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1.
Inflammatory bowel diseases ; 28(Suppl 1):S104-S105, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1999468

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND There are limited data on coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in vaccinated patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). We aimed to describe outcomes and identify risk factors for hospitalization, severe COVID-19, and death in this population. METHODS Data from the Surveillance Epidemiology of Coronavirus Under Research Exclusion in Inflammatory Bowel Disease (SECURE-IBD) database were analyzed. Patients with IBD who received at least one vaccine dose prior to diagnosis of COVID-19 were included. Patients received mRNA (Pfizer and Moderna), adenovirus vector (CanSino, AstraZeneca, Sputnik, and Janssen), or inactivated SARS-CoV-2 (Sinovac) vaccines. Partial vaccination was defined as having not received the full complement of doses for the vaccine received. Outcomes were hospitalization, death, and severe COVID-19, a composite of intensive care unit admission, mechanical ventilation, and/or death. RESULTS Among 141 cases, 12 (8.5%) were hospitalized, 4 (2.8%) had severe COVID-19, and 1 (0.7%) died. During the same period, proportions in the unvaccinated were 9.3%, 1.9%, and 1.2%, respectively. Nearly three-quarters of patients with COVID-19 after vaccination were on biologics and one-third were taking immunomodulators. Fewer hospitalizations occurred in those with completed vaccine series than partially complete series (5.7% vs 13.2%, p = 0.13), and in those receiving mRNA vaccines than adenovirus vector (4.7% vs 22.7%, p = 0.01) or inactivated SARS-CoV-2 (4.7% vs 16.7%, p=0.15) vaccines. Only 2.9% of those with completed mRNA series were hospitalized. Patients on biologic monotherapy were less frequently hospitalized than patients on immunomodulator monotherapy (4.2% vs 27.3%, p=0.03) or combination therapy (4.2% vs 10.0%, p = 0.36). Overall, hospitalized patients were older (mean age 50 years vs 40 years, p = 0.03). Severe COVID-19 was less common in those receiving mRNA vaccines than adenovirus vector (0.9% vs 4.6%;p = 0.31) or inactivated SARS-CoV-2 (0.9% vs 16.7%;p = 0.02) vaccines. Of the four patients with severe COVID-19, two were taking tumor necrosis factor antagonists, three were taking azathioprine, and one had chronic lung disease. The only death was in a patient on triple immunosuppression with adalimumab, azathioprine, and systemic steroids. CONCLUSION In patients with IBD, incomplete vaccination, non-mRNA vaccines, and immunomodulator use are associated with increased risk of adverse events during COVID-19 infections.

2.
Front Public Health ; 10: 930653, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1987606

ABSTRACT

Background: During the Coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic, wearing masks became crucial for preventing infection risk and maintaining basic health. Therefore, it is necessary to understand the behavioral characteristics of the mask-wearing public to provide theoretical reference for the prevention and control of COVID-19. Methods: We conducted a nationwide survey on the mask-wearing behavior of the public and their health literacy levels by distributing electronic questionnaires. Univariate and logistic regression analyses were performed to determine the factors influencing mask-wearing behavior. Pearson's correlation was used to analyze the correlation between mask-wearing behaviors and e-health literacy. Results: A total of 1,972 valid questionnaires were collected; 99.8% of the public wore masks when going out and 59.2% showed good mask-wearing behavior. Most people choose to wear disposable medical masks (61.3%), followed by medical surgical masks (52.9%). All participants indicated that they had understood the information on how to use masks, and most obtained it through social media (61.8%). The average of the e-health literacy scores of those with good mask-wearing behavior was significantly higher than those with poor mask-wearing behavior (P < 0.05), and each item score of the former's e-health literacy was significantly higher than the latter (P < 0.05). Further, there was a positive correlation between mask-wearing behavior and e-health literacy (R = 0.550, P < 0.05). Logistic regression analysis showed that seven factors are related to mask-wearing behavior, including gender, place of residence, educational level, work or living environment, marital status, flu symptoms, and whether living with people in home quarantine (P < 0.01). Conclusion: The overall compliance of the public's mask-wearing behavior in China during COVID-19 is good. However, there are shortcomings regarding the selection, use, and precautions. The differences in mask-wearing behavior are related to factors including gender, place of residence, educational level, work or living environment, marital status, presence of flu symptoms, and whether living with people in home quarantine. Higher levels of e-health literacy indicated better mask-wearing behavior. Therefore, it is necessary to strengthen the public's popularization and education regarding the prevention and control of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Health Literacy , Masks , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , China/epidemiology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Environ Res ; 211: 113055, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1972077

ABSTRACT

To better understand the change characteristics and reduction in organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) in particulate matter (PM) with a diameter of ≤2.5 µm (PM2.5) driven by the most stringent clean air policies and pandemic-related lockdown measures in China, a comprehensive field campaign was performed to measure the carbonaceous components in PM2.5 on an hourly basis via harmonized analytical methods in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei and its surrounding region (including 2 + 26 cities) from January 1 to December 31, 2020. The results indicated that the annual average concentrations of OC and EC reached as low as 6.6 ± 5.7 and 1.8 ± 1.9 µg/m3, respectively, lower than those obtained in previous studies, which could be attributed to the effectiveness of the Clean Air Action Plan and the impact of the COVID-19-related lockdown measures implemented in China. Marked seasonal and diurnal variations in OC and EC were observed in the 2 + 26 cities. Significant correlations (p < 0.001) between OC and EC were found. The annual average secondary OC levels level ranged from 1.8-5.4 µg/m3, accounting for 37.7-73.0% of the OC concentration in the 2 + 26 cities estimated with the minimum R squared method. Based on Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments (IMPROVE) algorithms, the light extinction contribution of carbonaceous PM to the total amount reached 21.1% and 26.0% on average, suggesting that carbonaceous PM played a less important role in visibility impairment than did the other chemical components in PM2.5. This study is expected to provide an important real-time dataset and in-depth analysis of the significant reduction in OC and EC in PM2.5 driven by both the Clean Air Action Plan and COVID-19-related lockdown policies over the past few years, which could represent an insightful comparative case study for other developing countries/regions facing similar carbonaceous PM pollution.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , COVID-19 , Aerosols/analysis , Air Pollutants/analysis , COVID-19/prevention & control , Carbon/analysis , China , Cities , Communicable Disease Control , Environmental Monitoring , Humans , Particle Size , Particulate Matter/analysis , Seasons
4.
Int J Biol Sci ; 18(12): 4648-4657, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1954693

ABSTRACT

Asymptomatic infection with SARS-CoV-2 is a major concern in the control of the COVID-19 pandemic. Many questions concerning asymptomatic infection remain to be answered, for example, what are the differences in infectivity and the immune response between asymptomatic and symptomatic infections? In this study, based on a cohort established by the Wuchang District Health Bureau of Wuhan in the early stage of the COVID-19 pandemic in Wuhan in 2019, we conducted a comprehensive analysis of the clinical, virological, immunological, and epidemiological data of asymptomatic infections. The major findings of this study included: 1) the asymptomatic cohort enrolled this study exhibited low-grade but recurrent activity of viral replication; 2) despite a lack of overt clinical symptoms, asymptomatic infections exhibited ongoing innate and adaptive immune responses; 3) however, the immune response from asymptomatic infections was not activated adequately, which may lead to delayed viral clearance. Given the fragile equilibrium between viral infection and host immunity, and the delayed viral clearance in asymptomatic individuals, close viral monitoring should be scheduled, and therapeutic intervention may be needed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Asymptomatic Infections , Humans , Immunity , Immunity, Innate , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
5.
J Hazard Mater ; 439: 129621, 2022 Jul 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1936775

ABSTRACT

Due to COVID-19, large amounts of personal protective equipment (PPE) have been used, and many PPE units are made of plastics, such as face masks. The masks can be burned naturally in a bushfire or artificially at the incineration plants, and release microplastics and nanoplastics from the mask plastic fibres. A fire can cause the plastic, such as polypropylene (PP) fibres, to be molten and stick to the solid surface, such as glass, soil, concrete or plant, as films or islands, due to the binding property of the molten plastic material. Once the films or islands are peeled off in the processes such as weathering, ageing, or treatment and clean-up, there are residuals leftover, which are identified as nanoplastics and microplastics via Raman imaging, with the significant release amount of ~1100 nanoplastics / 10 µm2 or ~11 billion / cm2, and ~50 microplastics / 420 µm2 or ~12 million / cm2. Moreover, surface group is deviated on the plastic surface, which can also be distinguished and visualised as well via Raman imaging, down to nano size. This test validates the Raman imaging approach to capture microplastics and nanoplastics, and also provides important information about the fate and transportation of PPE mask in the environment, particularly when subjected to a fire. Overall, Raman imaging can be an effective option to characterise the microplastics and nanoplastics, along with the deviated surface group.

6.
Inflamm Bowel Dis ; 2022 Jul 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1931837

ABSTRACT

We demonstrate low rates of breakthrough coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection and mild course of illness following severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 vaccination in a large cohort of inflammatory bowel disease patients. Residence in southern United States and lower median anti-receptor binding antibody level were associated with development of COVID-19.

10.
mLife ; n/a(n/a), 2022.
Article in English | Wiley | ID: covidwho-1885423

ABSTRACT

Gut microbiota composition is suggested to associate with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) severity, but the impact of gut microbiota on health outcomes is largely unclear. We recruited 81 individuals from Wuhan, China, including 13 asymptomatic infection cases (Group A), 24 COVID-19 convalescents with adverse outcomes (Group C), 31 severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) re-positive cases (Group D), and 13 non-COVID-19 healthy controls (Group H). The microbial features of Groups A and D were similar and exhibited higher gut microbial diversity and more abundant short-chain fatty acid (SCFA)-producing species than Group C. Group C was enriched with opportunistic pathogens and virulence factors related to adhesion and toxin production. The abundance of SCFA-producing species was negatively correlated, while Escherichia coli was positively correlated with adverse outcomes. All three groups (A, C, and D) were enriched with the mucus-degrading species Akkermansia muciniphila, but decreased with Bacteroides-encoded carbohydrate-active enzymes. The pathways of vitamin B6 metabolic and folate biosynthesis were decreased, while selenocompound metabolism was increased in the three groups. Specifically, the secondary bile acid (BA) metabolic pathway was enriched in Group A. Antibiotic resistance genes were common among the three groups. Conclusively, the gut microbiota was related to the health outcomes of COVID-19. Dietary supplementations (SCFAs, BA, selenium, folate, vitamin B6) may be beneficial to COVID-19 patients.

11.
Front Immunol ; 13: 905431, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1883914

ABSTRACT

The Zika virus (ZIKV) epidemic poses a substantial threat to the public, and the development of safe and effective vaccines is a demanding challenge. In this study, we constructed a kind of self-assembling nanovaccine which confers complete protection against ZIKV infection. The ZIKV envelop protein domain III (zEDIII) was presented on recombinant human heavy chain ferritin (rHF) to form the zEDIII-rHF nanoparticle. Immunization of mice with zEDIII-rHF nanoparticle in the absence of an adjuvant induced robust humoral and cellular immune responses. zEDIII-rHF vaccination conferred complete protection against lethal infection with ZIKV and eliminated pathological symptoms in the brain. Importantly, the zEDIII-rHF nanovaccine induced immune response did not cross-react with dengue virus-2, overcoming the antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) problem that is a safety concern for ZIKV vaccine development. Our constructed zEDIII-rHF nanovaccine, with superior protective performance and avoidance of ADE, provides an effective and safe vaccine candidate against ZIKV.


Subject(s)
Zika Virus Infection , Zika Virus , Animals , Antibodies, Viral , Antibody-Dependent Enhancement , Immunization , Mice
13.
Journal of Translational Critical Care Medicine ; 3(1):1-4, 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1824143

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives: To explore the superiority of flipping-classroom lended learning in which the stay-home e-learning and traditional internship complements each other in resident training of endcorinology during coronavirus disease 2019 restriction period. Materials and Methods: A total of 44 residents were randomized as the study population. In the endocrine-rotation training, we reformed the clinical learning by unified online-teaching led by teachers' combination with individual guidance by residents. Moreover, the final implementation assessment was conducted by standard double-blind examinations. Results: After 4–8 weeks training, the 44 residents were assessed for clinical skills from six dimensions, including medical history collection, physical examination, history report and inpatient record writing, case analysis, and overviewing capability. Compared with the mean scores of 68 residents rotated in internal medicine in 2019, the mean scores on physical examination, inpatient record writing, and overviewing capability in 2020 group were higher with significance ([85.72 ± 8.33] vs.[79.22 ± 10.12], P = 0.0006), ([90.28 ± 10.70] vs. [81.82 ± 8.03], P < 0.0001), ([80.31 ± 8.70] vs. [73.04 ± 12.74], P = 0.0012), whereas scores on skills of medical history collection and history report were slightly lower ([82.11 ± 9.02] vs. [85.06 ± 7.23], P = 0.0586), ([79.30 ± 8.17] vs. [83.21 ± 5.01], P = 0.0022), while scores on case analysis did not show huge gap but with polarized performance in 2020 group ([74.38 ± 10.29] vs. [78.13 ± 8.53], P = 0.0386). Conclusions: Providing the novel pattern of unified online-teaching combined with individual-guidance at the bedside to the front-line residents can reduce the risk of cluster epidemics and effectively ensure the training effect on them but still with shortcomings. The future online teaching reform is better for focus more on how to make up for or reduce the actual problem of disconnection between theory and practice in the process of online clinical skills training for residents and teachers.

15.
Chemical science ; 13(4):1119-1129, 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1696188

ABSTRACT

Bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) and its derivative molecular biosensor systems provide effective tools for visualizing biomolecular interactions. The introduction of red and near-infrared fluorescence emission proteins has expanded the spectrum of signal generating modules, enabling BiFC for in vivo imaging. However, the large size of the signal module of BiFC can hinder the interaction between proteins under investigation. In this study, we constructed the near-infrared BiFC and TriFC systems by splitting miRFP670nano, the smallest cyanobacteriochrome-evolved phytochrome available. The miRFP670nano-BiFC sensor system identified and enabled visualization of protein–protein interactions in living cells and live mice, and afforded a faster maturation rate and higher photostability and cellular stability when compared with those of reported near-infrared BiFC systems. We used the miRFP670nano-BiFC sensor system to identify interactions between the nucleocapsid (N) protein of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and cellular stress granule proteins in living cells and found that the N protein downregulated the expression level of granule protein G3BP1. With the advantages of small size and long wavelength emission of the signal module, the proposed molecular biosensor system should be suitable for various applications in cell imaging studies. The smallest near-infrared fluorescence complementation system for imaging protein–protein and RNA–protein interactions in living cells and live mice.

16.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-316036

ABSTRACT

The pseudovirus strategy makes studies of highly pathogenic viruses feasible without the restriction of high-level biosafety facility, thus greatly contributing to virology and being used in research of SARS-CoV-2. Here, we generated a dual-color pseudo-SARS-CoV-2 virus using an HIV-1 pseudovirus production system and the SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) glycoprotein, of which the membrane was labeled with lipophilic dye (DiO) and the genomic RNA-related viral protein R (Vpr) of the viral core were fused with mCherry. With this dual-color labeling strategy, not only the movement of the whole virus but also the fate of the labeled components can be traced. The pseudovirions were applied to track viral entry at a single particle level in four types of the human respiratory cells: nasal epithelial cells (HNEpC), pulmonary alveolar epithelial cells (HPAEpiC), bronchial epithelial cells (BEP-2D), and oral epithelial cells (HOEC). Pseudo-SARS-CoV-2 entered into the host cell and released viral core into the cytoplasm,which clearly indicates that the host entry mainly occurred through endocytosis. The infection efficiency was found to be correlated with the expression of the known receptor of SARS-CoV-2, angiotensin-converting 2 (ACE2) on the host cell surface. We believe that the dual-color fluorescence labeled pseudovirus system created in this study can be a useful tool in SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19 for many purposes.

17.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-325160

ABSTRACT

Abstract To fight against the coronavirus infectious disease-2019 (COVID-19), chlorine-based disinfectants are extensively or even over used for water, surface and personal care decontamination. The risks of disinfection by-products (DBPs) have been alerted to cause serious secondary pollution;however, there is still lack of evidence. This study collected 110 water samples from nine lakes and two rivers in Wuhan during the COVID-19 pandemic and comprehensively analyzed the occurrence of eighteen DBPs. Trihalomethanes, halonitromethanes, halogen acetonitriles and nitrosamines had a high detection frequency and were 0.99-14.26, ND-4.62, ND-1.09 and 0.0414-0.0861 μg/L, respectively, all lower than the maximum contamination level (MCL) suggested by China and USA. Haloacetic acids were detected in all lakes and Yangtze River and ranged from 33.8 to 856.1 μg/L, much higher than the MCL. Haloacetic acids and halogen acetonitriles accounted for 74.2-95.1% of the total cytotoxicity (0.38-3.62×105);halonitromethanes (94.0-98.7%) contributed to the majority of genotoxicity (0.52-5.17×104). Dichloroacetic acid exhibited significant ecological risks to green algae in two lakes and Yangtze River (risk quotient >10), and all the other DBPs showed negligible risks (risk quotient <0.01) to fish, daphnid or green algae. Correlation and redundancy analysis identified strong correlations between total organic carbon, conductivity, NH3-N, turbidity and DBPs. DBP composition and the fluorescence indices of dissolved organic matters together categorized all lakes into two types. Type-I lakes contained all DBP categories, driven by total organic carbon and secondarily formed by residual active chlorine with natural organic matters;Type-II lakes and Yangtze River only had high levels of haloacetic acids and small amounts of trihalomethanes, explained by the primary formation of DBPs in sewage. Our findings for the first time uncovered the significant accumulation and risks of DBPs in lakes and rivers of Wuhan during the COVID-19, provided the evidence of secondary pollution from intensive disinfection activities with chlorine-based disinfectants, evaluated the potential the ecological risks of DBPs in Wuhan and along Yangtze River, and raised our re-consideration of disinfection strategy in the pandemics and post-COVID-19 era.

18.
Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 20(8): 1881-1883.e1, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1670286

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic has disrupted health care and has resulted in high mortality rates.1 Vaccination is an international priority to mitigate the risks of SARS-CoV-2. The initial trials for development of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines excluded individuals with immunocompromising conditions.2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
19.
Nat Med ; 26(6): 845-848, 2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1641979

ABSTRACT

We report acute antibody responses to SARS-CoV-2 in 285 patients with COVID-19. Within 19 days after symptom onset, 100% of patients tested positive for antiviral immunoglobulin-G (IgG). Seroconversion for IgG and IgM occurred simultaneously or sequentially. Both IgG and IgM titers plateaued within 6 days after seroconversion. Serological testing may be helpful for the diagnosis of suspected patients with negative RT-PCR results and for the identification of asymptomatic infections.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibody Formation/drug effects , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Adult , Aged , Antibody Formation/immunology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus/genetics , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2
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