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1.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-332530

ABSTRACT

With the COVID-19 pandemic, the Internet has become a key player in the daily lives of most people. We investigate the relationship between mental health and internet use frequency and purpose six months after the first lockdown in the UK, September 2020. Using data from the UK Household Longitudinal Study on the 12-item General Health Questionnaire and the Internet use module, and controlling for sociodemographic characteristics and personality traits, we find that older individuals (aged 59 or above) have a lower internet use frequency (twice a day or less). Younger women use the Internet for social purposes more than men do, while younger men use the Internet for leisure-and-learning purposes more than women and older men do. Both high frequency internet use and use for social purposes appear to be a protective factor for social dysfunction. Interestingly, high internet use is a protective factor for social dysfunction among younger women, but a risk factor for psychological distress among younger men. Finally, while leisure-and-learning purpose is a protective factor for social dysfunction among younger women, it is a risk factor for social dysfunction among younger men.

2.
Front Public Health ; 10: 764203, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775974

ABSTRACT

Background: Stigmatization and poor social support are challenges faced by individuals living with HIV or sexually transmitted disease, which can have a profound negative impact on their healthcare. Mother-to-child transmission of either HIV or syphilis can lead to adverse maternal and fetal outcomes. The aim of this study was to investigate stigmatization and social support of pregnant women with HIV or syphilis in eastern China. Methods: This was an explanatory sequential mixed-method study conducted in Zhejiang province, China in 2019. Stigmatization, social support, and the associated factors toward HIV or syphilis were evaluated using questionnaires. The social support rating scale was used to evaluate social support, where a score <25% was defined as poor social support. A logistic regression model was used to explore the association between stigmatization and poor social support. Results: A total of 448 women (HIV positive, N = 93; syphilis, N = 355) were recruited in this study. Higher stigmatization was observed in pregnant women with HIV compared to those with syphilis (53.76% vs. 24.36%, p < 0.001), and poorer social support was observed in women with HIV compared with those with syphilis (40.86% vs. 19.86%, p < 0.001), with significant distributions of the total social support scores (Z = -1.976, p = 0.048) and scores on objectivity (Z = -2.036, p = 0.042) and subjectivity (Z = -2.500, p = 0.012). Similar social support among HIV or syphilis pregnant women was observed in medical healthcare facilities. In multivariable logistic model analysis, stigmatization (OR adj = 2.927; 95%CI, 1.714-4.996; p < 0.001) and ethnic minority (OR adj = 2.373; 95%CI, 1.113-5.056; p = 0.025) were negatively associated with social support. Interestingly, employment status was associated with improved social support (OR adj = 0.345; 95%CI, 0.180-0.662; p = 0.001). Conclusion: Stigmatization among pregnant women with HIV or syphilis remains high. We demonstrated that stigmatization was a significant predictor of low social support in pregnant women with HIV or syphilis. The support shown in medical facilities was similar toward pregnant women with HIV or syphilis. Implementation of stigmatization eradication and social support strategies targeting pregnant women with HIV or syphilis may therefore improve the dual elimination of mother-to-child transmission service.


Subject(s)
HIV Infections , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Social Stigma , Social Support , Syphilis , China/epidemiology , Female , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/psychology , Humans , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Minority Groups , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/psychology , Pregnant Women , Syphilis/epidemiology , Syphilis/psychology
5.
Diagnostics (Basel) ; 11(10)2021 Sep 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1480621

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To provide the quantitative volumetric data of the total lung and lobes in inspiration and expiration from healthy adults, and to explore the value of paired inspiratory-expiratory chest CT scan in pulmonary ventilatory function and further explore the influence of each lobe on ventilation. METHODS: A total of 65 adults (29 males and 36 females) with normal clinical pulmonary function test (PFT) and paired inspiratory-expiratory chest CT scan were retrospectively enrolled. The inspiratory and expiratory volumetric indexes of the total lung (TL) and 5 lobes (left upper lobe [LUL], left lower lobe [LLL], right upper lobe [RUL], right middle lobe [RML], and right lower lobe [RLL]) were obtained by Philips IntelliSpace Portal image postprocessing workstation, including inspiratory lung volume (LVin), expiratory lung volume (LVex), volume change (∆LV), and well-aerated lung volume (WAL, lung tissue with CT threshold between -950 and -750 HU in inspiratory scan). Spearman correlation analysis was used to explore the correlation between CT quantitative indexes of the total lung and ventilatory function indexes (including total lung capacity [TLC], residual volume [RV], and force vital capacity [FVC]). Multiple stepwise regression analysis was used to explore the influence of each lobe on ventilation. RESULTS: At end-inspiratory phase, the LVin-TL was 4664.6 (4282.7, 5916.2) mL, the WALTL was 4173 (3639.6, 5250.9) mL; both showed excellent correlation with TLC (LVin-TL: r = 0.890, p < 0.001; WALTL: r = 0.879, p < 0.001). From multiple linear regression analysis with lobar CT indexes as variables, the LVin and WAL of these two lobes, LLL and RUL, showed a significant relationship with TLC. At end-expiratory phase, the LVex-TL was 2325.2 (1969.7, 2722.5) mL with good correlation with RV (r = 0.811, p < 0.001), of which the LVex of RUL and RML had a significant relationship with RV. For the volumetric change within breathing, the ∆LVTL was 2485.6 (2169.8, 3078.1) mL with good correlation with FVC (r = 0.719, p < 0.001), moreover, WALTL showed a better correlation with FVC (r = 0.817, p < 0.001) than that of ∆LVTL. Likewise, there was also a strong association between ∆LV, WAL of these two lobes (LLL and RUL), and FVC. CONCLUSIONS: The quantitative indexes derived from paired inspiratory-expiratory chest CT could reflect the clinical pulmonary ventilatory function, LLL, and RUL give greater impact on ventilation. Thus, the pulmonary functional evaluation needs to be more precise and not limited to the total lung level.

6.
Mech Soft Mater ; 2(1): 11, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1384771

ABSTRACT

A critical event during the process of cell infection by a viral particle is attachment, which is driven by adhesive interactions and resisted by bending and tension. The biophysics of this process has been studied extensively, but the additional role of externally applied force or displacement has generally been neglected. In this work, we study the adhesive force-displacement response of viral particles against a cell membrane. We have built two models: one in which the viral particle is cylindrical (say, representative of a filamentous virus such as Ebola) and another in which it is spherical (such as SARS-CoV-2 and Zika). Our interest is in initial adhesion, in which case deformations are small, and the mathematical model for the system can be simplified considerably. The parameters that characterize the process combine into two dimensionless groups that represent normalized membrane bending stiffness and tension. In the limit where bending dominates, for sufficiently large values of normalized bending stiffness, there is no adhesion between viral particles and the cell membrane without applied force. (The zero external force contact width and pull-off force are both zero.) For large values of normalized membrane tension, the adhesion between virus and cell membrane is weak but stable. (The contact width at zero external force has a small value.) Our results for pull-off force and zero force contact width help to quantify conditions that could aid the development of therapies based on denying the virus entry into the cell by blocking its initial adhesion.

7.
Pharmacol Res ; 161: 105290, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1318948

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic has been almost controlled in China under a series of policies, including "early diagnosis and early treatment". This study aimed to explore the association between early treatment with Qingfei Paidu decoction (QFPDD) and favorable clinical outcomes. In this retrospective multicenter study, we included 782 patients (males, 56 %; median age 46) with confirmed COVID-19 from 54 hospitals in nine provinces of China, who were divided into four groups according to the treatment initiation time from the first date of onset of symptoms to the date of starting treatment with QFPDD. The primary outcome was time to recovery; days of viral shedding, duration of hospital stay, and course of the disease were also analyzed. Compared with treatment initiated after 3 weeks, early treatment with QFPDD after less than 1 week, 1-2 weeks, or 2-3 weeks had a higher likelihood of recovery, with adjusted hazard ratio (HR) (95 % confidence interval [CI]) of 3.81 (2.65-5.48), 2.63 (1.86-3.73), and 1.92 (1.34-2.75), respectively. The median course of the disease decreased from 34 days to 24 days, 21 days, and 18 days when treatment was administered early by a week (P < 0.0001). Treatment within a week was related to a decrease by 1-4 days in the median duration of hospital stay compared with late treatment (P<0.0001). In conclusion, early treatment with QFPDD may serve as an effective strategy in controlling the epidemic, as early treatment with QFPDD was associated with favorable outcomes, including faster recovery, shorter time to viral shedding, and a shorter duration of hospital stay. However, further multicenter, prospective studies with a larger sample size should be conducted to confirm the benefits of early treatment with QFPDD.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , China , Cohort Studies , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Length of Stay , Male , Middle Aged , Time-to-Treatment , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
8.
Pharmacol Res ; 157: 104820, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1318923

ABSTRACT

The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has become a huge threaten to global health, which raise urgent demand of developing efficient therapeutic strategy. The aim of the present study is to dissect the chemical composition and the pharmacological mechanism of Qingfei Paidu Decoction (QFPD), a clinically used Chinese medicine for treating COVID-19 patients in China. Through comprehensive analysis by liquid chromatography coupled with high resolution mass spectrometry (MS), a total of 129 compounds of QFPD were putatively identified. We also constructed molecular networking of mass spectrometry data to classify these compounds into 14 main clusters, in which exhibited specific patterns of flavonoids (45 %), glycosides (15 %), carboxylic acids (10 %), and saponins (5 %). The target network model of QFPD, established by predicting and collecting the targets of identified compounds, indicated a pivotal role of Ma Xing Shi Gan Decoction (MXSG) in the therapeutic efficacy of QFPD. Supportively, through transcriptomic analysis of gene expression after MXSG administration in rat model of LPS-induced pneumonia, the thrombin and Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling pathway were suggested to be essential pathways for MXSG mediated anti-inflammatory effects. Besides, changes in content of major compounds in MXSG during decoction were found by the chemical analysis. We also validate that one major compound in MXSG, i.e. glycyrrhizic acid, inhibited TLR agonists induced IL-6 production in macrophage. In conclusion, the integration of in silico and experimental results indicated that the therapeutic effects of QFPD against COVID-19 may be attributed to the anti-inflammatory effects of MXSG, which supports the rationality of the compatibility of TCM.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/analysis , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/analysis , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19 , Cells, Cultured , Computer Simulation , Coronavirus Infections/genetics , Gene Expression/drug effects , Glycyrrhizic Acid/pharmacology , Humans , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Lipopeptides/antagonists & inhibitors , Lipopeptides/pharmacology , Lipopolysaccharides , Male , Pandemics , Pneumonia/chemically induced , Pneumonia/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/genetics , Rats , SARS-CoV-2 , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Thrombin/metabolism , Toll-Like Receptors/metabolism
9.
Transplant Cell Ther ; 27(10): 870.e1-870.e7, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1292829

ABSTRACT

Late-onset severe pneumonia (LOSP) is defined as severe pneumonia developing during the late phase of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). Because of the high mortality in patients with LOSP, it is important to identify prognostic factors. In this study, we aimed to develop a risk score system with broad applicability that can help predict the risk of LOSP-associated mortality. We retrospectively analyzed 100 patients with LOSP after allo-HSCT between June 2009 and July 2017. The assessment variables included immune, nutritional, and metabolic parameters at the onset of LOSP. Of these 100 patients, 45 (45%) eventually died, and 55 (55%) were positive for organisms, most commonly viruses. In the multivariate analysis, higher monocyte count (≥0.20 × 109/L versus <0.20 × 109/L; P = .001), higher albumin level (≥30.5 g/L versus <30.5 g/L; P = .044), lower lactic dehydrogenase level (<250 U/L versus ≥250 U/L; P = .008) and lower blood urea nitrogen concentration (<7.2 mmol/L versus ≥7.2 mmol/L; P = .026) at the onset of LOSP were significantly associated with better 60-day survival. A risk score system based on the foregoing results showed that the probability of 60-day survival decreased with increasing risk factors, from 96.3% in the low-risk group to 49.1% in the intermediate-risk group and 12.5% in the high-risk group. Our results indicate that this scoring system using 4 variables can stratify patients with different probabilities of survival after LOSP, which suggests that patients' immune, nutritional, and metabolic status are crucial factors in determining outcome.


Subject(s)
Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation , Pneumonia , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation/adverse effects , Humans , Pneumonia/diagnosis , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Transplantation, Homologous
10.
Pathog Dis ; 78(3)2020 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-616784

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-2019) that emerged in Wuhan, China, has rapidly spread to many countries across all six WHO regions. However, its pathobiology remains incompletely understood and many efforts are underway to study it worldwide. To clarify its pathogenesis to some extent, it will inevitably require lots of COVID-2019-associated pathological autopsies. Pathologists from all over the world have raised concerns with pathological autopsy relating to COVID-2019. The issue of whether a person died from COVID-2019 infection or not is always an ambiguous problem in some cases, and ongoing epidemiology from China may shed light on it. This review retrospectively summarizes the research status of pathological autopsy for COVID-2019 deaths in China, which will be important for the cause of death, prevention, control and clinical strategies of COVID-2019. Moreover, it points out several challenges at autopsy. We believe pathological studies from China enable to correlate clinical symptoms and pathological features of COVID-2019 for doctors and provide an insight into COVID-2019 disease.


Subject(s)
Autopsy , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Cause of Death , China , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(10): 2249-2256, 2020 May.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-398787

ABSTRACT

The study aimed to investigate the multi-constituent, multi-target mechanism of Xuanfei Baidu Tang(XFBD) in the treatment of coronavirus disease 2019(COVID-19), through exploring the main ingredients and effective targets of XFBD, as well as analyzing the correlation between XFBD targets and COVID-19. The compounds of each herb in XFBD were collected from TCM-PTD, ETCM, TCMSP and SymMap database. Next, the information of meridian tropisms was collected from Chinese Pharmacopoeia(2015 edition), and the target information of the major constituents of XFBD were obtained from TCM-PTD, ETCM, TCMSP and TargetNet database. Subsequently, the target network model and the major modules were generated by Cytoscape, and the functional enrichment analysis of XFBD targets were completed by DAVID and STRING. As a result, ten of the 13 herbs in XFBD belonged to the lung meridian, and 326 of the 1 224 putative XFBD targets were associated with the disease target of COVID-19, among which 109 targets were enriched in the disease pathways of viral infection and lung injury. The main biological pathways regulated by the key XFBD targets included viral infection, energy metabolism, immunity and inflammation, parasites and bacterial infections. In conclusion, the therapeutic mechanism of XFBD in COVID-19 showed a multi-herb, multi-constituent, multi-target pattern, with lung as the chief targeted organ. By regulating a series of biological pathways closely related to the occurrence and development of diseases, XFBD plays a role in balancing immunity, eliminating inflammation, regulating hepatic and biliary metabolism and recovering energy metabolism balance.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Humans , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2
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