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1.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-331581

ABSTRACT

Some patients retested positive for SARS-CoV-2 following negative testing results and discharge. However, the potential risk factors associated with redetectable positive test results in a large sample of patients who recovered from COVID-19 have not been well estimated. A total of 745 discharged COVID-19 patients were enrolled between January 30, 2020, and September 9, 2020, in Guangzhou, China. Data on the clinical characteristics, comorbidities, drug therapy, RT-PCR testing, and contact modes to close contacts were collected. Patients who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 after discharge (positive retest patients) were confirmed by guidelines issued by China. The repositive rate in different settings was calculated. Among 745 discharged patients, 157 (21.1%;95% CI, 18.2% to 24.0%) retested positive, of which 55 (35.0%) were asymptomatic, 15 (9.6%) had mild symptoms, 83 (52.9%) had moderate symptoms and 4 (2.6%) had severe symptoms at the first admission. The median time from discharge to repositivity was 8.0 days (IQR, 8.0 to 14.0 days). Most positive retest patients were without clinical symptoms, and lymphocyte cell counts were higher than before being discharged. The likelihood of repositive testing for SARS-CoV-2 RNA was significantly higher among patients who were younger age (OR, 3.88;95% CI, 1.74 to 8.66, 0 to 17 years old), had asymptomatic severity (OR, 4.36;95% CI, 1.47 to 12.95) and did not have clinical symptoms (OR, 1.89;95% CI, 1.32 to 2.70, without fever). We found that the positive retest rate of COVID-19 was relatively high, and these patients tested positive again with a median of 8.0 to 14.0 days after discharge. Positive retest results were mainly observed in young patients without severe clinical symptoms. These findings suggest that a significant proportion of patients could carry viral fragments for a long time, and effective management, such as a prolonged quarantine phase for discharged patients, is necessary.

2.
J Environ Manage ; 304: 114217, 2022 Feb 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1549911

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has spread worldwide, leading to a significant impact on daily life. Numerous studies have confirmed that people have changed their travel to urban green spaces during the COVID-19 pandemic. However, in China, where COVID-19 has been effectively controlled, how the travel behavior of visitors to urban parks has changed under different risk levels (RLs) of COVID-19 is unclear. Faced with these gaps, we took a highly developed city, Wuhan, as a case study and a questionnaire survey was conducted with 3276 respondents to analyze the changes in park visitors' travel behaviors under different COVID-19 RLs. Using a stated preference (SP) survey method, four RLs were assigned: new cases in other provinces (RL1), Hubei province (RL2), Wuhan (RL3), and in the district of the park (RL4). The results indicated that visitors reduced their willingness to visit urban parks, with 78.39%, 37.97%, and 13.34% of visitors remaining under RL2, RL3, and RL4, respectively. Furthermore, the service radius of urban parks also shrank from 4230 m under no new cases of COVID-19 to approximately 3000 m under RL3. A higher impact was found for visitors using public transport, those with a higher income and higher education, and female visitors. Based on the modified travel behaviors, the Gaussian-based two-step floating catchment area (2SFCA) method was used to evaluate the accessibility and the Gini coefficient was calculated to represent the equality of the urban parks. A higher RL led to lower accessibility and greater inequitable access. The results should help the government guide residents' travel behaviors after COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Parks, Recreational , China , Female , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Travel
3.
Neurology Perspectives ; 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1505423

ABSTRACT

Background The novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which causes the disease COVID-19, has caused a pandemic that has rapidly affected the whole world and caused a significant threat to public health. The aim of this study was to investigate and analyze the social and occupational effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) in three different countries: China, Spain, and Cuba. Methods A cross-sectional survey was designed to assess the social and occupational effects of the COVID-19 pandemic in MS patients in these three countries, using a 25-item anonymous online questionnaire, structured into three sections. Quantitative data are expressed as mean (standard deviation), and quantitative data as absolute frequency and percentage. Results A total of 361 participants responded to the questionnaire: 194 from China, 104 from Spain, and 63 from Cuba. We found no cases of COVID-19 among Chinese patients with MS, and few cases in Spain and Cuba. Respondents reported different levels of impact on relationships with friends, family, and colleagues, and patients in all three countries described increased use of digital or social media platforms. Spanish patients reported a significantly less negative impact than those in Cuba and China. Mental and cognitive effects were similar in all three countries, although China seemed to have a better situation. We also found that the time spent exercising decreased at specific points during the pandemic, but with few changes in dietary habits. Patients reported little or no change in their means of transport in all three countries. Most patients in all three countries reported little or no physical deterioration, especially in Chinese patients (82.47%), compared to the Spanish (70.20%) and Cuban respondents (73.02%). In general, patients from all three countries demonstrated confidence in overcoming the COVID-19 pandemic, although to a lesser extent among Spanish respondents. Conclusions During the pandemic, family support was more effective in China than in Cuba and Spain. Neither COVID-19 infections nor the number of MS relapses increased significantly during lockdown in any of the three countries. Regarding their economic situation, Spanish MS patients reported a significantly less severe negative impact than those in Cuba and China. Patients from all three countries used digital or social media platforms more frequently, probably to maintain personal relationships. Chinese and Cuban respondents were more confident of the control of the pandemic than the Spanish, who were more pessimistic.

4.
Cerebrovasc Dis ; 50(2): 185-199, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1348201

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Posterior circulation stroke is characterized by poor prognosis because its optimal thrombolysis "time window" is always missed. After mechanical thrombectomy (MT), the recanalization rate of posterior circulation obstruction is significantly increased, but prognosis remains poor. To best manage patients, prognostic factors are needed to inform MT triaging after posterior circulation stroke. METHODS: A systematic literature search was done for the period through April 2020. Studies included those with posterior circulation stroke cases that underwent MT. The primary outcome measure in this study was the modified Rankin Scale on day 90. RESULTS: No outcome differences were found in gender, atrial fibrillation, smoking, and coronary artery disease (OR = 1.07, 95% CI: 0.90-1.28; OR = 1.02, 95% CI: 0.82-1.26; OR = 1.26, 95% CI: 0.94-1.68; and OR = 0.84, 95% CI: 0.58-1.22, respectively). Hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and previous stroke correlated with poorer prognosis (OR = 0.61, 95% CI: 0.48-0.77; OR = 0.60, 95% CI: 0.50-0.73; and OR = 0.74, 95% CI: 0.55-0.99, respectively). However, hyperlipidemia correlated with better prognosis (OR = 1.28, 95% CI: 1.04-1.58). CONCLUSION: Our analysis indicates that hypertension, diabetes mellitus, or previous stroke correlate with poorer outcomes. Intriguingly, hyperlipidemia correlates with better prognosis. These factors may help inform triage decisions when considering MT for posterior circulation stroke patients. However, large, multicenter, randomized controlled trials are needed to validate these observations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Ischemic Stroke/therapy , Outcome and Process Assessment, Health Care/trends , Patient Admission/trends , Practice Patterns, Physicians'/trends , Thrombectomy/trends , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Hospital Mortality/trends , Humans , Ischemic Stroke/diagnosis , Ischemic Stroke/mortality , Male , Middle Aged , Quality Indicators, Health Care/trends , Recovery of Function , Referral and Consultation/trends , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Thrombectomy/adverse effects , Thrombectomy/mortality , Time Factors , Time-to-Treatment/trends , Treatment Outcome
5.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 684101, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1332124

ABSTRACT

Some patients retested positive for SARS-CoV-2 following negative testing results and discharge. However, the potential risk factors associated with redetectable positive testing results in a large sample of patients who recovered from COVID-19 have not been well-estimated. A total of 745 discharged patients were enrolled between January 30, 2020, and September 9, 2020, in Guangzhou, China. Data on the clinical characteristics, comorbidities, drug therapy, RT-PCR testing, and contact modes to close contacts were collected. Patients who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 after discharge were confirmed by guidelines issued by China. The repositive rate in different settings was calculated. Among 745 discharged patients, 157 (21.1%; 95% CI, 18.2-24.0%) tested repositive and the repositive rate was 16.8% (95% CI, 14.1-24.0%) for nasopharyngeal swabs and 9.7% (95% CI, 7.0-12.5%) for anal swabs. Among them, 55 (35.0%) were asymptomatic, 15 (9.6%) had mild symptoms, 83 (52.9%) had moderate symptoms, and 4 (2.6%) had severe symptoms at the first admission. The days from discharge to repositivity was 8.0 (IQR, 8.0-14.0). Most repositive patients were without clinical symptoms, and lymphocyte cell counts were higher than before being discharged. The likelihood of repositive testing for SARS-CoV-2 RNA was significantly higher among patients who were of younger age (OR, 3.88; 95% CI, 1.74-8.66, 0-17 years old), had asymptomatic severity (OR, 4.36; 95% CI, 1.47-12.95), and did not have clinical symptoms (OR, 1.89; 95% CI, 1.32-2.70, without fever). No other positive patients emerged within the families or close contacts of repositive patients. Our findings support prolonged but intermittent viral shedding as the probable cause for this phenomenon; we need to familiarize with the possibility that the virus will remain endemic.

6.
J Back Musculoskelet Rehabil ; 34(3): 337-342, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1247784

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Hip fractures are serious fractures for the elderly. The rehabilitation of patients with hip fractures has been greatly affected by the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. OBJECTIVE: We have piloted a new model for tracking patients and providing rehabilitation guidance that uses WeChat. The purpose of this study is to explore the role of chat software in rehabilitation guidance for hip fracture patients during COVID-19. METHODS: Patients treated for hip fractures from February 1 to April 30, 2020 were randomly divided into a control group and an observation group. The control group was given conventional discharge guidance, while the observation group also followed up the patients using WeChat to guide the exercise. Satisfaction, the Harris Hip Score, complications and the mortality of the two groups after discharge were compared. RESULTS: The incidence of complications and mortality in the observation group were significantly lower than in the control group: p= 0.022 and p= 0.048, respectively. The Harris Hip Score and satisfaction were significantly better than the control group's: p= 0.000 and p= 0.007, respectively. CONCLUSION: During the COVID-19 pandemic, it is very helpful to use WeChat software or other social software with similar functions (such as WhatsApp and Facebook) to guide the rehabilitation of hip fractures.


Subject(s)
Aftercare , COVID-19 , Hip Fractures/rehabilitation , Patient Satisfaction , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Software
7.
Front Pharmacol ; 11: 592238, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1082186

ABSTRACT

The cytokine storm or cytokine storm syndrome (CSS) is associated with high mortality in patients with acute lung injury (ALI) and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), for example following sepsis or infectious diseases including COVID-19. However, there are no effective treatments for CSS-associated ALI or ALI/ARDS. Thus, there remains an urgent need to develop effective drugs and therapeutic strategies against CSS and ALI/ARDS. Nasal and inhaled drug delivery methods represent a promising strategy in the treatment of inflammatory lung disease as a result of their ability to improve drug delivery to lungs. Improving the nasal mucosa absorption of poorly water-soluble drugs with poor mucosa bioavailability to a therapeutically effective level is another promising strategy in the fight against ALI/ARDS. Here, chitosan nanoparticles loaded with hesperidin (HPD/NPs) were developed for nasal delivery of the anti-inflammatory HPD compound to inflammatory lungs. In vitro and in vivo, HPD/NPs exhibited enhanced cellular uptake in the inflammatory microenvironment compared with free HPD. In a mouse model of inflammatory lung disease, the HPD/NPs markedly inhibited lung injury as evidenced by reduced inflammatory cytokine levels and suppressed vascular permeability compared with free HPD. Collectively, our study demonstrates that nasal delivery of HPD/NPs suppresses CSS and ALI/ARDS in a murine model of inflammatory lung disease, and that nanoparticle-based treatment strategies with anti-inflammatory effects could be used to reduce CSS and ALI in patients with inflammatory lung injury.

8.
International Review of Financial Analysis ; : 101702, 2021.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1065227

ABSTRACT

We analyzed the return and volatility spillover between the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020, the crude oil market, and the stock market by employing two empirical methods for connectedness: the time-domain approach developed by Diebold and Yilmaz (2012) and the method based on frequency dynamics developed by Barunik and Krehlik (2018). We find that the return spillover mainly occurs in the short term;however, the volatility spillover mainly occurs in the long term. From the moving window analysis results, the impact of COVID-19 created an unprecedented level of risk, such as plummeting oil prices and triggering the US stock market circuit breaker four times, which caused investors to suffer heavy losses in a short period. Furthermore, the impact of COVID-19 on the volatility of the oil and stock markets exceeds that caused by the 2008 global financial crisis, and continues to have an effect. The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on financial markets is uncertain in both the short and long terms. Our research provides some urgent and prominent insights to help investors and policymakers avoid the risks in the crude oil and stock markets because of the COVID-19 pandemic and reestablish economic development policy strategies.

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