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1.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-315661

ABSTRACT

Background: Qingfei Paidu decoction (QFPDD) is a Chinese medicine compound formula recommended for combating corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) by National Health Commission of the People's Republic of China. This study aims to identify the main constituents in QFPDD and the absorbed components (including prototypes and metabolites) in serum and tissues after oral administration of QFPDD to mice. Methods: : A practical and sensitive method of UHPLC-Q-Exactive-Orbitrap HRMS was developed to identify the chemical constituents in QFPDD and the absorbed prototypes as well as the metabolites in mice serum and tissues following oral administration of QFPDD. Results: : A total of 405 chemicals, including 40 kinds of alkaloids, 162 kinds of flavonoids, 44 kinds of organic acids, 71 kinds of triterpene saponins and 88 kinds of other compounds in the water extract of QFPDD were tentatively identified via comparison with the retention times and MS/MS spectra of the standards or refereed by literature. With the help of the standards and in vitro metabolites, 195 chemical components (including 104 prototypes and 91 metabolites) were identified in mice serum after oral administration of QFPDD. In addition, 165, 177, 112, 120, 44, 53 constituents were identified in the lung, liver, heart, kidney, brain, and spleen of QFPDD-treated mice, respectively. Conclusions: : An UHPLC-Q-Orbitrap HRMS based method was established for chemical profiling the constituents in QFPDD, while the absorbed prototypes and metabolites occurring in mice serum and tissues were investigated following oral administration of QFPDD. These findings provided key information and guidance for further investigation on the pharmacologically active substances and clinical applications of QFPDD.

2.
Phytomedicine ; 97: 153922, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1586870

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although Qing-Fei-Pai-Du decoction (QFPDD) is extensively used clinically to treat COVID-19 patients, the mechanism by which it modulates the immunological and metabolic functions of liver tissue remains unknown. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to investigate the mechanism of action of QFPDD in the treatment of mice with coronavirus-induced pneumonia by combining integrated hepatic single-cell RNA sequencing and untargeted metabolomics. METHODS: We developed a human coronavirus pneumonia model in BALB/c mice by infecting them with human coronavirus HCoV-229E with stimulating them with cold-damp environment. We initially assessed the status of inflammation and immunity in model mice treated with or without QFPDD by detecting peripheral blood lymphocytes and inflammatory cytokines. Then, single-cell RNA sequencing and untargeted metabolomics were performed on mouse liver tissue. RESULTS: HCoV-229E infection in combination with exposure to a cold-damp environment significantly decreased the percentage of peripheral blood lymphocytes (CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, B cells) in mice, which was enhanced by QFPDD therapy. Meanwhile, the levels of inflammatory cytokines such as IL-6, TNF-α, and IFN-γ were significantly increased in mouse models but significantly decreased by QFPDD treatment. Single-cell RNA sequencing analysis showed that QFPDD could attenuate disease-associated alterations in gene expression, core transcriptional regulatory networks, and cell-type composition. Computational predictions indicated that QFPDD rectified the observed aberrant patterns of cell-cell communication. Additionally, the metabolic profiles of liver tissue in the Model group were distinct from mice in the Control group, and QFPDD significantly regulated hepatic purine metabolism. CONCLUSION: To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to integrate hepatic single-cell RNA sequencing and untargeted metabolomics into a TCM formula and these valuable findings indicate that QFPDD can improve immune function and reduce liver injury and inflammation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Metabolomics , Animals , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes , COVID-19/drug therapy , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Humans , Liver , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Sequence Analysis, RNA , Single-Cell Analysis
3.
J Med Chem ; 64(23): 17486-17495, 2021 12 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1531976

ABSTRACT

The pandemic of acute respiratory disease in 2019 caused by highly pathogenic and infectious SARS-CoV-2 has seriously endangered human public safety. The 6-HB (HR1-HR2 complex) formation occurring in the process of spike protein-mediated membrane fusion could serve as a conserved and potential target for the design of fusion inhibitors. Based on the HR2 domain of 6-HB, we designed and synthesized 32 stapled peptides using an all-hydrocarbon peptide stapling strategy. Owing to the improved proteolytic stability and higher helical contents, the optimized stapled peptides termed SCH2-1-20 and SCH2-1-27 showed better inhibitory activities against pseudo and authentic SARS-CoV-2 compared to the linear counterpart. Of note, SCH2-1-20 and SCH2-1-27 were proved to interfere with S protein-mediated membrane fusion. Structural modeling indicated similar binding modes between SCH2-1-20 and the linear peptide. These optimized stapled peptides could serve as potent fusion inhibitors in treating and preventing SARS-CoV-2, and the corresponding SAR could facilitate further optimization.


Subject(s)
Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Membrane Fusion , Pandemics , Protein Binding
4.
Int J Infect Dis ; 114: 252-260, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1517203

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To estimate the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine effectiveness (VE) against concerned outcomes in real-world settings. METHODS: Studies reporting COVID-19 VE from August 6, 2020 to October 6, 2021 were included. The summary VE (with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI)) against disease related to COVID-19 was estimated. The results were presented in forest plots. Predefined subgroup analyses and sensitivity analyses were also performed. RESULTS: A total of 51 records were included in this meta-analysis. In fully vaccinated populations, the VE against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, COVID-19-related hospitalization, admission to the intensive care unit, and death was 89.1% (95% CI 85.6-92.6%), 97.2% (95% CI 96.1-98.3%), 97.4% (95% CI 96.0-98.8%), and 99.0% (95% CI 98.5-99.6%), respectively. The VE against infection in the general population aged ≥16 years, the elderly, and healthcare workers was 86.1% (95% CI 77.8-94.4%), 83.8% (95% CI 77.1-90.6%), and 95.3% (95% CI 92.0-98.6%), respectively. For those fully vaccinated against infection, the observed effectiveness of the Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine was 91.2% and of the Moderna vaccine was 98.1%, while the effectiveness of the CoronaVac vaccine was found to be 65.7%. CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 vaccines are highly protective against SARS-CoV-2-related diseases in real-world settings.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Aged , Hospitalization , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
5.
FASEB J ; 35(9): e21870, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1373669

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is often characterized by dysregulated inflammatory and immune responses. It has been shown that the Traditional Chinese Medicine formulation Qing-Fei-Pai-Du decoction (QFPDD) is effective in the treatment of the disease, especially for patients in the early stage. Our network pharmacology analyses indicated that many inflammation and immune-related molecules were the targets of the active components of QFPDD, which propelled us to examine the effects of the decoction on inflammation. We found in the present study that QFPDD effectively alleviated dextran sulfate sodium-induced intestinal inflammation in mice. It inhibited the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNFα, and promoted the expression of anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 by macrophagic cells. Further investigations found that QFPDD and one of its active components wogonoside markedly reduced LPS-stimulated phosphorylation of transcription factor ATF2, an important regulator of multiple cytokines expression. Our data revealed that both QFPDD and wogonoside decreased the half-life of ATF2 and promoted its proteasomal degradation. Of note, QFPDD and wogonoside down-regulated deubiquitinating enzyme USP14 along with inducing ATF2 degradation. Inhibition of USP14 with the small molecular inhibitor IU1 also led to the decrease of ATF2 in the cells, indicating that QFPDD and wogonoside may act through regulating USP14 to promote ATF2 degradation. To further assess the importance of ubiquitination in regulating ATF2, we generated mice that were intestinal-specific KLHL5 deficiency, a CUL3-interacting protein participating in substrate recognition of E3s. In these mice, QFPDD mitigated inflammatory reaction in the spleen, but not intestinal inflammation, suggesting CUL3-KLHL5 may function as an E3 for ATF2 degradation.


Subject(s)
Activating Transcription Factor 2/metabolism , Down-Regulation/drug effects , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Flavanones/pharmacology , Glucosides/pharmacology , Inflammation/drug therapy , Proteolysis/drug effects , Ubiquitin Thiolesterase/deficiency , Animals , Cell Line , Colitis/chemically induced , Colitis/drug therapy , Cullin Proteins/metabolism , Cytokines/metabolism , Dextran Sulfate/pharmacology , Dextran Sulfate/therapeutic use , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Flavanones/therapeutic use , Glucosides/therapeutic use , Inflammation/chemically induced , Macrophages/drug effects , Macrophages/metabolism , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Phosphorylation/drug effects , Proteasome Endopeptidase Complex/drug effects , Proteasome Endopeptidase Complex/metabolism , Pyrroles/pharmacology , Pyrrolidines/pharmacology , Ubiquitin Thiolesterase/antagonists & inhibitors , Ubiquitination
6.
Acta Pharmacol Sin ; 43(4): 1072-1081, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1285959

ABSTRACT

Jingyin granules, a marketed antiviral herbal medicine, have been recommended for treating H1N1 influenza A virus infection and Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in China. To fight viral diseases in a more efficient way, Jingyin granules are frequently co-administered in clinical settings with a variety of therapeutic agents, including antiviral drugs, anti-inflammatory drugs, and other Western medicines. However, it is unclear whether Jingyin granules modulate the pharmacokinetics of Western drugs or trigger clinically significant herb-drug interactions. This study aims to assess the inhibitory potency of the herbal extract of Jingyin granules (HEJG) against human drug-metabolizing enzymes and to clarify whether HEJG can modulate the pharmacokinetic profiles of Western drug(s) in vivo. The results clearly demonstrated that HEJG dose-dependently inhibited human CES1A, CES2A, CYPs1A, 2A6, 2C8, 2C9, 2D6, and 2E1; this herbal medicine also time- and NADPH-dependently inhibited human CYP2C19 and CYP3A. In vivo tests showed that HEJG significantly increased the plasma exposure of lopinavir (a CYP3A-substrate drug) by 2.43-fold and strongly prolonged its half-life by 1.91-fold when HEJG (3 g/kg) was co-administered with lopinavir to rats. Further investigation revealed licochalcone A, licochalcone B, licochalcone C and echinatin in Radix Glycyrrhizae, as well as quercetin and kaempferol in Folium Llicis Purpureae, to be time-dependent CYP3A inhibitors. Collectively, our findings reveal that HEJG modulates the pharmacokinetics of CYP substrate-drug(s) by inactivating CYP3A, providing key information for both clinicians and patients to use herb-drug combinations for antiviral therapy in a scientific and reasonable way.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , Animals , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A Inhibitors , Herb-Drug Interactions , Humans , Microsomes, Liver , Rats
7.
Chin J Nat Med ; 19(4): 305-320, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1193536

ABSTRACT

Qing-Fei-Pai-Du decoction (QFPDD) is a Chinese medicine compound formula recommended for combating corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) by National Health Commission of the People's Republic of China. The latest clinical study showed that early treatment with QFPDD was associated with favorable outcomes for patient recovery, viral shedding, hospital stay, and course of the disease. However, the effective constituents of QFPDD remain unclear. In this study, an UHPLC-Q-Orbitrap HRMS based method was developed to identify the chemical constituents in QFPDD and the absorbed prototypes as well as the metabolites in mice serum and tissues following oral administration of QFPDD. A total of 405 chemicals, including 40 kinds of alkaloids, 162 kinds of flavonoids, 44 kinds of organic acids, 71 kinds of triterpene saponins and 88 kinds of other compounds in the water extract of QFPDD were tentatively identified via comparison with the retention times and MS/MS spectra of the standards or refereed by literature. With the help of the standards and in vitro metabolites, 195 chemical components (including 104 prototypes and 91 metabolites) were identified in mice serum after oral administration of QFPDD. In addition, 165, 177, 112, 120, 44, 53 constituents were identified in the lung, liver, heart, kidney, brain, and spleen of QFPDD-treated mice, respectively. These findings provided key information and guidance for further investigation on the pharmacologically active substances and clinical applications of QFPDD.


Subject(s)
Drugs, Chinese Herbal/chemistry , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacokinetics , Administration, Oral , Alkaloids/analysis , Animals , COVID-19 , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Flavonoids/analysis , Mice , SARS-CoV-2 , Saponins/analysis , Triterpenes/analysis
8.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 149: 111998, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1139497

ABSTRACT

Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) has spread all over the world and brings significantly negative effects on human health. To fight against COVID-19 in a more efficient way, drug-drug or drug-herb combinations are frequently used in clinical settings. The concomitant use of multiple medications may trigger clinically relevant drug/herb-drug interactions. This study aims to assay the inhibitory potentials of Qingfei Paidu decoction (QPD, a Chinese medicine compound formula recommended for combating COVID-19 in China) against human drug-metabolizing enzymes and to assess the pharmacokinetic interactions in vivo. The results demonstrated that QPD dose-dependently inhibited CYPs1A, 2A6, 2C8, 2C9, 2C19, 2D6 and 2E1 but inhibited CYP3A in a time- and NADPH-dependent manner. In vivo test showed that QPD prolonged the half-life of lopinavir (a CYP3A substrate-drug) by 1.40-fold and increased the AUC of lopinavir by 2.04-fold, when QPD (6 g/kg) was co-administrated with lopinavir (160 mg/kg) to rats. Further investigation revealed that Fructus Aurantii Immaturus (Zhishi) in QPD caused significant loss of CYP3A activity in NADPH-generating system. Collectively, our findings revealed that QPD potently inactivated CYP3A and significantly modulated the pharmacokinetics of CYP3A substrate-drugs, which would be very helpful for the patients and clinicians to avoid potential drug-interaction risks in COVID-19 treatment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A/metabolism , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Herb-Drug Interactions , Animals , Area Under Curve , China , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Lopinavir/pharmacokinetics , Male , Microsomes, Liver , NADP/metabolism , Phytotherapy , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Phytomedicine ; 85: 153315, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-752997

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) formula Qing-Fei-Pai-Du decoction (QFPDD) was the most widely used prescription in China's campaign to contain COVID-19, which has exhibited positive effects. However, the underlying mode of action is largely unknown. PURPOSE: A systems pharmacology strategy was proposed to investigate the mechanisms of QFPDD against COVID-19 from molecule, pathway and network levels. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: The systems pharmacological approach consisted of text mining, target prediction, data integration, network study, bioinformatics analysis, molecular docking, and pharmacological validation. Especially, we proposed a scoring method to measure the confidence of targets identified by prediction and text mining, while a novel scheme was used to identify important targets from 4 aspects. RESULTS: 623 high-confidence targets of QFPDD's 12 active compounds were identified, 88 of which were overlapped with genes affected by SARS-CoV-2 infection. These targets were found to be involved in biological processes related with the development of COVID-19, such as pattern recognition receptor signaling, interleukin signaling, cell growth and death, hemostasis, and injuries of the nervous, sensory, circulatory, and digestive systems. Comprehensive network and pathway analysis were used to identify 55 important targets, which regulated 5 functional modules corresponding to QFPDD's effects in immune regulation, anti-infection, anti-inflammation, and multi-organ protection, respectively. Four compounds (baicalin, glycyrrhizic acid, hesperidin, and hyperoside) and 7 targets (AKT1, TNF-α, IL6, PTGS2, HMOX1, IL10, and TP53) were key molecules related to QFPDD's effects. Molecular docking verified that QFPDD's compounds may bind to 6 host proteins that interact with SARS-CoV-2 proteins, further supported the anti-virus effect of QFPDD. At last, in intro experiments validated QFPDD's important effects, including the inhibition of IL6, CCL2, TNF-α, NF-κB, PTGS1/2, CYP1A1, CYP3A4 activity, the up-regulation of IL10 expression, and repressing platelet aggregation. CONCLUSION: This work illustrated that QFPDD could exhibit immune regulation, anti-infection, anti-inflammation, and multi-organ protection. It may strengthen the understanding of QFPDD and facilitate more application of this formula in the campaign to SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Computational Biology , Flavonoids/pharmacology , Glycyrrhizic Acid/pharmacology , Hesperidin/pharmacology , Humans , Male , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Mice , Molecular Docking Simulation , Quercetin/analogs & derivatives , Quercetin/pharmacology , RAW 264.7 Cells , Rabbits , Signal Transduction/drug effects
11.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(15): 3726-3739, 2020 Aug.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-745644

ABSTRACT

This study is to explore the effect of Qingfei Paidu Decoction(QPD) on the host metabolism and gut microbiome of rats with metabolomics and 16 S rDNA sequencing. Based on 16 S rDNA sequencing of gut microbiome and metabolomics(GC-MS and LC-MS/MS), we systematically studied the serum metabolites profile and gut microbiota composition of rats treated with QPD for continued 5 days by oral gavage. A total of 23 and 43 differential metabolites were identified based on QPD with GC-MS and LC-MS/MS, respectively. The involved metabolic pathways of these differential metabolites included glycerophospholipid metabolism, linoleic acid metabolism, TCA cycle and pyruvate metabolism. Meanwhile, we found that QPD significantly regulated the composition of gut microbiota in rats, such as enriched Romboutsia, Turicibacter, and Clostridium_sensu_stricto_1, and decreased norank_f_Lachnospiraceae. Our current study indicated that short-term intervention of QPD could significantly regulate the host metabolism and gut microbiota composition of rats dose-dependently, suggesting that the clinical efficacy of QPD may be related with the regulation on host metabolism and gut microbiome.


Subject(s)
Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Gastrointestinal Microbiome/drug effects , Animals , Bacteria/classification , Chromatography, Liquid , Metabolomics , Rats , Tandem Mass Spectrometry
12.
Chaos Solitons Fractals ; 139: 110041, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-610152

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of COVID-19 has caused severe life and economic damage worldwide. Since the absence of medical resources or targeted therapeutics, systemic containment policies have been prioritized but some critics query what extent can they mitigate this pandemic. We construct a fine-grained transmission dynamics model to forecast the crucial information of public concern, therein using dynamical coefficients to quantify the impact of the implement schedule and intensity of the containment policies on the spread of epidemic. Statistical evidences show the comprehensive identification and quarantine policies eminently contributed to reduce casualties during the phase of a dramatic increase in diagnosed cases in Wuhan and postponing or weakening such policies would undoubtedly exacerbate the epidemic. Hence we suggest that governments should swiftly execute the forceful public health interventions in the initial stage until the pandemic is blocked.

13.
Chin. Trad. Herbal Drugs ; 4(51): 829-835, 20200228.
Article in Chinese | WHO COVID, ELSEVIER | ID: covidwho-45770

ABSTRACT

Objective: To collect main ingredients and targets of Qing-Fei-Pai-Du-Tang (QFPDT), and to investigate the relationship between the targets and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and the multi-component, multi-target mechanism of QFPDT for the treatment of COVID-19. Methods: The meridian tropisms, compounds and targets of each herb in QFPDT were collected from ETCM, TCMID and NPASS databases. Cytoscape software was used to construct and analyze networks. DAVID and STRING were applied for functional enrichment analysis of targets. Results: The top meridian tropism of herbs in QFPDT was lung meridian. Among QFPDT’s 790 putative targets, 232 targets were co-expressed with ACE2, the receptor of novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2). The targets included seven densely interacting ribosomal proteins. Important targets were enriched on two classes of disease pathways, i.e., virus infection and lung injury. In addition, many targets interacted with six proteins of HIV virus. Important targets regulated a series of pathways belong to translation, endocrine system, immune system, nervous system and signal transduction. Conclusion: The main targeting organ of QFPDT is the lung and the second is the spleen. By regulating a series of proteins co-expressed with ACE2 and a series of signaling pathways closely related to the occurrence and development of diseases, it plays a role in balancing immunity and eliminating inflammation. It may act as an antiviral agent by targeting ribosomal proteins that are necessary for viral replication to inhibit viral mRNA translation and inhibiting a group of proteins that interact with viral proteins.

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