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1.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 11: 821828, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1902920

ABSTRACT

The urgent approval of the use of the inactivated COVID-19 vaccine is essential to reduce the threat and burden of the epidemic on global public health, however, our current understanding of the host immune response to inactivated vaccine remains limited. Herein, we performed serum IgG antibody detection and transcriptomics analysis on 20 SARS-CoV-2 naïve individuals who received multiple doses of inactivated vaccine and 5 SARS-CoV-2 recovered individuals who received single dose of inactivated vaccine. Our research revealed the important role of many innate immune pathways after vaccination, identified a significant correlation with the third dose of booster vaccine and proteasome-related genes, and found that SARS-CoV-2 recovered individuals can produces a strong immune response to a single dose of inactivated vaccine. These results help us understand the reaction mechanism of the host's molecular immune system to the inactivated vaccine, and provide a basis for the choice of vaccination strategy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19 Vaccines , Gene Expression Profiling , Humans , Leukocytes, Mononuclear , Vaccines, Inactivated
2.
Theranostics ; 12(6): 2519-2534, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1771697

ABSTRACT

Rationale: Mutations of SARS-CoV-2, which is responsible for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), could impede drug development and reduce the efficacy of COVID-19 vaccines. Here, we developed a multiplexed Spike-ACE2 Inhibitor Screening (mSAIS) assay that can measure the neutralizing effect of antibodies across numerous variants of the coronavirus's Spike (S) protein simultaneously. Methods: The SARS-CoV-2 spike variant protein microarrays were prepared by printing 72 S variants onto a chemically-modified glass slides. The neutralization potential of purified anti-S antibodies and serum from convalescent COVID-19 patients and vaccinees to S variants were assessed with the mSAIS assay. Results: We identified new S mutations that are sensitive and resistant to neutralization. Serum from both infected and vaccinated groups with a high titer of neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) displayed a broader capacity to neutralize S variants than serum with low titer NAbs. These data were validated using serum from a large vaccinated cohort (n = 104) with a tiled S peptide microarray. In addition, similar results were obtained using a SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus neutralization assay specific for wild-type S and five prevalent S variants (D614G, B.1.1.7, B.1.351, P.1, B.1.617.2), thus demonstrating that high antibody diversity is associated with high NAb titers. Conclusions: Our results demonstrate the utility of the mSAIS platform in screening NAbs. Moreover, we show that heterogeneous antibody populations provide a more protective effect against S variants, which may help direct COVID-19 vaccine and drug development.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Vaccination
3.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-319505

ABSTRACT

Background: The effects of temperature and humidity on the epidemic growth of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)remains unclear. Methods: : Daily scatter plots between the epidemic growth rate (GR) and average temperature (AT) or average relative humidity (ARH) were presented with curve fitting through the “loess” method. The heterogeneity across days and provinces were calculated to assess the necessity of using a longitudinal model. Fixed effect models with polynomial terms were developed to quantify the relationship between variations in the GR and AT or ARH. Results: : An increased AT dramatically reduced the GR when the AT was lower than −5°C, the GR was moderately reduced when the AT ranged from −5°C to 15°C, and the GR increased when the AT exceeded 15°C. An increasedARH increased theGR when the ARH was lower than 72% and reduced theGR when the ARH exceeded 72%. Conclusions: : High temperatures and low humidity may reduce the GR of the COVID-19 epidemic. The temperature and humidity curves were not linearly associated with the COVID-19 GR.

4.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-297100

ABSTRACT

Vaccination is an effective approach to help control coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, since the vaccines produce a heterogenous immune response, the risk of breakthrough infection is increased in vaccinated individuals who generate low levels of neutralizing antibodies (NAbs). It is therefore paramount in the fight against COVID-19 to identify individuals who have a higher risk of breakthrough infection despite being vaccinated. Here we addressed the effect of cigarette smoking on the production of neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) following COVID-19 vaccination since smoking profoundly suppresses the adaptive immune response to pathogen infection and the association between vaccination and smoking remains unclear. The SARS-CoV-2 Spike antibodies and NAbs (days 0, 14, 42, and 90) were measured in 164 participants received two vaccine doses of an inactivated vaccine (Sinovac-CoronaVac) longitudinally. Anti-Spike antibodies was elevated 14 and 42 days after COVID-19 vaccination compared to baseline (i.e., “Day 0”). Notably, RBD antibodies showed significantly higher expression in the nonsmoking group (n=153) than the smoking (n=11) group on day 42 (p<0.0001, Student’s t-test). NAbs continually increased after the first and second vaccine dose, peaking on day 42. NAbs titers then significantly decreased until day 90. Compared to nonsmokers, the NAb levels in smokers remained low throughout the period of testing. The median NAb titers in the smoking group was 1.40-, 1.32-, or 3.00-fold lower than that of nonsmoking group on day 14, 42, or 90, respectively. Altogether, our results indicate that smoking is a specific risk factor for COVID-19 breakthrough infection following vaccination.

5.
Cells ; 10(4)2021 04 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1408630

ABSTRACT

Macrophages are widely distributed in tissues and function in homeostasis. During cancer development, tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) dominatingly support disease progression and resistance to therapy by promoting tumor proliferation, angiogenesis, metastasis, and immunosuppression, thereby making TAMs a target for tumor immunotherapy. Here, we started with evidence that TAMs are highly plastic and heterogeneous in phenotype and function in response to microenvironmental cues. We pointed out that efforts to tear off the heterogeneous "camouflage" in TAMs conduce to target de facto protumoral TAMs efficiently. In particular, several fate-mapping models suggest that most tissue-resident macrophages (TRMs) are generated from embryonic progenitors, and new paradigms uncover the ontogeny of TAMs. First, TAMs from embryonic modeling of TRMs and circulating monocytes have distinct transcriptional profiling and function, suggesting that the ontogeny of TAMs is responsible for the functional heterogeneity of TAMs, in addition to microenvironmental cues. Second, metabolic remodeling helps determine the mechanism of phenotypic and functional characteristics in TAMs, including metabolic bias from macrophages' ontogeny in macrophages' functional plasticity under physiological and pathological conditions. Both models aim at dissecting the ontogeny-related metabolic regulation in the phenotypic and functional heterogeneity in TAMs. We argue that gleaning from the single-cell transcriptomics on subclonal TAMs' origins may help understand the classification of TAMs' population in subclonal evolution and their distinct roles in tumor development. We envision that TAM-subclone-specific metabolic reprogramming may round-up with future cancer therapies.


Subject(s)
Embryo, Mammalian/pathology , Neoplasms/pathology , Neoplasms/prevention & control , Tumor-Associated Macrophages/pathology , Glucose/metabolism , Humans , Lipid Metabolism , Neoplasms/metabolism , Single-Cell Analysis
6.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 6(1): 304, 2021 08 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1361622

ABSTRACT

A comprehensive analysis of the humoral immune response to the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is essential in understanding COVID-19 pathogenesis and developing antibody-based diagnostics and therapy. In this work, we performed a longitudinal analysis of antibody responses to SARS-CoV-2 proteins in 104 serum samples from 49 critical COVID-19 patients using a peptide-based SARS-CoV-2 proteome microarray. Our data show that the binding epitopes of IgM and IgG antibodies differ across SARS-CoV-2 proteins and even within the same protein. Moreover, most IgM and IgG epitopes are located within nonstructural proteins (nsps), which are critical in inactivating the host's innate immune response and enabling SARS-CoV-2 replication, transcription, and polyprotein processing. IgM antibodies are associated with a good prognosis and target nsp3 and nsp5 proteases, whereas IgG antibodies are associated with high mortality and target structural proteins (Nucleocapsid, Spike, ORF3a). The epitopes targeted by antibodies in patients with a high mortality rate were further validated using an independent serum cohort (n = 56) and using global correlation mapping analysis with the clinical variables that are associated with COVID-19 severity. Our data provide fundamental insight into humoral immunity during SARS-CoV-2 infection. SARS-CoV-2 immunogenic epitopes identified in this work could also help direct antibody-based COVID-19 treatment and triage patients.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Immunity, Humoral , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/immunology , COVID-19/mortality , Critical Illness , Disease-Free Survival , Epitopes/immunology , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Immunoglobulin M/immunology , Male , Protein Array Analysis , Survival Rate
7.
J Adv Res ; 37: 209-219, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1330938

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has endangered global health, the world economy, and societal values. Despite intensive measures taken around the world, morbidity and mortality remain high as many countries face new waves of infection and the spread of new variants. Worryingly, more and more variants are now being identified, such as 501Y.V1 (B.1.1.7) in the UK, 501Y.V2 (B.1.351) in South Africa, 501Y.V3 in Manaus, Brazil, and B.1.617/B.1.618 in India, which could lead to a severe epidemic rebound. Moreover, some variants have a stronger immune escape ability. To control the new SARS-CoV-2 variant, we may need to develop and redesign new vaccines repeatedly. So it is important to investigate how our immune system combats and responds to SARS-CoV-2 infection to develop safe and effective medical interventions. Objectives: In this study, we performed a longitudinal and proteome-wide analysis of antibodies in the COVID-19 patients to revealed some immune processes of COVID-19 patients against SARS-CoV-2 and found some dominant epitopes of a potential vaccine. Methods: Microarray assay, Antibody depletion assays, Neutralization assay. Results: We profiled a B-cell linear epitope landscape of SARS-CoV-2 and identified the epitopes specifically recognized by either IgM, IgG, or IgA. We found that epitopes more frequently recognized by IgM are enriched in non-structural proteins. We further identified epitopes with different immune responses in severe and mild patients. Moreover, we identified 12 dominant epitopes eliciting antibodies in most COVID-19 patients and identified five key amino acids of epitopes. Furthermore, we found epitope S-82 and S-15 are perfect immunogenic peptides and should be considered in vaccine design. Conclusion: This data provide useful information and rich resources for improving our understanding of viral infection and developing a novel vaccine/neutralizing antibodies for the treatment of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral , Epitopes , Humans , Immunity, Humoral , Immunoglobulin M , Proteome
8.
J Diabetes Res ; 2021: 5537110, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1192132

ABSTRACT

This study was aimed at exploring the predictive value of first-trimester glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels in the diagnosis of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). A total of 744 pregnant women registered at the Peking University International Hospital between March 2017 and March 2019 were included in this study. Data on personal characteristics and biochemical indicators of the pregnant women were collected during the first trimester. The International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups has adopted specific diagnostic criteria as the gold standard for the diagnosis of GDM. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve statistics were used to assess the predictive value of first-trimester HbA1c levels in the diagnosis of GDM. HbA1c levels in the first trimester were significantly higher in the GDM group than in the non-GDM group (5.23% ± 0.29% vs. 5.06 ± 0.28%, P < 0.05). The first-trimester HbA1c level was an independent risk factor for gestational diabetes. The area under the ROC curve (AUC) of HbA1c for GDM was 0.655 (95% confidence interval 0.620-0.689, P < 0.001). The positive likelihood ratio was the highest at HbA1c = 5.9%, sensitivity was 2.78, and specificity was 99.83%. There was no statistical difference in AUC between fasting blood glucose and HbA1c (P = 0.407). First-trimester HbA1c levels can be used to predict GDM. The risk of GDM was significantly increased in pregnant women with first-trimester HbA1c levels > 5.9%. There was no statistical difference between first-trimester HbA1c and fasting blood glucose levels in predicting GDM.


Subject(s)
Diabetes, Gestational/diagnosis , Glycated Hemoglobin A/metabolism , Pregnancy Trimester, First/blood , Adult , Beijing , Biomarkers/blood , Blood Glucose/metabolism , Diabetes, Gestational/blood , Female , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Predictive Value of Tests , Pregnancy , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Up-Regulation
9.
Ann Transl Med ; 9(1): 62, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1070026

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although there are many COVID-19 case series studies, few studies report the relationship between variations in blood cell parameters and inflammatory factors and disease severity. This study aims to describe the dynamic trends in COVID-19 blood cell parameters and inflammatory factors. METHODS: Ninety-two patients with confirmed COVID-19 at Jingzhou Central Hospital, Hubei Province, China, between January 23, 2020, and April 10, 2020, were enrolled. Epidemiological data, clinical information, and laboratory test results were collected and analyzed. RESULTS: As patient age increased, disease severity increased (P<0.0001). The inflammatory factor C-reactive protein (CRP) showed a gradual increasing trend with disease aggravation. Based on dynamic change graphs, CRP in all patients with severe and critical COVID-19 initially increased and then decreased; however, CRP in patients with a good prognosis did not increase again after the initial decline (<20 mg/L). CRP in patients with a poor prognosis returned to a high level (>50 mg/L) 1 week after the initial decrease and continued to fluctuate at a high level. Lymphocyte count (LYM#) in patients with severe and critical disease was significantly lower (<1×109/L) than that in patients with moderate disease; LYM# was significantly increased 3 weeks after disease onset in patients with a good prognosis (>1×109/L), but patients with a poor prognosis continued to have a low LYM#. CONCLUSIONS: CRP and LYM# showed strong correlation with disease progression, suggesting that these parameters could be used to monitor changes in patient condition.

10.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 1873, 2021 01 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1043028

ABSTRACT

The development of alternative isothermal amplification assays including multiple cross displacement amplification (MCDA) may address speed and portability limitations of real-time PCR (rt-PCR) methods for SARS-CoV-2 detection. We developed a novel SARS-CoV-2 MCDA assay and compared its speed and sensitivity to loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) and rt-PCR. Two MCDA assays targeting SARS-CoV-2 N gene and ORF1ab were designed. The fastest time to detection and sensitivity of MCDA was compared to LAMP and rt-PCR using DNA standards and transcribed RNA. For the N gene, MCDA was faster than LAMP and rt-PCR by 10 and 20 min, respectively with fastest time to detection at 5.2 min. rt-PCR had the highest sensitivity with the limit of detection at 10 copies/µl compared with MCDA (100 copies/µl) and LAMP (500 copies/µl). For ORF1ab, MCDA and LAMP had similar speed with fastest time to detection at 9.7 and 8.4 min, respectively. LAMP was more sensitive for ORF1ab detection with 50 copies/µl compared to MCDA (500 copies/µl). In conclusion, different nucleic acid amplification methods provide different advantages. MCDA is the fastest nucleic acid amplification method for SARS-CoV-2 while rt-PCR is the most sensitive. These advantages should be considered when determining the most suitable nucleic acid amplification methods for different applications.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/methods , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Biological Assay/methods , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19 Testing/methods , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/genetics , Humans , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques/methods , Phosphoproteins/genetics , Polyproteins/genetics , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Sensitivity and Specificity , Viral Proteins/genetics
11.
Ann Transl Med ; 8(19): 1230, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-994854

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The global mortality rate for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is 3.68%, but the mortality rate for critically ill patients is as high as 50%. Therefore, the exploration of prognostic predictors for patients with COVID-19 is vital for prompt clinical intervention. Our study aims to explore the predictive value of hematological parameters in the prognosis of patients with severe COVID-19. METHODS: Ninety-eight patients who were diagnosed with COVID-19 at Jingzhou Central Hospital and Central Hospital of Wuhan, Hubei Province, were included in this study. RESULTS: The median age of the patients was 59 [28-80] years; the median age of patients with a good prognosis was 56 [28-79] years, and the median age of patients with a poor outcome was 67 [35-80] years. The patients in the poor outcome group were older than the patients in the good outcome group (P<0.05). The comparison of hematological parameters showed that lymphocyte count (Lym#), red blood cells (RBCs), hemoglobin (HGB), hematocrit (HCT), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), and mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH) were significantly lower in the poor outcome group than in the good outcome group (P<0.05). Further, the red cell volume distribution width-CV (RDW-CV) and red cell volume distribution width-SD (RDW-SD) were significantly higher in the poor outcome group than in the good outcome group (P<0.0001). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves showed RDW-SD, with an area under the ROC curve (AUC) of 0.870 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.796-0.943], was the most significant single parameter for predicting the prognosis of severe patients. When the cut-off value was 42.15, the sensitivity and specificity of RDW-SD for predicting the prognosis of severe patients were 73.1% and 80.2%, respectively. Reticulocyte (RET) channel results showed the RET level was significantly higher in critical patients than in moderate patients and severe patients (P<0.05), which may be one cause of the elevated RDW in patients with a poor outcome. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, the hematological parameters of COVID-19 patients were statistically analyzed. RDW was found to be a prognostic predictor for patients with severe COVID-19, and the increase in RET may contribute to elevated RDW.

12.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 6(4): e24291, 2020 11 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-976125

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since the outbreak of COVID-19 in December 2019 in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China, frequent interregional contacts and the high rate of infection spread have catalyzed the formation of an epidemic network. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to identify influential nodes and highlight the hidden structural properties of the COVID-19 epidemic network, which we believe is central to prevention and control of the epidemic. METHODS: We first constructed a network of the COVID-19 epidemic among 31 provinces in mainland China; after some basic characteristics were revealed by the degree distribution, the k-core decomposition method was employed to provide static and dynamic evidence to determine the influential nodes and hierarchical structure. We then exhibited the influence power of the above nodes and the evolution of this power. RESULTS: Only a small fraction of the provinces studied showed relatively strong outward or inward epidemic transmission effects. The three provinces of Hubei, Beijing, and Guangzhou showed the highest out-degrees, and the three highest in-degrees were observed for the provinces of Beijing, Henan, and Liaoning. In terms of the hierarchical structure of the COVID-19 epidemic network over the whole period, more than half of the 31 provinces were located in the innermost core. Considering the correlation of the characteristics and coreness of each province, we identified some significant negative and positive factors. Specific to the dynamic transmission process of the COVID-19 epidemic, three provinces of Anhui, Beijing, and Guangdong always showed the highest coreness from the third to the sixth week; meanwhile, Hubei Province maintained the highest coreness until the fifth week and then suddenly dropped to the lowest in the sixth week. We also found that the out-strengths of the innermost nodes were greater than their in-strengths before January 27, 2020, at which point a reversal occurred. CONCLUSIONS: Increasing our understanding of how epidemic networks form and function may help reduce the damaging effects of COVID-19 in China as well as in other countries and territories worldwide.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Models, Statistical , COVID-19/transmission , China/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Pandemics , Time
13.
ACS Cent Sci ; 6(12): 2238-2249, 2020 Dec 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-889128

ABSTRACT

Comprehensive profiling of humoral antibody response to severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus-2 (CoV-2) proteins is essential in understanding the host immunity and in developing diagnostic tests and vaccines. To address this concern, we developed a SARS-CoV-2 proteome peptide microarray to analyze antibody interactions at the amino acid resolution. With the array, we demonstrate the feasibility of employing SARS-CoV-1 antibodies to detect the SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid phosphoprotein. The first landscape of B-cell epitopes for SARS-CoV-2 IgM and IgG antibodies in the serum of 10 coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) patients with early infection is also constructed. With array data and structural analysis, a peptide epitope for neutralizing antibodies within the SARS-CoV-2 spike receptor-binding domain's interaction interface with the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 receptor was predicted. All the results demonstrate the utility of our microarray as a platform to determine the changes of antibody responses in COVID-19 patients and animal models as well as to identify potential targets for diagnosis and treatment.

14.
Clin Transl Med ; 10(4): e158, 2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-725849

ABSTRACT

The corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a highly contagious disease caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). More than 18 million people were infected with a total of 0.7 million deaths in ∼188 countries. Controlling the spread of SARS-CoV-2 is therefore inherently dependent on identifying and isolating infected individuals, especially since COVID-19 can result in little to no symptoms. Here, we provide a comprehensive review of the different primary technologies used to test for COVID-19 infection, discuss the advantages and disadvantages of each technology, and highlight the studies that have employed them. We also describe technologies that have the potential to accelerate SARS-CoV-2 detection in the future, including digital PCR, CRISPR, and microarray. Finally, remaining challenges in COVID-19 diagnostic testing are discussed, including (a) the lack of universal standards for diagnostic testing; (b) the identification of appropriate sample collection site(s); (c) the difficulty in performing large population screening; and (d) the limited understanding of SARS-COV-2 viral invasion, replication, and transmission.

15.
Mol Cell Proteomics ; 19(11): 1749-1759, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-713514

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a highly contagious infection and threating the human lives in the world. The elevation of cytokines in blood is crucial to induce cytokine storm and immunosuppression in the transition of severity in COVID-19 patients. However, the comprehensive changes of serum proteins in COVID-19 patients throughout the SARS-CoV-2 infection is unknown. In this work, we developed a high-density antibody microarray and performed an in-depth proteomics analysis of serum samples collected from early COVID-19 (n = 15) and influenza (n = 13) patients. We identified a large set of differentially expressed proteins (n = 132) that participate in a landscape of inflammation and immune signaling related to the SARS-CoV-2 infection. Furthermore, the significant correlations of neutrophil and lymphocyte with the CCL2 and CXCL10 mediated cytokine signaling pathways was identified. These information are valuable for the understanding of COVID-19 pathogenesis, identification of biomarkers and development of the optimal anti-inflammation therapy.


Subject(s)
Blood Proteins/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Cough/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Fever/immunology , Headache/immunology , Influenza, Human/immunology , Myalgia/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Blood Proteins/genetics , COVID-19 , Child , Coronavirus Infections/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Cough/genetics , Cough/physiopathology , Cough/virology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/genetics , Cytokine Release Syndrome/physiopathology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/virology , Cytokines/genetics , Cytokines/immunology , Female , Fever/genetics , Fever/physiopathology , Fever/virology , Gene Expression Profiling , Gene Expression Regulation , Headache/genetics , Headache/physiopathology , Headache/virology , Humans , Influenza, Human/genetics , Influenza, Human/physiopathology , Influenza, Human/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Myalgia/genetics , Myalgia/physiopathology , Myalgia/virology , Orthomyxoviridae/pathogenicity , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/genetics , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Protein Array Analysis , Proteome/genetics , Proteome/immunology , Receptors, Cytokine/genetics , Receptors, Cytokine/immunology , SARS-CoV-2 , Signal Transduction/immunology
16.
Ann Transl Med ; 8(9): 593, 2020 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-612192

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The third fatal coronavirus is the novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) that causes novel coronavirus pneumonia (COVID-19) which first broke out in December 2019. Patients will develop rapidly if there is no any intervention, so the risk identification of severe patients is critical. The aim of this study was to investigate the characteristics and rules of hematology changes in patients with COVID-19, and to explore the possibility differentiating moderate and severe patients using conventional hematology parameters or combined parameters. METHODS: The clinical data of 45 moderate and severe type patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections in Jingzhou Central Hospital from January 23 to February 13, 2020 were collected. The epidemiological indexes, clinical symptoms, and laboratory test results of the patients were retrospectively analyzed. Those parameters with significant differences between moderate and severe cases were analyzed, and the combination parameters with the best diagnostic performance were selected using the linear discriminant analysis (LDA) method. RESULTS: Of the 45 patients with the novel 2019 corona virus (COVID-19) (35 moderate and 10 severe cases), 23 were male and 22 were female, with ages ranging from 16 to 62 years. The most common clinical symptoms were fever (89%) and dry cough (60%). As the disease progressed, white blood cell count (WBC), neutrophil count, neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR), red blood cell distribution width-coefficient of variation (RDW-CV), and red cell volume distribution width-standard deviation (RDW-SD) parameters in the severe group were significantly higher than those in the moderate group (P<0.05); meanwhile, lymphocyte count (Lym#), eosinophil count (Eos#), high fluorescent cell percentage (HFC%), red blood cell count (RBC), hemoglobin (HGB), and hematocrit (HCT) parameters in the severe group were significantly lower than those in the moderate group (P<0.05). For NLR parameter, it's area under the curve (AUC), cutoff, sensitivity and specificity were 0.890, 13.39, 83.3% and 82.4% respectively; meanwhile, for PLR parameter, it's AUC, cutoff, sensitivity and specificity were 0.842, 267.03, 83.3% and 74.0% respectively. The combined parameters of NLR and RDW-SD had the best diagnostic efficiency (AUC =0.938), and when the cutoff value was 1.046, the sensitivity and the specificity were 90.0% and 84.7% respectively, followed by the combined parameter NLR&RDW-CV (AUC =0.923). When the cut-off value was 0.62, the sensitivity and the specificity for distinguishing severe type from moderate cases of COVID-19 were 90.0% and 82.4% respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The combined NLR and RDW-SD parameter is the best hematology index. It may help clinicians to predict the severity of COVID-19 patients and can be used as a useful indicator to help prevent and control the epidemic.

17.
Am J Gastroenterol ; 115(8): 1153-1155, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-525850

Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Digestive System Diseases/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Abdominal Pain/etiology , Abdominal Pain/metabolism , Abdominal Pain/physiopathology , Abdominal Pain/therapy , Ambulatory Care , Anorexia/etiology , Anorexia/metabolism , Anorexia/physiopathology , Anorexia/therapy , Anti-Bacterial Agents/adverse effects , Antipyretics/adverse effects , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/etiology , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/metabolism , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/physiopathology , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/therapy , China , Clostridium Infections/diagnosis , Clostridium Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/metabolism , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Diarrhea/etiology , Diarrhea/metabolism , Diarrhea/physiopathology , Diarrhea/therapy , Digestive System Diseases/etiology , Digestive System Diseases/metabolism , Digestive System Diseases/therapy , Endoscopy, Digestive System , Gastroenterology , Humans , Liver Diseases/etiology , Liver Diseases/metabolism , Liver Diseases/physiopathology , Liver Diseases/therapy , Nausea/etiology , Nausea/metabolism , Nausea/physiopathology , Nausea/therapy , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Probiotics/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Societies, Medical , Vomiting/etiology
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