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1.
J Virol ; 96(4): e0157821, 2022 02 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1759290

ABSTRACT

The ongoing SARS-CoV-2 pandemic poses a severe global threat to public health, as do influenza viruses and other coronaviruses. Here, we present chimpanzee adenovirus 68 (AdC68)-based vaccines designed to universally target coronaviruses and influenza. Our design is centered on an immunogen generated by fusing the SARS-CoV-2 receptor-binding domain (RBD) to the conserved stalk of H7N9 hemagglutinin (HA). Remarkably, the constructed vaccine effectively induced both SARS-CoV-2-targeting antibodies and anti-influenza antibodies in mice, consequently affording protection from lethal SARS-CoV-2 and H7N9 challenges as well as effective H3N2 control. We propose our AdC68-vectored coronavirus-influenza vaccine as a universal approach toward curbing respiratory virus-causing pandemics. IMPORTANCE The COVID-19 pandemic exemplifies the severe public health threats of respiratory virus infection and influenza A viruses. The currently envisioned strategy for the prevention of respiratory virus-causing diseases requires the comprehensive administration of vaccines tailored for individual viruses. Here, we present an alternative strategy by designing chimpanzee adenovirus 68-based vaccines which target both the SARS-CoV-2 receptor-binding-domain and the conserved stalk of influenza hemagglutinin. When tested in mice, this strategy attained potent neutralizing antibodies against wild-type SARS-CoV-2 and its emerging variants, enabling an effective protection against lethal SARS-CoV-2 challenge. Notably, it also provided complete protection from lethal H7N9 challenge and efficient control of H3N2-induced morbidity. Our study opens a new avenue to universally curb respiratory virus infection by vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Influenza A Virus, H7N9 Subtype/immunology , Influenza Vaccines , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Animals , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/immunology , /immunology , Female , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Influenza A Virus, H7N9 Subtype/genetics , Influenza Vaccines/genetics , Influenza Vaccines/immunology , Influenza Vaccines/pharmacology , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Mice, Inbred ICR , Mice, Transgenic , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/epidemiology , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/genetics , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/immunology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
2.
Chinese Geographical Science ; 32(2):218-236, 2022.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1756902

ABSTRACT

The aviation industry has become one of the top ten greenhouse gas emission industries in the world. China's aviation carbon emissions continue to increase, but the analysis of its influencing factors at the provincial level is still incomplete. This paper firstly uses Stochastic Impacts by Regression on Population, Affluence and Technology model (STIRPAT) model to analyze the time series evolution of China's aviation carbon emissions from 2000 to 2019. Secondly, it uses the Logarithmic Mean Divisia Index (LDMI) model to analyze the influencing characteristics and degree of four factors on China's aviation carbon emissions, which are air transportation revenue, aviation route structure, air transportation intensity and aviation energy intensity. Thirdly, it determines the various factors' influencing direction and evolution trend of 31 provinces' aviation carbon emissions in China (not including Hong Kong, Macao, Taiwan of China due to incomplete data). Finally, it derives the decoupling effort model and analyzes the decoupling relationship and decoupling effort degree between air carbon emissions and air transportation revenue in different provinces. The study found that from 2000 to 2019, China's total aviation carbon emissions continued to grow, while the growth rate of aviation carbon emissions showed a fluctuating downward trend. Air transportation revenue and aviation route structure promote the growth of total aviation carbon emissions, and air transportation intensity and aviation energy intensity have a restraining effect on the growth of total aviation carbon emissions. The scope of negative driving effect of air transportation revenue and air transportation intensity on total aviation carbon emissions in various provinces has increased. While the scope of positive driving influence of aviation route structure on total aviation carbon emissions of various provinces has increased, aviation energy intensity mainly has negative driving influence on total aviation carbon emissions of each province. Overall, the emission reduction trend in the areas to the west and north of the Qinling-Huaihe River Line is obvious. The decoupling mode between air carbon emissions and air transportation revenue in 31 provinces is mainly expansion negative decoupling. The air transportation intensity effect shows strong decoupling efforts in most provinces, the decoupling effort of aviation route structure effect and aviation energy intensity effect is not prominent. [ FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Chinese Geographical Science is the property of Springer Nature and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full . (Copyright applies to all s.)

3.
EBioMedicine ; 76: 103861, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1734342

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since late 2019, SARS-CoV-2 infection has resulted in COVID-19 accompanied by diverse clinical manifestations. However, the underlying mechanism of how SARS-CoV-2 interacts with host and develops multiple symptoms is largely unexplored. METHODS: Bioinformatics analysis determined the sequence similarity between SARS-CoV-2 and human genomes. Diverse fragments of SARS-CoV-2 genome containing Human Identical Sequences (HIS) were cloned into the lentiviral vector. HEK293T, MRC5 and HUVEC were infected with laboratory-packaged lentivirus or transfected with plasmids or antagomirs for HIS. Quantitative RT-PCR and chromatin immunoprecipitation assay detected gene expression and H3K27ac enrichment, respectively. UV-Vis spectroscopy assessed the interaction between HIS and their target locus. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay evaluated the hyaluronan (HA) levels of culture supernatant and plasma of COVID-19 patients. FINDINGS: Five short sequences (24-27 nt length) sharing identity between SARS-CoV-2 and human genome were identified. These RNA elements were highly conserved in primates. The genomic fragments containing HIS were predicted to form hairpin structures in silico similar to miRNA precursors. HIS may function through direct genomic interaction leading to activation of host enhancers, and upregulation of adjacent and distant genes, including cytokine genes and hyaluronan synthase 2 (HAS2). HIS antagomirs and Cas13d-mediated HIS degradation reduced HAS2 expression. Severe COVID-19 patients displayed decreased lymphocytes and elevated D-dimer, and C-reactive proteins, as well as increased plasma hyaluronan. Hymecromone inhibited hyaluronan production in vitro, and thus could be further investigated as a therapeutic option for preventing severe outcome in COVID-19 patients. INTERPRETATION: HIS of SARS-CoV-2 could promote COVID-19 progression by upregulating hyaluronan, providing novel targets for treatment. FUNDING: The National Key R&D Program of China (2018YFC1005004), Major Special Projects of Basic Research of Shanghai Science and Technology Commission (18JC1411101), and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (31872814, 32000505).


Subject(s)
Gene Regulatory Networks/genetics , Genome, Human , Hyaluronic Acid/metabolism , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Antagomirs/metabolism , Argonaute Proteins/genetics , Base Sequence , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Cell Line , Disease Progression , Enhancer Elements, Genetic/genetics , Humans , Hyaluronan Synthases/genetics , Hyaluronan Synthases/metabolism , Hyaluronic Acid/blood , MicroRNAs/genetics , RNA, Viral/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Up-Regulation
4.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-325155

ABSTRACT

Here, in an effort towards facile and fast screening/diagnosis of novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), we combined the unprecedently sensitive graphene field-effect transistor (Gr-FET) with highly selective antibody-antigen interaction to develop a coronavirus immunosensor. The Gr-FET immunosensors can rapidly identify (about 2 mins) and accurately capture the COVID-19 spike protein S1 (which contains a receptor binding domain, RBD) at a limit of detection down to 0.2 pM, in a real-time and label-free manner. Further results ensure that the Gr-FET immunosensors can be promisingly applied to screen for high-affinity antibodies (with binding constant up to 2*10

5.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-325039

ABSTRACT

Background: To assess the effect of methylprednisolone on the prognosis of patients with novel coronavirus pneumonia. Methods: Patients with confirmed novel coronavirus pneumonia discharged from Wuhan Third Hospital Guanggu Campus, Shouyi Campus, and Lei Shen Shan Hospital from January 31, 2020, to March 4, 2020, were included. The patients were divided into treatment and control groups according to whether methylprednisolone was used during hospitalization. Propensity score (PS) matching analysis was used to assess in-hospital mortality as the primary outcome and trends in the changes in lymphocytes and the C-reactive protein, creatinine and transaminase levels 7 days after admission (secondary outcomes). Results: A total of 2,062 patients with confirmed novel coronavirus pneumonia were included in this study. Univariate Cox regression analysis suggested that methylprednisolone treatment was associated with increased in-hospital mortality (hazard ratio (HR) 3.70, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.62-5.23, P<0.01). A total of 624 patients were included after PS matching. The patients were further subdivided into a low lymphocyte count group and a normal lymphocyte count group according to a lymphocyte count cutoff value of 0.9*10 9 /L. Kaplan-Meier survival curve analysis showed that methylprednisolone treatment reduced the risk of in-hospital death in patients with lymphocyte counts less than 0.9×10 9 /L (P=0.022). In contrast, in the normal lymphocyte group, methylprednisolone treatment was not associated with in-hospital mortality (p=0.88). Conclusion: Treatment with methylprednisolone may be associated with reduced in-hospital mortality in coronavirus disease (COVID) patients with low lymphocyte counts.

6.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-313391

ABSTRACT

Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), spreads rapidly and has attracted worldwide attention. Methods: : To improve the forecast accuracy and investigate the spread of SARS-CoV-2, we constructed four mathematical models to numerically estimate the spread of SARS-CoV-2 and the efficacy of eradication strategies. Results: : Using the Susceptible-Exposed-Infected-Removed (SEIR) model, and including measures such as city closures and extended leave policies implemented by the Chinese government that effectively reduced the β value, we estimated that the β value and basic transmission number, R 0 , of SARS-CoV-2 was 0.476/6.66 in Wuhan, 0.359/5.03 in Korea, and 0.400/5.60 in Italy. Considering medicine and vaccines, an advanced model demonstrated that the emergence of vaccines would greatly slow the spread of the virus. Our model predicted that 100,000 people would become infected assuming that the isolation rate α in Wuhan was 0.30. If quarantine measures were taken from March 10, 2020, and the quarantine rate of α was also 0.3, then the final number of infected people was predicted to be 11,426 in South Korea and 147,142 in Italy. Conclusions: : Our mathematical models indicate that SARS-CoV-2 eradication depends on systematic planning, effective hospital isolation, and SARS-CoV-2 vaccination, and some measures including city closures and leave policies should be implemented to ensure SARS-CoV-2 eradication.

7.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-311593

ABSTRACT

Hopes for a COVID-19 vaccine are now a reality. The spike protein of SARS-CoV-2, which majorly binds to the host receptor ACE2 for cell entry, is used by most of the COVID-19 vaccine candidates as a choice of antigen. ACE2 is highly expressed in the heart and is known to be protective in multiple organs. Interaction of spike with ACE2 has been reported to reduce ACE2 expression and affect ACE2-mediated signal transduction in the heart. However, whether a spike-encoding vaccine will aggravate myocardial damage after a heart attack via affecting ACE2 remains unclear. Therefore, for patients with or at risk of heart diseases, questions arise around the safety of the spike-based vaccines. Here, we demonstrate that ACE2 is up-regulated and protective in the injured mouse heart after myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R). Infecting human cardiomyocyte, smooth muscle cells, endothelial cells, and cardiac fibroblasts with a recombinant adenovirus type-5 vectored COVID-19 vaccine expressing the spike protein (AdSpike) does not affect cell survival and cardiomyocyte function, whether the cells are subjected to hypoxia-reoxygenation injury or not. This observation is further confirmed in human engineered heart tissues. Furthermore, AdSpike vaccination does not aggravate heart damage in wild-type or humanized ACE2 mice after I/R injury, even at a dose that is ten-fold higher as used in human. This study represents the first systematic evaluation of the safety of a leading COVID-19 vaccine under a disease context and may provide important information to ensure maximal protection from COVID-19 in patients with or at risk of heart diseases.

8.
Cell Discov ; 8(1): 9, 2022 Feb 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1661959

ABSTRACT

Safe, effective, and economical vaccines against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) are needed to achieve adequate herd immunity and end the pandemic. We constructed a novel SARS-CoV-2 vaccine, CoVac501, which is a self-adjuvanting peptide vaccine conjugated with Toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7) agonists. The vaccine contains immunodominant peptides screened from the receptor-binding domain (RBD) and is fully chemically synthesized. It has been formulated in an optimized nanoemulsion formulation and is stable at 40 °C for 1 month. In non-human primates (NHPs), CoVac501 elicited high and persistent titers of protective neutralizing antibodies against multiple RBD mutations, SARS-CoV-2 original strain, and variants (B.1.1.7 and B.1.617.2). Specific peptides booster immunization against the B.1.351 variant has also been shown to be effective in improving protection against B.1.351. Meanwhile, CoVac501 elicited the increase of memory T cells, antigen-specific CD8+ T-cell responses, and Th1-biased CD4+ T-cell immune responses in NHPs. Notably, at an extremely high SARS-CoV-2 challenge dose of 1 × 107 TCID50, CoVac501 provided near-complete protection for the upper and lower respiratory tracts of cynomolgus macaques.

9.
Int J Health Plann Manage ; 2022 Jan 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1626452

ABSTRACT

Diagnostic and treatment services for non-communicable diseases (NCDs) face significant challenges in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. We used the Python programing language to extract and classify messages for help posted on the social networking platform microblog by NCD patients in the early stage of the COVID-19 epidemic in Wuhan, China. We found of all NCD patients, the most frequently recorded conditions were basic chronic diseases (42.50%), acute critical diseases (35.53%), malignant tumours (15.10%), and patients requiring haemodialysis (6.79%). Regarding COVID-19, 54.70% of patients reported suspected symptoms of infection, 32.01% were diagnosed with comorbidities, and 13.29% were non-COVID-19 patients. According to the analysis of the needs of the patients, 82.46% of the patients reported "No beds were available in the hospital", 25.31% of patients needed nucleic acid tests. Our results confirmed it is difficult to meet the regular needs in the diagnosis and treatment of patients with NCDs. Effective prevention and management of NCDs in public health emergencies has become an urgent issue to be addressed. During the COVID-19 epidemic, it is necessary to pay particular attention to the prevention and control of NCD patients, especially those with chronic disease. Governments and medical and health institutions at all levels should improve treatment mechanisms during major epidemics and ensure the uninterrupted treatment of patients with NCDs.

10.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(50)2021 12 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1555255

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the causative agent of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), binds to host receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) through its spike (S) glycoprotein, which mediates membrane fusion and viral entry. However, the expression of ACE2 is extremely low in a variety of human tissues, especially in the airways. Thus, other coreceptors and/or cofactors on the surface of host cells may contribute to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Here, we identified nonmuscle myosin heavy chain IIA (MYH9) as an important host factor for SARS-CoV-2 infection of human pulmonary cells by using APEX2 proximity-labeling techniques. Genetic ablation of MYH9 significantly reduced SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus infection in wild type (WT) A549 and Calu-3 cells, and overexpression of MYH9 enhanced the pseudovirus infection in WT A549 and H1299 cells. MYH9 was colocalized with the SARS-CoV-2 S and directly interacted with SARS-CoV-2 S through the S2 subunit and S1-NTD (N-terminal domain) by its C-terminal domain (designated as PRA). Further experiments suggested that endosomal or myosin inhibitors effectively block the viral entry of SARS-CoV-2 into PRA-A549 cells, while transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS2) and cathepsin B and L (CatB/L) inhibitors do not, indicating that MYH9 promotes SARS-CoV-2 endocytosis and bypasses TMPRSS2 and CatB/L pathway. Finally, we demonstrated that loss of MYH9 reduces authentic SARS-CoV-2 infection in Calu-3, ACE2-A549, and ACE2-H1299 cells. Together, our results suggest that MYH9 is a candidate host factor for SARS-CoV-2, which mediates the virus entering host cells by endocytosis in an ACE2-dependent manner, and may serve as a potential target for future clinical intervention strategies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Myosin Heavy Chains/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Cell Line , Cell Membrane/metabolism , Humans , Lung/metabolism , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/physiology , Myosin Heavy Chains/chemistry , Myosin Heavy Chains/genetics , Protein Binding , Protein Domains , SARS Virus/physiology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Virus Internalization
11.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-296092

ABSTRACT

The recurrent outbreak of coronaviruses and variants underscores the need for broadly reactive antivirals and vaccines. Here, a novel broad-spectrum human antibody named 76E1 was isolated from a COVID-19 convalescent patient and showed broad neutralization activity against multiple α- and β-coronaviruses, including the SARS-CoV-2 variants and also exhibited the binding breath to peptides containing the epitope from γ- and δ- coronaviruses. 76E1 cross-protects mice from SARS-CoV-2 and HCoV-OC43 infection in both prophylactic and treatment models. The epitope including the fusion peptide and S2’ cleavage site recognized by 76E1 was significantly conserved among α-, β-, γ- and δ- coronaviruses. We uncovered a novel mechanism of antibody neutralization that the epitope of 76E1 was proportionally less exposed in the prefusion trimeric structure of spike protein but could be unmasked by binding to the receptor ACE2. Once the epitope exposed, 76E1 inhibited S2’ cleavage, thus blocked the membrane fusion process. Our data demonstrate a key epitope targeted by broadly-neutralizing antibodies and will guide next-generation epitope-based pan-coronavirus vaccine design.

12.
Epidemiol Infect ; 148: e161, 2020 07 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1531968

ABSTRACT

After the 2003 SARS epidemic, China started constructing a primary-level emergency response system and focused on strengthening and implementation of policies, resource allocation. After 17 years of restructuring, China's primary-level response capabilities towards public health emergencies have greatly improved. During the coronavirus disease 2019 epidemic, primary-level administrative and medical personnel, social organisations, volunteers, etc. have played a significant role in providing professional services utilising the primary-level emergency response system of 17 years. However, China's organisations did not learn their lesson from the SARS epidemic, and certain problems are exposed in the system. By analysing the experience and shortcomings of China's disease prevention and control system at the primary level, we can focus on the development of disease control systems for major epidemics in the future.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Emergency Medical Services/standards , Epidemics/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Public Health/standards , COVID-19 , China , Emergency Medical Services/organization & administration , Emergency Medical Services/trends , Health Policy/trends , Humans , Information Dissemination/methods , Information Technology/trends , Vulnerable Populations
13.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(28): e26503, 2021 Jul 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1494082

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: The outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has been rapidly spreading on a global scale and poses a great threat to human health. However, efficient indicators for disease severity have not been fully investigated. Here, we aim to investigate whether dynamic changes of lymphocyte counts can predict the deterioration of patients with COVID-19.We collected data from 2923 patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19. Patients were then screened, and we focused on 145 severe cases and 60 critical cases (29 recovered cases, 31 deaths). The length of hospitalization was divided into five time points, namely admission, 25%, 50%, 75% and discharge or death, according to the principle of interquartile distance. A series of laboratory findings and clinical data were collected and analyzed during hospitalization. The results showed that there were differences in levels of leukocytes, neutrophils and lymphocytes at almost every time point in the severe cases and 60 critical cases (29 recovered cases, 31 deaths). Further analysis showed that 70.2% of the COVID-19 cases had low circulating lymphocyte count, of which 64.1% were severe cases and 85.0% were critical cases (75.9% recovered cases and 93.5% died). Moreover, the lymphocyte count in dead cases was significantly lower than that of critical cases who recovered, at almost every time point in the critical groups. We also divided critical patients into group A (<1.1 × 109/L) and group B (>1.1 × 109/L) according to number of lymphocytes. Through survival analysis, we found that there was no significant difference in survival between group A and group B at admission (P = .3065). However, the survival rate according to lymphocyte levels in group A was significantly lower than that of group B at 25% hospital stay (on average day 6.5), 50% and 75% time points (P < .001).Lymphocyte counts that remain lower after the first week following symptom onset are highly predictive of in-hospital death of adults with COVID-19. This predictor may help clinicians identify patients with a poor prognosis and may be useful for guiding clinical decision-making at an early stage.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/mortality , Lymphocyte Count/statistics & numerical data , Lymphocytes/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/virology , Female , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Predictive Value of Tests , Retrospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index , Time Factors , Young Adult
14.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 955, 2021 Sep 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1414111

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Our goal is to further elucidate the clinical condition and prognosis of patients with severe acute COVID-19 with EBV reactivation. METHOD: This is a retrospective single-center study of COVID-19 patients admitted to the intensive care unit of Wuhan No. 3 Hospital (January 31 to March 27, 2020). According to whether Epstein-Barr virus reactivation was detected, the patients were divided into an EBV group and a Non-EBV group. Baseline data were collected including epidemiological, larithmics, clinical and imaging characteristics, and laboratory examination data. RESULTS: Of the 128 patients with COVID-19, 17 (13.3%) were infected with Epstein-Barr virus reactivation. In the symptoms,the rate of tachypnoea in the EBV group was apparently higher than that in the Non-EBV group. In lab tests, the lymphocyte and albumin of EBV group decreased more significantly than Non-EBV group, and the D-dimer and serum calcium of EBV group was higher than Non-EBV group. Regarding the infection index, CRP of EBV group was apparently above the Non-EBV group, and no significant difference was found in procalcitonin of the two groups. The incidence of respiratory failure, ARDS, and hypoproteinaemia of EBV group had more incidence than Non-EBV group. The 28-day and 14-day mortality rates of EBV group was significantly higher than that of Non-EBV group. CONCLUSIONS: In the COVID-19 patients, patients with EBV reactivation had higher 28-day and 14-day mortality rates and received more immuno-supportive treatment than patients of Non-EBV group.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Epstein-Barr Virus Infections , Critical Illness , Epstein-Barr Virus Infections/complications , Epstein-Barr Virus Infections/epidemiology , Herpesvirus 4, Human , Humans , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Virus Activation
15.
Int J Health Plann Manage ; 36(6): 2424-2429, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1359787

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus disease pandemic is an unprecedented challenge globally. Medical personnel have been playing a leading role by fighting at the forefront against the pandemic and are the backbone of the fight against the epidemic. These frontline medical workers are under enormous psychological pressure and are prone to overwork and stress, as well as depression depletion, anxiety, insomnia, frustration, or self-blame in the face of patient deaths. Active psychological crisis interventions for medical staff fighting the pandemic are important protect and promote to maintain their occupational health. Based on China's experience, this paper describes the importance of organizational leadership, emergency psychological crisis interventions in pandemics, and psychological intervention measures for medical staff. It cites useful explorations from different regions and makes suggestions for establishing a sound psychological intervention mechanism.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Anxiety , Depression , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Emergencies , Health Personnel , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Psychosocial Intervention , Public Health , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 10(1): 1555-1573, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1324547

ABSTRACT

To curb the pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), multiple platforms have been employed toward a safe and highly effective vaccine. Here, we develop a novel cell-based vaccine candidate, namely K562-S, by utilizing human cell K562 as a cellular carrier to display Spike (S) protein of SARS-CoV-2 on the membrane. Analogous to the traditional inactivated vaccine, K562-S cells can be propagated to a large scale by culturing and completely lose their viability after exposure to X-ray irradiation or formalin. We in turn demonstrated high immunogenicity of formalin-inactivated K562-S vaccine in both mouse and non-human primates and its protective efficacy in mice. In mice, immunization with inactivated K562-S vaccines can elicit potent neutralizing antibody (nAb) responses persisting longer than 5 months. We consequently showed in a hACE2 mouse model of SARS-CoV-2 infection that a two-shot vaccination with adjuvanted K562-S rendered greater than 3 log reduction in viral lung load and concomitant ameliorated lung pathology. Of importance, the administration of the same regimen in non-human primates was able to induce a neutralizing antibody titer averaging three-fold higher relative to human convalescent serum. These results together support the promise of K562-based, S-protein-expressing vaccines as a novel vaccination approach against SARS-CoV-2. Importantly, with a powerful capacity to carry external genes for cell-based vectors, this platform could rapidly generate two- and multiple-valent vaccines by incorporating SARS-CoV-2 mutants, SARS-CoV, or MERS-CoV.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/immunology , Animals , Animals, Genetically Modified , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Female , HEK293 Cells , Humans , K562 Cells , Macaca mulatta , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mice, Inbred ICR , Primates , Specific Pathogen-Free Organisms , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/administration & dosage , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Vaccination/methods , Vaccines, Inactivated/administration & dosage , Vaccines, Inactivated/immunology
17.
Front Public Health ; 9: 672215, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1282422

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia is caused by the virus severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and has rapidly become a global public health concern. As the new type of betacoronavirus, SARS-CoV-2 can spread across species and between populations and has a greater risk of transmission than other coronaviruses. To control the spread of SARS-CoV-2, it is vital to have a rapid and effective means of diagnosing asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2-positive individuals and patients with COVID-19, an early isolation protocol for infected individuals, and effective treatments for patients with COVID-19 pneumonia. In this review, we will summarize the novel diagnostic tools that are currently available for coronavirus, including imaging examinations and laboratory medicine by next-generation sequencing (NGS), real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) analysis, immunoassay for COVID-19, cytokine and T cell immunoassays, biochemistry and microbiology laboratory parameters in the blood of the patients with COVID-19, and a field-effect transistor-based biosensor of COVID-19. Specifically, we will discuss the effective detection rate and assay time for the rRT-PCR analysis of SARS-CoV-2 and the sensitivity and specificity of different antibody detection methods, such as colloidal gold and ELISA using specimen sources obtained from the respiratory tract, peripheral serum or plasma, and other bodily fluids. Such diagnostics will help scientists and clinicians develop appropriate strategies to combat COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19 , COVID-19/diagnosis , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensitivity and Specificity
18.
Phytomedicine ; 85: 153531, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1104217

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Qingfei Paidu Tang (QPT), a formula of traditional Chinese medicine, which was suggested to be able to ease symptoms in patients with Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), has been recommended by clinical guidelines and widely used to treat COVID-19 in China. However, whether it decreases mortality remains unknown. PURPOSE: We aimed to explore the association between QPT use and in-hospital mortality among patients hospitalized for COVID-19. STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective study based on a real-world database was conducted. METHODS: We identified patients consecutively hospitalized with COVID-19 in 15 hospitals from a national retrospective registry in China, from January through May 2020. Data on patients' characteristics, treatments, and outcomes were extracted from the electronic medical records. The association of QPT use with COVID-19 related mortality was evaluated using Cox proportional hazards models based on propensity score analysis. RESULTS: Of the 8939 patients included, 28.7% received QPT. The COVID-19 related mortality was 1.2% (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.8% to 1.7%) among the patients receiving QPT and 4.8% (95% CI 4.3% to 5.3%) among those not receiving QPT. After adjustment for patient characteristics and concomitant treatments, QPT use was associated with a relative reduction of 50% in-hospital COVID-19 related mortality (hazard ratio, 0.50; 95% CI, 0.37 to 0.66 p < 0.001). This association was consistent across subgroups by sex and age. Meanwhile, the incidences of acute liver injury (8.9% [95% CI, 7.8% to 10.1%] vs. 9.9% [95% CI, 9.2% to 10.7%]; odds ratio, 0.96 [95% CI, 0.81% to 1.14%], p = 0.658) and acute kidney injury (1.6% [95% CI, 1.2% to 2.2%] vs. 3.0% [95% CI, 2.6% to 3.5%]; odds ratio, 0.85 [95% CI, 0.62 to 1.17], p = 0.318) were comparable between patients receiving QPT and those not receiving QPT. The major study limitations included that the study was an observational study based on real-world data rather than a randomized control trial, and the quality of data could be affected by the accuracy and completeness of medical records. CONCLUSIONS: QPT was associated with a substantially lower risk of in-hospital mortality, without extra risk of acute liver injury or acute kidney injury among patients hospitalized with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/mortality , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Acute Kidney Injury , Adult , Aged , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury , China , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Incidence , Male , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Middle Aged , Proportional Hazards Models , Registries , Retrospective Studies
19.
J Infect Dis ; 223(4): 568-580, 2021 02 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1101847

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The immune protective mechanisms during severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) infection remain to be deciphered for the development of an effective intervention approach. METHODS: We examined early responses of interleukin 37 (IL-37), a powerful anti-inflammatory cytokine, in 254 SARS-CoV-2-infected patients before any clinical intervention and determined its correlation with clinical prognosis. RESULTS: Our results demonstrated that SARS-CoV-2 infection causes elevation of plasma IL-37. Higher early IL-37 responses were correlated with earlier viral RNA negative conversion, chest computed tomographic improvement, and cough relief, consequently resulted in earlier hospital discharge. Further assays showed that higher IL-37 was associated with lower interleukin 6 and interleukin 8 (IL-8) and higher interferon α responses and facilitated biochemical homeostasis. Low IL-37 responses predicted severe clinical prognosis in combination with IL-8 and C-reactive protein. In addition, we observed that IL-37 administration was able to attenuate lung inflammation and alleviate respiratory tissue damage in human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2-transgenic mice infected with SARS-CoV-2. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, we found that IL-37 plays a protective role by antagonizing inflammatory responses while retaining type I interferon, thereby maintaining the functionalities of vital organs. IL-37, IL-8, and C-reactive protein might be formulated as a precise prediction model for screening severe clinical cases and have good value in clinical practice.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/virology , Interleukin-1/blood , Adult , Animals , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , COVID-19/blood , Female , Humans , Inflammation/immunology , Inflammation/virology , Interleukin-8/blood , Male , Mice , Mice, Transgenic , Middle Aged
20.
EClinicalMedicine ; 25: 100478, 2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1047557

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The outbreak of a new coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) poses a great challenge to global public health. New and effective intervention strategies are urgently needed to combat the disease. METHODS: We conducted an open-label, non-randomized, clinical trial involving moderate COVID-19 patients according to study protocol. Patients were assigned in a 1:2 ratio to receive either aerosol inhalation treatment with IFN-κ and TFF2, every 48 h for three consecutive dosages, in addition to standard treatment (experimental group), or standard treatment alone (control group). The end point was the time to discharge from the hospital. This study is registered with chictr.org.cn, ChiCTR2000030262. FINDINGS: A total of thirty-three eligible COVID-19 patients were enrolled from February 1, 2020 to April 6, 2020, eleven were assigned to the IFN-κ plus TFF2 group, and twenty-two to the control group. Safety and efficacy were evaluated for both groups. No treatment-associated severe adverse effects (SAE) were observed in the group treated with aerosol inhalation of IFN-κ plus TFF2, and no significant differences in the safety evaluations were observed between experimental and control groups. CT imaging was performed in all patients with the median improvement time of 5.0 days (IQR 3.0-9.0) in the experimental group versus 8.5 days (IQR 3.0-17.0) in the control group (p<0.05). In addition, the experimental group had a significant shorten median time in cough relief (4.5 days [IQR 2.0-7.0]) than the control group did (10.0 days [IQR 6.0-21.0])(p<0.005), in viral RNA reversion of 6.0 days (IQR 2.0-13.0) in the experimental group vs 9.5 days (IQR 3.0-23.0) in the control group (p < 0.05), and in the median hospitalization stays of 12.0 days (IQR 7.0-20.0) in the experimental group vs 15.0 days (IQR 10.0-25.0) in the control group (p<0.001), respectively. INTERPRETATION: Aerosol inhalation of IFN-κ plus TFF2 is a safe treatment and is likely to significantly facilitate clinical improvement, including cough relief, CT imaging improvement, and viral RNA reversion, thereby achieves an early release from hospitalization. These data support to explore a scale-up trial with IFN-κ plus TFF2. FUNDING: National Major Project for Control and Prevention of Infectious Disease in China, Shanghai Science and Technology Commission, Shanghai Municipal Health Commission.

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