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1.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 22(1): 114, 2022 Feb 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1962771

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Peripartum depression in and after pregnancy are common, reported by 11.9% of women worldwide, and the proportion was even higher during the outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We aimed to investigate the prevalence and risk factors of peripartum depression under the influence of COVID-19 in China. METHODS: Using a cross-sectional design, 2026 pregnant and postpartum women residing in Beijing, Wuhan, and Lanzhou of China were recruited from February 28 to April 9, 2020. The Patient Health Questionnaire-9 was used to assess their depressive symptoms. The women were divided into four subgroups based on pregnancy stage, and a binary logistic regression analysis was conducted on each subgroup. RESULTS: Under the influence of COVID-19, the prevalence rate of peripartum depression among Chinese women was 9.7%. It was 13.6, 10.8, 7.9 and 7.3% in the first, second, third trimester and puerperium, respectively. Regression analysis showed that the influence of current pregnancy status on movement (Mild vs. No, aORs were 3.89, P < 0.001, 2.92, P = 0.003, 1.58, P = 0.150 in the three trimesters, respectively; Severe vs. No, aORs were 13.00, 20.45, 5.38 in the three trimesters, respectively, all P < 0.05), and worries and fears about childbirth (aORs were 2.46, 2.96, 2.50 in the three trimesters, respectively, all P < 0.05) were associated with depression throughout pregnancy. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence rate of peripartum depression during the COVID-19 outbreak in China was not higher than usual. The influence of current pregnancy status on movement, as well as worries and fears about childbirth were independent risk factors for peripartum depression throughout pregnancy during COVID-19. The stage of pregnancy should be considered when implementing interventions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Depression/epidemiology , Peripartum Period/psychology , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Patient Health Questionnaire , Postpartum Period/psychology , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Trimesters/psychology , Prevalence , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(14)2022 Jul 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1938795

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: fear of COVID-19 is widespread among the population, especially among college students because of their increased exposure to the media information overload of the COVID-19 outbreak. The Fear of COVID-19 scale (FCV-19 S) is a relatively short instrument used to evaluate fears surrounding the COVID-19 pandemic. However, the validity and reliability of the Fear of COVID-19 Scale have not been fully investigated in Chinese university student groups. OBJECTIVES: this study assessed the cross-cultural adaptability and reliability of the FCV-19S for Chinese university students. METHODS: a Chinese version of Fear of COVID-19 Scale (C-FCV-19S) was generated using the translation-backward translation method. Psychometric properties of the C-FCV-19S, including internal consistency, split-half reliability, construct reliability, convergent validity, and diagnostic accuracy, were evaluated. The Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ) and Generalized Anxiety Disorder Questionnaire (GAD-7) scales were also used to evaluate participants for depression and anxiety. RESULTS: the C-FCV-19S has acceptable internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha: 0.872) and satisfactory split-half reliability (correlation coefficient: 0.799). Using the exploratory factor analysis (EFA), we examined the construct reliability (KMO = 0.920). The confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) confirmed that the bifactor model of scale (including general factor, factor1: the awareness of COVID-19 and physiological arousal, factor 2: fear-related thinking) had a good fit index (χ2/df =6.18, RMSEA= 0.067, SRMR = 0.028, GFI = 0.986, TLI = 0.970 and CFI= 0.988). Using depression-positive and anxiety-positive scores as reference criteria, we found that the areas under the curve were 0.70 and 0.68, respectively, and that the optimal cutoff scores of the C-FCV-19S was 17.5 (sensitivity: 66.3% and 58.7%, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: the validity and reliability of C-FCV-19S are satisfactory, and the optimal cutoff point was 17.5. The C-FCV-19S can be applied adopted in Chinese university students.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Cross-Cultural Comparison , Cross-Sectional Studies , Fear , Humans , Pandemics , Psychometrics/methods , Reproducibility of Results , Students , Universities
4.
Front Psychol ; 13: 814869, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1731835

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has fueled anti-Asian, especially anti-Chinese sentiments worldwide, which may negatively impact diasporic Chinese youths' adjustment and prosocial development. This study examined the association between compassion, discrimination and prosocial behaviors in diasporic Chinese youths during the COVID-19 pandemic. 360 participants participated and completed the multi-country, cross-sectional, web-based survey between April 22 and May 9, 2020, the escalating stage of the pandemic. This study found compassion as prosocial behaviors' proximal predictor, while discrimination independently predicted participation in volunteering, and could potentially enhance the association between compassion and charitable giving. These findings suggest that prosociality among young people is sensitive to social context, and that racial discrimination should be considered in future prosocial studies involving young members of ethnic and racial minorities.

5.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-321884

ABSTRACT

Background: This study aimed to compare prevalence and risk factors of somatization (SOM) between health care workers and non-health care workers during COVID-19 outbreak in China. Methods: : From 14 February to 29 March 2020, an online survey was performed in both 605 health care workers and 1151 non-health care workers. Based on the somatization dimension score of the Symptom Checklist-90, participants were divided into non-SOM group and SOM group. Results: : Health care workers had higher prevalence rate of SOM ( p < 0.001) than non-health care workers, with an OR of 1.70 (95% CI: 1.22–2.36, p = 0.002). Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that in non-health care workers, the risk factors of SOM included other ethnicities, insomnia, and suicide, while in health care workers, the risk factors included working 6-8 hours per day, and working ≥10 hours per day during COVID-19 outbreak. Conclusions: : Our research suggests that both non-health care workers and health care workers have a relatively high prevalence of somatization. However, the related factors for somatization in both groups are significantly different, showing that medical service-related factors are associated with somatization in health care workers, while demographic and clinical factors are associated with somatization in non-health care workers.

6.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-308310

ABSTRACT

Background: Research indicates the adverse impacts of perceived discrimination on health, and discrimination inflamed by the COVID-19 pandemic, a type of social exclusion, could affect the well-being of the Chinese diaspora. The relationship and pathways of perceived discrimination’s effect on health among the Chinese diaspora in the context of the pandemic were examined to contribute to the literature on discrimination in this population under the global public health crisis. Methods: . We analysed data from 705 individuals of Chinese descent residing in countries outside of China, who participated in a cross-sectional online survey carried out between April 22 and May 9, 2020. This study utilizes a structural equation model (SEM) to evaluate both direct and indirect effects of perceived discrimination on self-rated health (SRH) and assessed the mediating roles of psychological distress (namely, anxiety and depression) and social support from family and friends. Results: . In this online sample comprised predominantly of young adults and those of relatively high socioeconomic status, this study confirmed the positive and direct effect of perceived discrimination on poor SRH but found the indirect effect was mainly mediated by depression. The association between anxiety and SRH was not significant in this SEM, while a higher level of social support from family leads to better SRH, and the level of social support from friends negatively predicted SRH. Conclusions: . Our findings suggest discrimination negatively affected the well-being of the Chinese diaspora, and depression acted as a major mediator between the discrimination-health relationship. Therefore, interventions for reducing discrimination in order to preserve the well-being of the Chinese diaspora are necessary, and that prompt intervention to address depression may partially relieve the disease burden caused by the surge of discrimination.

7.
World J Psychiatry ; 12(1): 140-150, 2022 Jan 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1675112

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In contrast to many Western countries, China has maintained its large psychiatric hospitals. The prevalence and clinical characteristics of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in inpatients with schizophrenia (SCZ) are unclear. AIM: To assess the prevalence of COVID-19 among inpatients with SCZ and compare the infected to uninfected SCZ patients in a Wuhan psychiatric hospital. METHODS: We retrospectively collected demographic characteristics and clinical profiles of all SCZ patients with COVID-19 at Wuhan's Youfu Hospital. RESULTS: Among the 504 SCZ patients, 84 had COVID-19, and we randomly sampled 174 who were uninfected as a comparison group. The overall prevalence of COVID-19 in SCZ patients was 16.7%. Among the 84 SCZ patients with confirmed COVID-19, the median age was 54 years and 76.2% were male. The most common symptom was fever (82%), and less common symptoms were cough (31%), poor appetite (20%), and fatigue (16%). Compared with SCZ patients without COVID-19, those with COVID-19 were older (P = 0.006) and significantly lighter (P = 0.002), and had more comorbid physical diseases (P = 0.001). Surprisingly, those infected were less likely to be smokers (< 0.001) or to be treated with clozapine (P = 0.03). Further logistic regression showed that smoking [odds ratio (OR) = 5.61], clozapine treated (OR = 2.95), and male (OR = 3.48) patients with relatively fewer comorbid physical diseases (OR = 0.098) were at a lower risk for COVID-19. SCZ patients with COVID-19 presented primarily with fever, but only one-third had a cough, which might otherwise be the most common mode of transmission between individuals. CONCLUSION: Two unexpected protective factors for COVID-19 among SCZ inpatients are smoking and clozapine treatment.

8.
Front Psychiatry ; 12: 719931, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1636425

ABSTRACT

Background: COVID-19 pandemic is a traumatic event all over the world, and may lead to post-traumatic stress symptom (PTSS) in different population who are under the threat of novel corona virus. Therefore, the aim of our study was to compare the prevalence and risk factors of PTSS between Chinese patients with depression and non-depressed controls during the COVID-19 outbreak. Methods: 437 depressed patients and 2,940 non-depressed controls were enrolled in this cross-sectional study between February 14 and May 9, 2020.The Impact of Events Scale-Revised (IES-R), Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS), Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS) and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) were used to evaluate the psychological status of all the participants. Results: The prevalence of PTSS (IES-R ≥ 33) in depressed patients (45.08%) was higher than that in non-depressed controls (5.31%). Patients with depression were 16 times more likely to suffer from PTSS than those without depression. Correlation analyses showed that the IES-R total score was positively correlated with SDS, SAS, and PSQI scores in both depressed and non-depressed groups (Bonferroni corrected all p < 0.001). Multiple linear regression analysis showed that SAS score, and PSQI score were independently associated with IES-R total score in both depression and non-depression groups. In depressed patients, education level and duration of media exposure to COVID-19 were positively associated with PTSS, while in the non-depressed group, subjects who were married, in the 31-50 year group or with higher SDS score were more likely to develop PTSS. Conclusions: These results indicate that the prevalence rate of PTSS in patients with depression is very higher than that in subjects without depression. PTSS are associated with a number of socio-demographic and clinical variables.

9.
Front Public Health ; 9: 739068, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1581125

ABSTRACT

Background: Positive affect (PA) is crucial for individuals to cope with the current pandemic and buffer the lingering fears after it, especially for patients with substance-use disorders (SUDs). The current study aimed to explore PA and its related factors during the COVID-19 pandemic in male patients with the heroin-use disorder (HUD) and patients with the methamphetamine-use disorder (MAUD), respectively. Methods: A total of 325 male patients with SUDs (106 with HUD and 219 with MAUD, all were single-substance users) in a compulsory rehabilitation center underwent semi-structured interviews during the pandemic. The demographic information, drug-use characteristics, active coping styles (ACSs, by Simple Coping Style Questionnaire), and PA (by the Positive and Negative Affect Scale) of participants were collected and recorded. Results: There were significant differences between the two groups in age, the proportion of full-time workers before the epidemic, duration of drug use, the proportion of patients with long-term withdrawal during the epidemic, cravings, ACS, and PA. Correlation and multiple linear regression analysis showed that duration of drug use, ACS, and stable jobs were significant predictive factors for PA in patients with HUD, while long-term withdrawal, ACS, and stable jobs during the epidemic were significant predictive factors for PA in patients with MAUD. Conclusions: Our study demonstrated the factors for PA in patients with HUD and MAUD during the pandemic. The results provided a basis for the comprehensive understanding of the PA of patients with SUDs and the development of targeted treatments.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Methamphetamine , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Adaptation, Psychological , Heroin , Humans , Male , Methamphetamine/adverse effects , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Gut Pathog ; 13(1): 70, 2021 Dec 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1551225

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 pandemic is sweeping across the world. Previous studies have shown that gut microbiota is associated with COVID-19, and operational taxonomic unit (OTU) composed of Blautia genus, Lactobacillus genus, and Ruminococcus genus of Firmicutes is correlated with the severity of COVID-19. Gut microbiota imbalance in colorectal cancer patients may lead to the variation of OTU. RESULTS: Based on the GMrepo database, the gut microbiota of 1374 patients with colorectal neoplasms and 27,329 healthy people was analyzed to investigate the differences in the abundance of microbes between colorectal neoplasms patients and healthy people. Furthermore, We collected feces samples from 12 patients with colorectal cancer and 8 healthy people in Xiangya hospital for metabolomic analysis to investigate the potential mechanisms. Our study showed that the abundance of Blautia and Ruminococcus was significantly increased in colorectal neoplasms, which may increase the severity of COVID-19. The gender and age of patients may affect the severity of COVID-19 by shaping the gut microbiota, but the BMI of patients does not. CONCLUSIONS: Our work draws an initial point that gut microbiota imbalance is a risk factor of COVID-19 mortality and gut microbiota may provide a new therapeutic avenue for colorectal cancer patients.

11.
Int J Equity Health ; 20(1): 192, 2021 08 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1376584

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Research indicates the adverse impacts of perceived discrimination on health, and discrimination inflamed by the COVID-19 pandemic, a type of social exclusion, could affect the well-being of the Chinese diaspora. We analyzed the relationship and pathways of perceived discrimination's effect on health among the Chinese diaspora in the context of the pandemic to contribute to the literature on discrimination in this population under the global public health crisis. METHODS: We analyzed data from 705 individuals of Chinese descent residing in countries outside of China who participated in a cross-sectional online survey between April 22 and May 9, 2020. This study utilized a structural equation model (SEM) to evaluate both direct and indirect effects of perceived discrimination on self-rated health (SRH) and to assess the mediating roles of psychological distress (namely, anxiety and depression) and social support from family and friends. RESULTS: This online sample comprised predominantly young adults and those of relatively high socioeconomic status. This study confirmed the total and direct effect of recently perceived discrimination on SRH and found the indirect effect was mainly mediated by depression. Mediating roles of anxiety and social support on the discrimination-health relationship were found insignificant in this SEM. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest discrimination negatively affected the well-being of the Chinese diaspora, and depression acted as a major mediator between the discrimination-health relationship. Therefore, interventions for reducing discrimination to preserve the well-being of the Chinese diaspora are necessary. Prompt intervention to address depression may partially relieve the disease burden caused by the surge of discrimination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diagnostic Self Evaluation , Emigrants and Immigrants , Pandemics , Racism , Adolescent , Adult , Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , China/ethnology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Emigrants and Immigrants/psychology , Emigrants and Immigrants/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Racism/psychology , Social Support , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
12.
Front Psychiatry ; 12: 694051, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1369728

ABSTRACT

Objective: The 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) broke out in Hubei Province and spread rapidly to the whole country, causing huge public health problems. College students are a special group, and there is no survey on insomnia among college students. The purpose of this study was to investigate the incidence and related factors of insomnia in college students during the period of COVID-19. Method: A total of 1,086 college students conducted a cross-sectional study through the questionnaire star platform. The survey time was from February 15 to February 22, 2020. The collected information included demographic informatics and mental health scale, Athens Insomnia Scale (AIS) to assess sleep quality, Self-Reporting Questionnaire-20 (SRQ-20) to assess general psychological symptoms, Chinese perceived stress scale (CPSS) to assess stress. We used logistic regression to analyze the correlation between related factors and insomnia symptoms. Results: The prevalence of insomnia, general psychological symptoms and stress were 16.67, 5.8, and 40.70%, respectively. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that gender (OR = 1.55, p = 0.044, 95% CI = 1.00-2.41), general psychological symptoms (OR = 1.49, p < 0.01, 95% CI = 1.40-1.60) and living in an isolation unit (OR = 2.21, p = 0.014, 95% CI = 1.17-4.16) were risk factors for insomnia of college students. Conclusion: Our results show that the insomnia is very common among college students during the outbreak of covid-19, and the related factors include gender, general psychological symptoms and isolation environment. It is necessary to intervene the insomnia of college students and warrants attention for mental well-being of college students.

13.
Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat ; 17: 2539-2547, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1359123

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has an adverse impact on the emotional health of prenatal maternal women and their offspring. During the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, pregnant women are vulnerable to traumatic events and are prone to PTSD symptoms. The aim of the study was to explore the predictive effects of insomnia and somatization on PTSD in pregnant women by utilizing generalized additive model (GAM). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 1638 pregnant women from three local cities in China underwent online survey on sleep quality, somatization, and PTSD symptoms tested by the Insomnia Severity Index (ISI), the subscale somatization of Symptom Checklist-90 (SCL-90-S) and the Checklist for DSM-5 (PCL-5), respectively. RESULTS: Insomnia was positively correlated with PTSD symptoms in pregnant women (p = 1.79×10-5). Interestingly, insomnia and somatization showed a complex non-primary linear interaction in predicting PTSD (p = 2.00×10-16). CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that insomnia is a prominent predictor of PTSD symptoms in pregnant women in the context of public emergencies. In addition, the effects of insomnia and somatization on PTSD symptoms are characterized by complex non-primary linear relationships.

14.
Front Psychiatry ; 12: 697472, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1346425

ABSTRACT

Background: The outbreak of the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has become the greatest public health emergency and has attracted global attention. During the COVID-19 pandemic, the negative affect (NA) of elderly patients with substance use disorders (SUDs) has also become a more serious public concern. The current study aims to clarify the NA and its influencing factors in elderly patients with SUDs during the pandemic. Methods: Two psychiatrists conducted semi-structured interviews with 77 SUD patients aged above 50 years to collect their demographical information and certain drug use characteristics. Barratt Impulse Scale and the Positive and Negative Affect Scale were used to obtain information about patients' self-reported impulsivity and NA. Results: Univariate linear regression analysis showed that NA was positively correlated with the frequency of drug use, type of SUDs, cravings during COVID-19, and impulsivity. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that being female, higher frequency of drug use, stronger cravings, and greater impulsiveness jointly accounted for the variation of NA in elderly patients with SUDs. Conclusions: This study confirmed that, during the COVID-19 pandemic, gender, frequency of drug use, cravings, and impulsivity were associated with NA in elderly patients with SUDs. This study provided a theoretical basis for clinicians to reduce the patients' NA.

15.
Mol Ther ; 29(9): 2794-2805, 2021 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1345501

ABSTRACT

The numbers of cases and deaths from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are continuously increasing. Many people are concerned about the efficacy and safety of the COVID-19 vaccines. We performed a comprehensive analysis of the published trials of COVID-19 vaccines and the real-world data from the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System. Globally, our research found that the efficacy of all vaccines exceeded 70%, and RNA-based vaccines had the highest efficacy of 94.29%; moreover, Black or African American people, young people, and males may experience greater vaccine efficacy. The spectrum of vaccine-related adverse drug reactions (ADRs) is extremely broad, and the most frequent ADRs are pain, fatigue, and headache. Most ADRs are tolerable and are mainly grade 1 or 2 in severity. Some severe ADRs have been identified (thromboembolic events, 21-75 cases per million doses; myocarditis/pericarditis, 2-3 cases per million doses). In summary, vaccines are a powerful tool that can be used to control the COVID-19 pandemic, with high efficacy and tolerable ADRs. In addition, the spectrum of ADRs associated with the vaccines is broad, and most of the reactions appear within a week, although some may be delayed. Therefore, ADRs after vaccination need to be identified and addressed in a timely manner.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vaccination/methods , Vaccines, Synthetic/adverse effects , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/ethnology , COVID-19/virology , Clinical Trials, Phase III as Topic , Female , Humans , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
16.
World J Psychiatry ; 11(7): 365-374, 2021 Jul 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1335349

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has caused major public panic in China. Pregnant women may be more vulnerable to stress, which may cause them to have psychological problems. AIM: To explore the effects of perceived family support on psychological distress in pregnant women during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: A total of 2232 subjects were recruited from three cities in China. Through the online surveys, information on demographic data and health status during pregnancy were collected. Insomnia severity index, generalized anxiety disorder 7-item scale, patient health questionnaire-9, somatization subscale of the symptom check list 90 scale, and posttraumatic stress disorder checklist were used to assess the psychological distress. RESULTS: A total of 1015 (45.4%) women reported having at least one psychological distress. The women who reported having inadequate family support were more likely to suffer from multiple psychological distress (≥ 2 psychological distress) than women who received adequate family support. Among the women who reported less family support, 41.8% reported depression, 31.1% reported anxiety, 8.2% reported insomnia, 13.3% reported somatization and 8.9% reported posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), which were significantly higher than those who received strong family support. Perceived family support level was negatively correlated with depressive symptoms (r = -0.118, P < 0.001), anxiety symptoms (r = -0.111, P < 0.001), and PTSD symptoms (r = -0.155, P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Family support plays an important part on pregnant women's mental health during the COVID-19 pandemic. Better family support can help improve the mental health of pregnant women.

17.
Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat ; 17: 1907-1915, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1282366

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: During the outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), occupational differences were recognized with respect to psychological issues, but there are no reports regarding the insomnia and anxiety comorbidities and their related factors among the general public and medical staff. Our study aimed to compare the prevalence of anxiety and anxiety with insomnia, as well as the relationship between different psychological symptoms between the two groups. METHODS: A total of 605 medical staff and 1091 public respondents were assessed through an online questionnaire survey, including the 7-item Insomnia Severity Index (ISI), the somatization subscale of Symptom Checklist 90-Revised (SCL-90-R), and the 7-item Generalized Anxiety Disorder scale (GAD-7). RESULTS: Compared with the general public, medical staff had a higher incidence of anxiety (45.5% vs 32.4%). The incidence of insomnia in anxious participants was 52.7% in medical staff and 44.6% in the general public, and the difference was significant (p < 0.05). The GAD-7 score and somatization subscore of the SCI-90 were independently associated with insomnia among anxiety participants in both groups (all p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that during the epidemic period of COVID-19, medical staff experienced more anxiety and anxiety with insomnia. Somatization, anxiety and insomnia are highly correlated among medical staff and the general public.

18.
Front Psychol ; 12: 664422, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1268294

ABSTRACT

Stigmatization associated with the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is expected to be a complex issue and to extend into the later phases of the pandemic, which impairs social cohesion and relevant individuals' well-being. Identifying contributing factors and learning their roles in the stigmatization process may help tackle the problem. This study quantitatively assessed the severity of stigmatization against three different groups of people: people from major COVID-19 outbreak sites, those who had been quarantined, and healthcare workers; explored the factors associated with stigmatization within the frameworks of self-categorization theory and core social motives; and proposed solutions to resolve stigma. The cross-sectional online survey was carried out between April 21 and May 7, 2020, using a convenience sample, which yielded 1,388 valid responses. Employing data analysis methods like multivariate linear regression and moderation analysis, this study yields some main findings: (1) those from major COVID-19 outbreak sites received the highest level of stigma; (2) factors most closely associated with stigmatization, in descending order, are objectification and epidemic proximity in an autonomic aspect and fear of contracting COVID-19 in a controllable aspect; and (3) superordinate categorization is a buffering moderator in objectification-stigmatization relationship. These findings are important for further understanding COVID-19-related stigma, and they can be utilized to develop strategies to fight against relevant discrimination and bias. Specifically, reinforcing superordinate categorization by cultivating common in-group identity, such as volunteering and donating for containment of the pandemic, could reduce objectification and, thus, alleviate stigma.

19.
BMC Psychiatry ; 21(1): 276, 2021 05 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1249549

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to compare prevalence and risk factors of somatization (SOM) between health care workers and non-health care workers during COVID-19 outbreak in China. METHODS: From 14 February to 29 March 2020, an online survey was performed in both 605 health care workers and 1151 non-health care workers. Based on the somatization dimension score of the Symptom Checklist-90, participants were divided into non-SOM group and SOM group. RESULTS: Health care workers had higher prevalence rate of SOM (p < 0.001) than non-health care workers, with an OR of 1.70 (95% CI, 1.22-2.36, p = 0.002). Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that in non-health care workers, the risk factors of SOM included other ethnicities, insomnia, and suicide, while in health care workers, the risk factors included working 6-8 h per day, and working ≥10 h per day during COVID-19 outbreak. CONCLUSIONS: Our research suggests that both non-health care workers and health care workers have a relatively high prevalence of somatization. However, the related factors for somatization in both groups are significantly different, showing that medical service-related factors are associated with somatization in health care workers, while demographic and clinical factors are associated with somatization in non-health care workers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Anxiety , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression , Disease Outbreaks , Health Personnel , Humans , Mental Health , Prevalence , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
20.
Front Psychol ; 11: 618509, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1069752

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Psychological resilience may reduce the impact of psychological distress to some extent. We aimed to investigate the mental health status of the public during the outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and explore the level and related factors of anxiety and depression. METHODS: From February 8 to March 9, 2020, 3,180 public completed the Zung's Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS) for anxiety, Zung's Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS) for depression, the Connor-Davidson resilience scale (CD-RISC) for psychological resilience, and the Simplified Coping Style Questionnaire (SCSQ) for the attitudes and coping styles. RESULTS: The number of people with depressive symptoms (SDS > 53) was 1,303 (the rate was 41.0%). The number of people with anxiety symptoms (SAS > 50) was 1,184 (the rate was 37.2%). The depressed group and anxiety group had less education, more unmarried and younger age, as well as had significant different in SDS total score (P < 0.001), SAS total score (P < 0.001), CD-RISC total score (P < 0.001), and SCSQ score (P < 0.001). The binary logistic regression showed that female (B = -0.261, P = 0.026), strength (B = -0.079, P = 0.000), and the subscales of active coping style in SCSQ (B = -0.983, P = 0.000) remained protective factors and passive coping style (B = 0.293, P = 0.003) and higher SAS score (B = 0.175, P = 0.000) were risk factors for depression. Optimism (B = -0.041, P = 0.015) in CD-RISC was a protective factor, and passive coping styles (B = 0.483, P = 0.000) and higher SDS score (B = 0.134, P = 0.000) were risk factors for anxiety. LIMITATIONS: This study adopted a cross-sectional design and used self-report questionnaires. CONCLUSION: The mental health of the public, especially females, the younger and less educational populations, and unmarried individuals, should be given more attention. Individuals with high level of mental resilience and active coping styles would have lower levels of anxiety and depression during the outbreak of COVID-19.

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