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1.
Bioengineering (Basel) ; 9(7)2022 Jun 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1917273

ABSTRACT

Over the past decades, RNA viruses have been threatened people's health and led to global health emergencies. Significant progress has been made in diagnostic methods and antiviral therapeutics for combating RNA viruses. ELISA and RT-qPCR are reliable methods to detect RNA viruses, but they suffer from time-consuming procedures and limited sensitivities. Vaccines are effective to prevent virus infection and drugs are useful for antiviral treatment, while both need a relatively long research and development cycle. In recent years, CRISPR-based gene editing and modifying tools have been expanded rapidly. In particular, the CRISPR-Cas13 system stands out from the CRISPR-Cas family due to its accurate RNA-targeting ability, which makes it a promising tool for RNA virus diagnosis and therapy. Here, we review the current applications of the CRISPR-Cas13 system against RNA viruses, from diagnostics to therapeutics, and use some medically important RNA viruses such as SARS-CoV-2, dengue virus, and HIV-1 as examples to demonstrate the great potential of the CRISPR-Cas13 system.

2.
Mikrochim Acta ; 189(3): 128, 2022 03 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1802751

ABSTRACT

This review focuses on critical scientific barriers that the field of point-of-care (POC) testing of SARS-CoV-2 is facing and possible solutions to overcome these barriers using functional nucleic acid (FNA)-based technology. Beyond the summary of recent advances in FNA-based sensors for COVID-19 diagnostics, our goal is to outline how FNA might serve to overcome the scientific barriers that currently available diagnostic approaches are suffering. The first introductory section on the operationalization of the COVID-19 pandemic in historical view and its clinical features contextualizes essential SARS-CoV-2-specific biomarkers. The second part highlights three major scientific barriers for POC COVID-19 diagnosis, that is, the lack of a general method for (1) designing receptors of SARS-CoV-2 variants; (2) improving sensitivity to overcome false negatives; and (3) signal readout in resource-limited settings. The subsequent part provides fundamental insights into FNA and technical tricks to successfully achieve effective COVID-19 diagnosis by using in vitro selection of FNA to overcome receptor design barriers, combining FNA with multiple DNA signal amplification strategies to improve sensitivity, and interfacing FNA with portable analyzers to overcome signal readout barriers. This review concludes with an overview of further opportunities and emerging applications for FNA-based sensors against COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing/methods , Nucleic Acids/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antigens, Viral/analysis , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Point-of-Care Systems , RNA, Viral/analysis , RNA, Viral/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
3.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 201: 113944, 2022 Apr 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1588207

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), which poses an extremely serious global impact on human public healthcare, represents a high transmission and disease-causing viral infection caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) that is expanding at a rapid pace. Therefore, it is urgent for researchers to establish effective platforms for the assay and treatment of SARS-CoV-2. Functional nucleic acids (FNAs), comprising aptamers and nucleases, are of primary concern within the biological and medical communities owing of the distinctive properties of their target recognition and catalysis. This review will concentrate on the essential aspects of insights regarding FNAs and their technological expertise for the diagnostic and therapeutic utilization against COVID-19. We first offer a historical perspective of the COVID-19 pandemics, its clinical characteristics and potential biomarkers. Then, we briefly discuss the current diagnostic and therapeutic methodology towards COVID-19, highlighting the superiorities and existing shortcomings. After that, we introduce the key features of FNAs, and summarize recent progress of in vitro selection of FNAs for SARS-CoV-2 specific proteins and RNAs, followed by highlighting the general concept of translating FNAs into functional probes for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. Then, we critically review the emerging FNAs-based diagnostic and therapeutic strategies that are fast, precise, efficient, and highly specific to fight COVID-19. Finally, we identify remaining challenges and offer future outlook of this emerging field.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques , COVID-19 , Nucleic Acids , Humans , Nucleic Acids/genetics , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
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