diagnosis is challenging for viral pneumonia with clinical symptoms and CT signs similar to that of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We developed an end-to-end automatic differentiation method based on CT images to identify COVID-19 pneumonia patients in real time. METHODS: From January 18 to February 23, 2020, we conducted a retrospective study and enrolled 201 patients from two hospitals in China who underwent chest CT and RT-PCR tests, of which 98 patients tested positive for COVID-19 (118 males and 83 females, with an average age of 42 years). Patient CT images from one hospital were divided among training, validation and test datasets with an 80%:10%:10% ratio. An end-to-end representation learning method using a large-scale bi-directional generative adversarial network (BigBiGAN) architecture was designed to extract semantic features from the CT images. The semantic feature matrix was input for linear classifier construction. Patients from the other hospital were used for external validation. Differentiation accuracy was evaluated using a receiver operating characteristic curve. RESULTS: Based on the 120-dimensional semantic features extracted by BigBiGAN from each image, the linear classifier results indicated that the area under the curve (AUC) in the training, validation and test datasets were 0.979, 0.968 and 0.972, respectively, with an average sensitivity of 92% and specificity of 91%. The AUC for external validation was 0.850, with a sensitivity of 80% and specificity of 75%. Publicly available architecture and computing resources were used throughout the study to ensure reproducibility. CONCLUSION: This study provides an efficient recognition method for coronavirus disease 2019 pneumonia, using an end-to-end design to implement targeted and effective isolation for the containment of this communicable disease.

17.
J Virol ; 2020 Jun 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-610356

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 is a novel coronavirus first identified in December 2019. Notable features make SARS-CoV-2 distinct from most other previously-identified Betacoronaviruses, including the receptor binding domain of SARS-CoV-2 and a unique insertion of twelve nucleotide or four amino acids (PRRA) at the S1/S2 boundary. In this study, we identified two deletion variants of SARS-CoV-2 that either directly affect the polybasic cleavage site itself (NSPRRAR) or a flanking sequence (QTQTN). These deletions were verified by multiple sequencing methods. In vitro results showed that the deletion of NSPRRAR likely does not affect virus replication in Vero and Vero-E6 cells, however the deletion of QTQTN may restrict late phase viral replication. The deletion of QTQTN was detected in 3 of 68 clinical samples and half of 24 in vitro isolated viruses, whilst the deletion of NSPRRAR was identified in 3 in vitro isolated viruses. Our data indicate that (i) there may be distinct selection pressures on SARS-CoV-2 replication or infection in vitro and in vivo, (ii) an efficient mechanism for deleting this region from the viral genome may exist, given that the deletion variant is commonly detected after two rounds of cell passage, and (iii) the PRRA insertion, which is unique to SARS-CoV-2, is not fixed during virus replication in vitro These findings provide information to aid further investigation of SARS-CoV-2 infection mechanisms and a better understanding of the NSPRRAR deletion variant observed here.Important notes The spike protein determines the infectivity and host range of coronaviruses. SARS-CoV-2 has two unique features in its spike protein, the receptor binding domain and an insertion of twelve nucleotides at the S1/S2 boundary resulting a furin-like cleavage site. Here, we identified two deletion variants of SARS-CoV-2 that either directly affect the furin-like cleavage site itself (NSPRRAR) or a flanking sequence (QTQTN) and investigated these deletions in cell isolates and clinical samples. The absence of the polybasic cleavage site in SARS-CoV-2 did not affect virus replication in Vero or Vero-E6 cells. Our data indicate the PRRAR and its flanking sites are not fixed in vitro, thus there appears to be distinct selection pressures on SARS-CoV-2 sequences in vitro and in vivo Further investigation of the mechanism of generating these deletion variants and their infectivity in different animal models would improve our understanding of the origin and evolution of this virus.

18.
Zhongguo Zhen Jiu ; 40(6): 571-5, 2020 Jun 12.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-602103

ABSTRACT

Acupuncture and moxibustion has a wealth of experience in the prevention and control of epidemic disease since ancient times, which was used for all kinds of acute infectious diseases in modern times and its efficacy has been clearly and reliably reported. This article proposes the theoretical feasibility and reliability of acupuncture and moxibustion interventional prevention and treatment by discussing the recognition of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) from the perspective of acupuncture and moxibustion. The unique "acupuncture and moxibustion program" for COVID-19 is presented including treatment in different stages, selecting acupoints by distinguishing meridians, applying needle technique by various methods. The article also proposes a new understanding of acupuncture and moxibustion at related acupoints on the surface of the body that can directly affect the "moyuan" to treat the disease.


Subject(s)
Acupuncture Therapy , Coronavirus Infections , Moxibustion , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Reproducibility of Results
19.
Am J Infect Control ; 2020 Jun 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-597653

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate the relationship between clinical characteristics, outcomes and the severity of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 pneumonia. METHODS: We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis using PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library databases to assess the clinical characteristics and outcomes of confirmed COVID-19 cases and compared severe (ICU) and nonsevere (non-ICU) groups. RESULTS: We included 12 cohort studies including 2,445 patients with COVID-19. Compared with nonsevere (non-ICU) patients, severe (ICU) disease was associated with a smoking history (P = .003) and comorbidities including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (OR = 5.08, P < .001), diabetes (OR = 3.17, P < .001), hypertension (OR = 2.40, P < .001), coronary heart disease (OR = 2.66, P < .001), cerebrovascular diseases (OR = 2.68, P = .008), and malignancy (OR=2.21, P = .040). We found significant differences between the 2 groups for fever, dyspnea, decreased lymphocyte and platelet counts, and increased leukocyte count, C-creative protein, procalcitonin, lactose dehydrogenase, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, creatinine kinase, and creatinine levels (P < .05). Significant differences were also observed for multiple treatments (P < .05). Patients in the severe (ICU) group were more likely to have complications and had a much higher mortality rate and lower discharge rate than those with nonsevere (non-ICU) disease (P < .05). CONCLUSIONS: Investigation of clinical characteristics and outcomes of severe cases of COVID-19 will contribute to early prediction, accurate diagnosis, and treatment to improve the prognosis of patients with severe illness.

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