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1.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 9(6): ofab356, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1864985

ABSTRACT

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1093/ofid/ofaa442.].

3.
Cell Host Microbe ; 2022 May 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1821186

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant has evolved into four sub-lineages-BA.1, BA.1.1, BA.2, and BA.3-with BA.2 becoming dominant worldwide. We and others have reported antibody evasion of BA.1 and BA.2, but side-by-side comparisons of Omicron sub-lineages to vaccine-elicited or monoclonal antibody (mAb)-mediated neutralization are necessary. Using VSV-based pseudovirus, we report that sera from individuals vaccinated by two doses of an inactivated whole-virion vaccine shows weak to no neutralization activity, while homologous or heterologous boosters markedly improve neutralization titers against all Omicron sub-lineages. We also present neutralization profiles against a 20 mAb panel, including 10 authorized or approved, against the Omicron sub-lineages, along with mAb mapping against single or combinatorial spike mutations. Most mAbs lost neutralizing activity, while some demonstrate distinct neutralization patterns among Omicron sub-lineages, reflecting antigenic differences. Collectively, our results suggest the Omicron sub-lineages threaten the neutralization efficacy of current vaccines and antibody therapeutics, highlighting the importance of vaccine boosters.

4.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-334172

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Viral persistence is a crucial factor that influences the communicability of SARS-CoV-2 infection. However, the impacts of vaccination status and physiological variables on viral RNA shedding have not been adequately clarified. METHODS In this study, we retrospectively collected the clinical records of 377 hospitalized COVID-19 patients, which contained unvaccinated patients and patients received two doses of an inactivated vaccine or an mRNA vaccine. Firstly, we analyzed the impacts of vaccination on disease severity and viral RNA persistence. Next, to clarify the impacts of physiological variables on viral RNA shedding in COVID-19 patients, we retrieved 49 laboratory variables and analyzed their correlations with the duration of viral RNA shedding. Finally, we established a multivariate regression model to predict the duration of viral RNA shedding. RESULTS Our results showed that both inactivated and mRNA vaccines significantly reduced the rate of moderate cases, while the vaccine related shortening of viral RNA shedding were only observed in moderate patients. Correlation analysis showed that 10 significant laboratory variables were shared by the unvaccinated mild patients and mild patients inoculated with an inactivated vaccine, but not by the mild patients inoculated with an mRNA vaccine. Moreover, we demonstrated that a multivariate regression model established based on the variables correlating with viral persistence in unvaccinated mild patients could predict the duration of viral shedding for all groups of patients. CONCLUSIONS Vaccination contributed limitedly to the clearance viral RNA in COVID-19 patients. While, laboratory variables in early infection could predict the persistence of viral RNA.

5.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-332033

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant has been partitioned into four sub-lineages designated BA.1, BA.1.1, BA.2 and BA.3, with BA.2 becoming dominant worldwide recently by outcompeting BA.1 and BA.1.1. We and others have reported the striking antibody evasion of BA.1 and BA.2, but side-by-side comparison of susceptibility of all the major Omicron sub-lineages to vaccine-elicited or monoclonal antibody (mAb)-mediated neutralization are urgently needed. Using VSV-based pseudovirus, we found that sera from individuals vaccinated by two doses of inactivated whole-virion vaccines (BBIBP-CorV) showed very weak to no neutralization activity, while a homologous inactivated vaccine booster or a heterologous booster with protein subunit vaccine (ZF2001) markedly improved the neutralization titers against all Omicron variants. The comparison between sub-lineages indicated that BA.1.1, BA.2 and BA.3 had comparable or even greater antibody resistance than BA.1. We further evaluated the neutralization profile of a panel of 20 mAbs, including 10 already authorized or approved, against these Omicron sub-lineages as well as viruses with different Omicron spike single or combined mutations. Most mAbs lost their neutralizing activity completely or substantially, while some demonstrated distinct neutralization patterns among Omicron sub-lineages, reflecting their antigenic difference. Taken together, our results suggest all four Omicron sub-lineages threaten the efficacies of current vaccines and antibody therapeutics, highlighting the importance of vaccine boosters to combat the emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants.

6.
Acta Pharmacol Sin ; 2022 Mar 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1747246

ABSTRACT

VV116 (JT001) is an oral drug candidate of nucleoside analog against SARS-CoV-2. The purpose of the three phase I studies was to evaluate the safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics of single and multiple ascending oral doses of VV116 in healthy subjects, as well as the effect of food on the pharmacokinetics and safety of VV116. Three studies were launched sequentially: Study 1 (single ascending-dose study, SAD), Study 2 (multiple ascending-dose study, MAD), and Study 3 (food-effect study, FE). A total of 86 healthy subjects were enrolled in the studies. VV116 tablets or placebo were administered per protocol requirements. Blood samples were collected at the scheduled time points for pharmacokinetic analysis. 116-N1, the metabolite of VV116, was detected in plasma and calculated for the PK parameters. In SAD, AUC and Cmax increased in an approximately dose-proportional manner in the dose range of 25-800 mg. T1/2 was within 4.80-6.95 h. In MAD, the accumulation ratio for Cmax and AUC indicated a slight accumulation upon repeated dosing of VV116. In FE, the standard meal had no effect on Cmax and AUC of VV116. No serious adverse event occurred in the studies, and no subject withdrew from the studies due to adverse events. Thus, VV116 exhibited satisfactory safety and tolerability in healthy subjects, which supports the continued investigation of VV116 in patients with COVID-19.

7.
PLoS One ; 17(3): e0265117, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1742021

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To investigate the mortality and health care resource use among patients with severe or critical coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) in the first wave of pandemic in China. METHODS: We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to investigate the mortality, discharge rate, length of hospital stay, and use of invasive ventilation in severe or critical COVID-19 cases in China. We searched electronic databases for studies from China with no restrictions on language or interventions patients received. We screened records, extracted data and assessed the quality of included studies in duplicate. We performed the meta-analysis using random-effect models through a Bayesian framework. Subgroup analyses were conducted to examine studies by disease severity, study location and patient enrolment start date. We also performed sensitivity analysis using various priors, and assessed between-study heterogeneity and publication bias for the primary outcomes. RESULTS: Out of 6,205 titles and abstracts screened, 500 were reviewed in full text. A total of 42 studies were included in the review, of which 95% were observational studies (n = 40). The pooled 28-day and 14-day mortalities among severe or critical patients were 20.48% (7,136 patients, 95% credible interval (CrI), 13.11 to 30.70) and 10.83% (95% CrI, 6.78 to 16.75), respectively. The mortality declined over time and was higher in patients with critical disease than severe cases (1,235 patients, 45.73%, 95% CrI, 22.79 to 73.52 vs. 3,969 patients, 14.90%, 95% CrI, 4.70 to 39.57) and patients in Hubei compared to those outside Hubei (6,719 patients, 26.62%, 95% CrI, 13.11 to 30.70 vs. 244 patients, 5.88%, 95% CrI 2.03 to 14.11). The length of hospital stay was estimated at 18.48 days (6,847 patients, 95% CrI, 17.59 to 21.21), the 28-day discharge rate was 50.48% (3,645 patients, 95% CrI, 26.47 to 79.53), and the use of invasive ventilation rate was 13.46% (4,108 patients, 95% CrI, 7.61 to 22.31). CONCLUSIONS: Our systematic review and meta-analysis found high mortality among severe and critical COVID-19 cases. Severe or critical COVID-19 cases consumed a large amount of hospital resources during the outbreak.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Critical Care , Length of Stay , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , China/epidemiology , Critical Illness , Humans , Severity of Illness Index
8.
Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 2022 Mar 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1729616
9.
Front Med ; 16(2): 196-207, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1729391

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has become a global pandemic disease. SARS-CoV-2 variants have aroused great concern and are expected to continue spreading. Although many countries have promoted roll-out vaccination, the immune barrier has not yet been fully established, indicating that populations remain susceptible to infection. In this review, we summarize the literature on variants of concern and focus on the changes in their transmissibility, pathogenicity, and resistance to the immunity constructed by current vaccines. Furthermore, we analyzed relationships between variants and breakthrough infections, as well as the paradigm of new variants in countries with high vaccination rates. Terminating transmission, continuing to strengthen variant surveillance, and combining nonpharmaceutical intervention measures and vaccines are necessary to control these variants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control
10.
Chin Med J (Engl) ; 133(9): 1039-1043, 2020 May 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1722619

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A patient's infectivity is determined by the presence of the virus in different body fluids, secretions, and excreta. The persistence and clearance of viral RNA from different specimens of patients with 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) remain unclear. This study analyzed the clearance time and factors influencing 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) RNA in different samples from patients with COVID-19, providing further evidence to improve the management of patients during convalescence. METHODS: The clinical data and laboratory test results of convalescent patients with COVID-19 who were admitted to from January 20, 2020 to February 10, 2020 were collected retrospectively. The reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) results for patients' oropharyngeal swab, stool, urine, and serum samples were collected and analyzed. Convalescent patients refer to recovered non-febrile patients without respiratory symptoms who had two successive (minimum 24 h sampling interval) negative RT-PCR results for viral RNA from oropharyngeal swabs. The effects of cluster of differentiation 4 (CD4)+ T lymphocytes, inflammatory indicators, and glucocorticoid treatment on viral nucleic acid clearance were analyzed. RESULTS: In the 292 confirmed cases, 66 patients recovered after treatment and were included in our study. In total, 28 (42.4%) women and 38 men (57.6%) with a median age of 44.0 (34.0-62.0) years were analyzed. After in-hospital treatment, patients' inflammatory indicators decreased with improved clinical condition. The median time from the onset of symptoms to first negative RT-PCR results for oropharyngeal swabs in convalescent patients was 9.5 (6.0-11.0) days. By February 10, 2020, 11 convalescent patients (16.7%) still tested positive for viral RNA from stool specimens and the other 55 patients' stool specimens were negative for 2019-nCoV following a median duration of 11.0 (9.0-16.0) days after symptom onset. Among these 55 patients, 43 had a longer duration until stool specimens were negative for viral RNA than for throat swabs, with a median delay of 2.0 (1.0-4.0) days. Results for only four (6.9%) urine samples were positive for viral nucleic acid out of 58 cases; viral RNA was still present in three patients' urine specimens after throat swabs were negative. Using a multiple linear regression model (F = 2.669, P = 0.044, and adjusted R = 0.122), the analysis showed that the CD4+ T lymphocyte count may help predict the duration of viral RNA detection in patients' stools (t = -2.699, P = 0.010). The duration of viral RNA detection from oropharyngeal swabs and fecal samples in the glucocorticoid treatment group was longer than that in the non-glucocorticoid treatment group (15 days vs. 8.0 days, respectively; t = 2.550, P = 0.013) and the duration of viral RNA detection in fecal samples in the glucocorticoid treatment group was longer than that in the non-glucocorticoid treatment group (20 days vs. 11 days, respectively; t = 4.631, P < 0.001). There was no statistically significant difference in inflammatory indicators between patients with positive fecal viral RNA test results and those with negative results (P > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: In brief, as the clearance of viral RNA in patients' stools was delayed compared to that in oropharyngeal swabs, it is important to identify viral RNA in feces during convalescence. Because of the delayed clearance of viral RNA in the glucocorticoid treatment group, glucocorticoids are not recommended in the treatment of COVID-19, especially for mild disease. The duration of RNA detection may relate to host cell immunity.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/genetics , Pneumonia, Viral/genetics , RNA, Viral/genetics , Adult , Aged , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/rehabilitation , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/rehabilitation , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
11.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-308194

ABSTRACT

Since the onset of the COVID-19 outbreak in Wuhan, China, numerous forecasting models have been proposed to project the trajectory of coronavirus infection cases. We propose a new discrete-time Markov chain transition matrix model that directly incorporates stochastic behavior and for which parameter estimation is straightforward from available data. Using such data from China's Hubei province (for which Wuhan is the provincial capital city), the model is shown to be flexible, robust, and accurate. As a result, it has been adopted by the first Shanghai assistance medical team in Wuhan's Jinyintan Hospital, which was the first designated hospital to take COVID-19 patients in the world. The forecast has been used for preparing medical staff, intensive care unit (ICU) beds, ventilators, and other critical care medical resources and for supporting real-time medical management decisions. Empirical data from China's first two months (January/February) of fighting COVID-19 was collected and used to enhance the model by embedding NPI efficiency into the model. We applied the model to forecast Italy, South Korea, and Iran on March 9. Later we made forecasts for Spain, Germany, France, US on March 24. Again, the model has performed very well, proven to be flexible, robust, and accurate for most of these countries/regions outside China.

12.
EuropePMC;
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-327770

ABSTRACT

A booster vaccination is called for constraining the evolving epidemic of SARS-CoV-2. However, the necessity of a new COVID-19 vaccine is currently unclear. To compare the effect of an Omicron-matched S DNA vaccine and an ancestral S DNA vaccine in boosting cross-reactive immunities, we firstly immunized mice with two-dose of a DNA vaccine encoding the spike protein of the ancestral Wuhan strain. Then the mice were boosted with DNA vaccines encoding spike proteins of either the Wuhan strain or the Omicron variant. Specific antibody and T cell responses were measured at 4 weeks post boost. Our data showed that the Omicron-matched vaccine efficiently boosted RBD binding antibody and neutralizing antibody responses against both the Delta and the Omicron variants. Of note, antibody responses against the Omicron variant elicited by the Omicron-matched vaccine were much stronger than those induced by the ancestral S DNA vaccine. Meanwhile, CD8+ T cell responses against both the ancestral Wuhan strain and the Omicron strain also tended to be higher in mice boosted by the Omicron-matched vaccine than those in mice boosted with the ancestral S DNA vaccine, albeit no significant difference was observed. Our findings suggest that an Omicron-matched vaccine is preferred for boosting cross-reactive immunities.

13.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-324675

ABSTRACT

Vancomycin plays an important role in the treatment of concurrent infections in severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. However, few is known about its pharmacokinetics (PK) in these patients. Here we performed therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) of intravenous vancomycin with or without nasal administration in these patients. Drug dosage was adjusted depending on vancomycin concentration. A population PK model was developed using NONMEM software. Therapeutic effects, and vancomycin-related adverse events were monitored. A total of 63 samples from 8 patients were analyzed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The mean trough and peak concentration were 13.79±6.61 (4.63-34.2) mg/L (n=36) and 30.97±9.71 (17-49.9) mg/L (n=27), respectively. 25.4% of serum vancomycin concentration was beyond optimal range. Dose adjustments were made for 3 patients. The PK of vancomycin was consistent with two-compartment model, with the clearance and distribution volume in the central compartment of 4.3 L/h and 2.0 L, respectively. The AUC 0-24 /MIC of vancomycin was 848±566 h. Target infection was clinically cured in all patients, and no vancomycin-associated nephrotoxicity was detected during the TDM process. In conclusion, the PK studies of vancomycin in COVID-19 patients are needed to optimize drug dosage. Based on our PK model, the clearance of vancomycin was 4.3 L/h.

14.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-315363

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is now officially a pandemic. Current studies observed extensive abnormal indexes in COVID-19 patients and significant differences between mild and severe patients. However, which index would perform better as the indicator of disease progression merits further investigation. Methods: We enrolled COVID-19 patients who were admitted to Shanghai Public Health Clinical center. We closely monitored the following candidate indictors: white blood cell, lymphocyte, platelet, CD4 T cell, CD8 T cell, alanine aminotransferase, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), fibrin degradation products (FDP), D-dimer, creatine kinase, myoglobin, troponin T (TnT), N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), lactase dehydrogenase (LDH), C-reactive protein (CRP), and procalcitonin. The correlation with illness severity were assessed by Spearman analysis and the ability of differentiating the clinical statuses was quantified as the AUC value of the ROC curve. Results: A total of 326 patients were enrolled, including 299 mild-ordinary and 27 severe-critical patients. At admission, D-dimer and CRP were elevated above normal range both in mild-ordinary and severe-critical patients. LDH, NT-proBNP, myoglobin, CD4 T cell, eGFR, FDP and PCT were beyond normal range in the mild-ordinary stages of severe-critical patients, but remained normal in the persistently mild-ordinary patients. Top 5 parameters with highest spearmen coefficient were LDH, procalcitonin, NT-proBNP, myoglobin and D-dimer (Spearman coefficient: 0.488, 0.453, 0.414, 0.412, 0.407). Comparing between mild-ordinary stage and severe/critical stage, LDH showed the highest receiver operating characteristics (ROC) area under the curve (AUC) of 0.951. PCT ranked second, with the ROC AUC of 0.905. Comparing between mild-ordinary and severe stages, only LDH had the ROC AUC of over 0.90 (0.927). Conclusions: This study found LDH to be a superior indicator for COVID-19 status and had the potential to optimize the clinical management strategy.

15.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 11(1): 452-464, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1672032

ABSTRACT

Breakthrough infection of SARS-CoV-2 is a serious challenge, as increased infections were documented in fully-vaccinated individuals. Recipients with poor antibody response are highly vulnerable to reinfection, whereas those with strong antibody responses achieve sterilizing immunity. Thus far, biomarkers associated with levels of vaccine-elicited antibody response are still lacking. Here, we studied the antibody response of age- and gender-controlled healthy cohort, who received inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccines and profiled the B cell receptor repertoires in longitudinally consecutive samples. Upon vaccination, all vaccinated individuals displayed a convergent antibody response with shared common antibody clones and public neutralizing antibodies. Strikingly, poor vaccine-responders are distinguishable from strong vaccine-responders by a biased V-usage before vaccination and IgG to IgM mRNA ratio. These findings reveal molecular signatures associated with the different levels of vaccine-induced antibody response, which could be further developed into biomarkers for the design of vaccination strategies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , Humans , Receptors, Antigen, B-Cell , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
16.
J Clin Epidemiol ; 144: 163-172, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1670681

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To describe the current status of COVID-19 vaccine guidelines. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: We searched databases, Google and guideline platforms to retrieve COVID-19 vaccine guidelines published between January 1, 2020 and July 8, 2021. We worked in pairs to identify the eligible guidelines and extract data of whether the methodology, funding, and conflict of interests were assessed/reported, and so on. Results were presented descriptively. RESULTS: A total of 106 COVID-19 vaccine guidelines were included. In the first half of 2021, on average 15 guidelines were published every month. Fifty (47.2%) guidelines addressed the vaccination of people with specific medical conditions, and 18 (17.0%) guidelines focused on adverse effects after vaccination. Only 28 (26.4%) guidelines reported the methodology they used. Four (3.8%) of guidelines assessed both the quality of evidence and strength of recommendations; 42 (39.6%) and 65 (61.3%) guidelines reported their funding sources and conflict of interest, respectively. Most guidelines were published in English (n = 92, 86.8%). CONCLUSION: A high number of guidelines on COVID-19 vaccines have been published in the recent months, but most of them lack clear and transparent reporting of methodology, funding, and conflicts of interest. Rigorous methodological and reporting quality evaluation of these guidelines is needed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Databases, Factual , Humans
17.
BMC Med ; 20(1): 37, 2022 01 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1662418

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To allow a return to a pre-COVID-19 lifestyle, virtually every country has initiated a vaccination program to mitigate severe disease burden and control transmission. However, it remains to be seen whether herd immunity will be within reach of these programs. METHODS: We developed a compartmental model of SARS-CoV-2 transmission for China, a population with low prior immunity from natural infection. Two vaccination programs were tested and model-based estimates of the immunity level in the population were provided. RESULTS: We found that it is unlikely to reach herd immunity for the Delta variant given the relatively low efficacy of the vaccines used in China throughout 2021 and the lack of prior natural immunity. We estimated that, assuming a vaccine efficacy of 90% against the infection, vaccine-induced herd immunity would require a coverage of 93% or higher of the Chinese population. However, even when vaccine-induced herd immunity is not reached, we estimated that vaccination programs can reduce SARS-CoV-2 infections by 50-62% in case of an all-or-nothing vaccine model and an epidemic starts to unfold on December 1, 2021. CONCLUSIONS: Efforts should be taken to increase population's confidence and willingness to be vaccinated and to develop highly efficacious vaccines for a wide age range.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Epidemics , Viral Vaccines , China/epidemiology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 11(1): 639-647, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1624421

ABSTRACT

A COVID-19 booster vaccination is being comprehensively evaluated globally due to the emerging concern of reduced protection rate of previous vaccination and circulating Variants of Concern (VOC). But the safety and immunogenicity of homologous BBIBP-CorV boosting vaccination are yet to be thoroughly evaluated. We conducted this prospective, open-label study in Huashan Hospital using a third 6.5U BBIBP-CorV administered at an interval of 4-8 months following the previous two doses in healthy adults. Safety, anti-RBD response and neutralizing titers against SARS-CoV-2 and VOCs were examined. Sixty-three and forty participants entered the booster and the control group, respectively. A significant increase in IFN-γ SFU per million PBMCs was observed on day 14 against N peptide (20 vs. 5, P < 0.001). On day 14, pVNT GMTs increased over 15 folds of the baseline levels against prototype to reach 404.54 titers and over 9-13 folds against 4 VOCs and continuously increased by day 28. sVNT GMTs increased 112.51 and 127.45 folds by days 14 and 28 compared to the baseline level. Median anti-RBD antibody and IgG level significantly increased from 11.12 to 2607.50 BAU/ml and 4.07 to 619.20 BAU/ml on day 14. On day 14, females showed a significantly higher cell-mediated immune response against S1 peptide. The 7-8 months interval group had a higher humoral response than the 4-6 months interval group. No severe adverse event was reported. A third homologous BBIBP-CorV boosting vaccination was safe and highly immunogenic for healthy adults and broadened participants' immunity against VOCs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral , Antibody Formation , Female , Humans , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Prospective Studies , Vaccination
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