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3.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-293751

ABSTRACT

Background: Since December 2019, a novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) associated pneumonia has emerged in Wuhan, China. The study aimed to further clarify the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of 2019-nCoV pneumonia.<br><br>Methods: 99 cases admitted to Wuhan Jinyintan Hospital during January 1 to 20, 2020 and confirmed by real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase-chain-reaction (RT-PCR) test were analyzed for epidemiological, demographic, clinical, radiological features, and laboratory data. <br><br>Findings: Of the 99 patients with 2019-nCoV pneumonia, 49 (49%) had a history of exposure to the South China Seafood Wholesale Market. The average age of the patients was 62.85 ± 11.99 years, including 67 males and 32 females. 2019-nCoV was detected in all patients by RT-PCR, and some of them also by serological testing, and metagenomics sequencing analysis. 50 cases (50.51%) had chronic basic diseases. Patients had clinical manifestations of fever (83%), cough (82%), shortness of breath (31%), muscle aches (11%), headache (8%), fuzzy confusion (7%), chest pain (2%), and diarrhea (2%). According to imaging examination, 74 patients showed bilateral pneumonia (74.75%), 25 patients showed multiple mottled and ground-glass opacity, and 1 patient had pneumothorax. Most patients received antiviral, antibiotics, supportive treatments, continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), and had good prognosis. 17 patients developed acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) and among them, 2 patients worsened in a short period of time and died of multiple organ failure.<br><br>Interpretation: The infection of the 2019-nCoV can result in severe and even fatal respiratory disease like ARDS. It is very important to actively prevent complications and secondary infections, treat underlying diseases, and provide timely organ function support. Early diagnosis, early isolation, multiple treatment, and intervention of CRRT and ECMO when necessary can effectively reduce mortality caused by severe coronavirus pneumonia.<br><br>Funding: National Key R&D Program of China (No. 2017YFC1309700)<br><br>Declaration of Interest: The author reports no conflicts of interest in this work.<br><br>Ethical Approval: The study was approved by Jinyintan Hospital Ethics Committee and written informed consent was obtained from all patients involved before enrolment.

4.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 11: 755508, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1497026

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 continues to circulate globally in 2021, while under the precise policy implementation of China's public health system, the epidemic was quickly controlled, and society and the economy have recovered. During the pandemic response, nucleic acid detection of SARS-CoV-2 has played an indispensable role in the first line of defence. In the cases of emergency operations or patients presenting at fever clinics, nucleic acid detection is required to be performed and reported quickly. Therefore, nucleic acid point-of-care testing (POCT) technology for SARS-CoV-2 identification has emerged, and has been widely carried out at all levels of medical institutions. SARS-CoV-2 POCT has served as a complementary test to conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) batch tests, thus forming an experimental diagnosis platform that not only guarantees medical safety but also improves quality services. However, in view of the complexity of molecular diagnosis and the biosafety requirements involved, pathogen nucleic acid POCT is different from traditional blood-based physical and chemical index detection. No guidelines currently exist for POCT quality management, and there have been inconsistencies documented in practical operation. Therefore, Shanghai Society of Molecular Diagnostics, Shanghai Society of Laboratory Medicine, Clinical Microbiology Division of Shanghai Society of Microbiology and Shanghai Center for Clinical Laboratory have cooperated with experts in laboratory medicine to generate the present expert consensus. Based on the current spectrum of major infectious diseases in China, the whole-process operation management of pathogen POCT, including its application scenarios, biosafety management, personnel qualification, performance verification, quality control, and result reporting, are described here. This expert consensus will aid in promoting the rational application and robust development of this technology in public health defence and hospital infection management.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nucleic Acids , China , Consensus , Humans , Point-of-Care Testing , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Sci Bull (Beijing) ; 66(22): 2312-2319, 2021 Nov 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1331219

ABSTRACT

The presence of antiphospholipid antibodies was shown to be associated with thrombosis in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. Recently, according to reports from several studies, the vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia is mediated by anti-platelet factor 4 (PF4)-polyanion complex in adenovirus-vectored COVID-19 vaccine recipients. It is impendent to explore whether inactivated COVID-19 vaccine widely used in China influences prothrombotic autoantibody production and induces thrombosis. In this prospective study, we recruited 406 healthcare workers who received two doses, 21 days apart, of inactivated severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccine (BBIBP-CorV, Sinopharm). Paired blood samples taken before vaccination and four weeks after the second vaccination were used in detecting prothrombotic autoantibodies, including anticardiolipin (aCL), anti-ß2 glycoprotein I (aß2GP1), anti-phosphatidylserine/prothrombin (aPS/PT), and anti-PF4-heparin. The seroconversion rate of SARS-CoV-2 specific antibodies was 95.81% (389/406) four weeks after vaccination. None of the subjects had spontaneous thrombosis or thrombocytopenia over a minimum follow-up period of eight weeks. There was no significant difference in the presence of all ten autoantibodies between samples collected before and after vaccination: for aCL, IgG (7 vs. 8, P = 0.76), IgM (41 vs. 44, P = 0.73), IgA (4 vs. 4, P = 1.00); anti-ß2GP1, IgG (7 vs. 6, P = 0.78), IgM (6 vs. 5, P = 0.76), IgA (3 vs. 5, P = 0.72); aPS/PT IgG (0 vs. 0, P = 1.00), IgM (6 vs. 5, P = 0.76); aPF4-heparin (2 vs. 7, P = 0.18), and antinuclear antibody (ANA) (18 vs. 21, P = 0.62). Notably, seven cases presented with anti-PF4-heparin antibodies (range: 1.18-1.79 U/mL) after vaccination, and none of them exhibited any sign of thrombotic disorder. In conclusion, inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine does not influence the profile of antiphospholipid antibody and anti-PF4-heparin antibody nor increase the risk of thrombosis.

8.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4144, 2021 07 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1298839

ABSTRACT

To investigate the duration of humoral immune response in convalescent coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients, we conduct a 12-month longitudinal study through collecting a total of 1,782 plasma samples from 869 convalescent plasma donors in Wuhan, China and test specific antibody responses. The results show that positive rate of IgG antibody against receptor-binding domain of spike protein (RBD-IgG) to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in the COVID-19 convalescent plasma donors exceeded 70% for 12 months post diagnosis. The level of RBD-IgG decreases with time, with the titer stabilizing at 64.3% of the initial level by the 9th month. Moreover, male plasma donors produce more RBD-IgG than female, and age of the patients positively correlates with the RBD-IgG titer. A strong positive correlation between RBD-IgG and neutralizing antibody titers is also identified. These results facilitate our understanding of SARS-CoV-2-induced immune memory to promote vaccine and therapy development.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Receptors, Virus/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Animals , Blood Donors , COVID-19/therapy , Cell Line , China , Chlorocebus aethiops , Convalescence , Female , Humans , Immunity, Humoral/immunology , Immunization, Passive , Immunologic Memory/immunology , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Sex Factors , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Vero Cells
9.
Case Studies in Thermal Engineering ; : 101091, 2021.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1240275

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has put the whole world in a great lockdown and greatly changed our lives. The lockdown caused by the COVID-19 pandemic has greatly affected the transportation industry in China. In this paper, energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions of fuel vehicles and battery electric vehicles in China during the COVID-19 pandemic was estimated and analyzed. The impact of COVID-19 pandemic was analyzed. The study period is taken from September 2019 to April 2020, and the period from September 2018 to August 2019 is taken for comparison. Moreover, energy consumption and CO2 emissions of fuel vehicles during SARS epidemic was also analyzed. The related study period is taken from January 2003 to August 2003. The results show COVID-19 has a much larger impact on transportation energy consumption and CO2 emissions than SARS. After the COVID-19 pandemic, energy conservation and emission reduction still have a long way to go. Determining the energy consumption and emissions in transportation sector during the COVID-19 pandemic will provide the government with a reference for future energy conservation and emission reduction in transportation sector and the further promotion of battery electric vehicles.

10.
J Med Virol ; 93(4): 2227-2233, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1217375

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). However, little is known about the durability of the antibody response during COVID-19 convalescent phase. We investigated the prevalence of anti-SARS-CoV-2 specific antibodies including immunoglobulin G (IgG) and immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies and the dynamic changes in antibody levels in convalescent COVID-19 patients. A total of 159 blood samples were collected from 52 recovered COVID-19 patients up to six months after symptom onset for longitudinal serological tests. The positive rate of IgG and IgM antibodies was 92.3% and 90.4% in the first month after symptom onset, and the seropositivity of IgG antibody remained high at all follow-up time points, whereas the seropositivity of IgM antibody decreased to 22.73% by the sixth months after symptom onset. The level of IgG antibody was stable, the level of IgM antibody decreased slightly in the early convalescent phase and was detected in only five patients in the sixth month after symptom onset. The level of IgG antibody was higher in the severe and critical group than in the moderate group. The anti-SARS-CoV-2 specific antibodies have a long-term persistence in convalescent COVID-19 patients, whether they have long-term protection need to be further investigated.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Antibodies, Viral/biosynthesis , Antibody Formation , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19 Testing/methods , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Serologic Tests/methods
11.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 17(20)2020 10 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1006299

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 epidemic adversely affects the lifestyle of people. This study aimed to examine the impacts of social isolation on physical activity (PA) levels and mood states of children and adolescents and to explore the correlation between them during the COVID-19 epidemic. A total of 9979 children and adolescents (11.63 ± 1.23 years old) from Yan'an, China volunteered to participate in this study and completed online questionnaires. PA and mood states were measured by International Physical Activity Questionnaire Short Form (IPAQ-SF) and Profile of Mood States (POMS), respectively. The results showed that the mean of students' moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) was 23.19 min per day. The total mood disturbance in the moderate and high-level PA groups were significantly lower than those in the low-level PA group (p < 0.05). Additionally, boys and girls had significant differences in PA levels (p < 0.01), and the PA levels of students in different grades were also significantly different (p < 0.01). Meanwhile, boys' mood states were worse than girls'. The Grade 4 in primary schools had the worst mood states while Grade 5 had the best mood states. The results suggested that the MVPA of students has dropped badly, compared with the results of previous studies investigated in normal times. In addition, the PA level had a significantly positive impact on the mood states of children and adolescents during the COVID-19 epidemic. Sex and grades were factors which affected the PA levels and mood states. This study can help policymakers and healthcare professionals understand PA and mood states of Chinese children and adolescents during the epidemic. We should pay attention to the changes in PA levels and mood states of children and adolescents.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Exercise , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Social Isolation , Adolescent , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Child , China/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Cell Discov ; 6: 10, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-851266

ABSTRACT

An outbreak of clusters of viral pneumonia due to a novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV/SARS-CoV-2) happened in Wuhan, Hubei Province in China in December 2019. Since the outbreak, several groups reported estimated R 0 of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) and generated valuable prediction for the early phase of this outbreak. After implementation of strict prevention and control measures in China, new estimation is needed. An infectious disease dynamics SEIR (Susceptible, Exposed, Infectious, and Removed) model was applied to estimate the epidemic trend in Wuhan, China under two assumptions of R t . In the first assumption, R t was assumed to maintain over 1. The estimated number of infections would continue to increase throughout February without any indication of dropping with R t = 1.9, 2.6, or 3.1. The number of infections would reach 11,044, 70,258, and 227,989, respectively, by 29 February 2020. In the second assumption, R t was assumed to gradually decrease at different phases from high level of transmission (R t = 3.1, 2.6, and 1.9) to below 1 (R t = 0.9 or 0.5) owing to increasingly implemented public health intervention. Several phases were divided by the dates when various levels of prevention and control measures were taken in effect in Wuhan. The estimated number of infections would reach the peak in late February, which is 58,077-84,520 or 55,869-81,393. Whether or not the peak of the number of infections would occur in February 2020 may be an important index for evaluating the sufficiency of the current measures taken in China. Regardless of the occurrence of the peak, the currently strict measures in Wuhan should be continuously implemented and necessary strict public health measures should be applied in other locations in China with high number of COVID-19 cases, in order to reduce R t to an ideal level and control the infection.

14.
EBioMedicine ; 61: 103036, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-844322

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Real-time reverse transcription-PCR (rRT-PCR) has been the most effective and widely implemented diagnostic technology since the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic. However, fuzzy rRT-PCR readouts with high Ct values are frequently encountered, resulting in uncertainty in diagnosis. METHODS: A Specific Enhancer for PCR-amplified Nucleic Acid (SENA) was developed based on the Cas12a trans-cleavage activity, which is specifically triggered by the rRT-PCR amplicons of the SARS-CoV-2 Orf1ab (O) and N fragments. SENA was first characterized to determine its sensitivity and specificity, using a systematic titration experiment with pure SARS-CoV-2 RNA standards, and was then verified in several hospitals, employing a couple of commercial rRT-PCR kits and testing various clinical specimens under different scenarios. FINDINGS: The ratio (10 min/5 min) of fluorescence change (FC) with mixed SENA reaction (mix-FCratio) was defined for quantitative analysis of target O and N genes, and the Limit of Detection (LoD) of mix-FCratio with 95% confidence interval was 1.2≤1.6≤2.1. Totally, 295 clinical specimens were analyzed, among which 21 uncertain rRT-PCR cases as well as 4 false negative and 2 false positive samples were characterized by SENA and further verified by next-generation sequencing (NGS). The cut-off values for mix-FCratio were determined as 1.145 for positive and 1.068 for negative. INTERPRETATION: SENA increases both the sensitivity and the specificity of rRT-PCR, solving the uncertainty problem in COVID-19 diagnosis and thus providing a simple and low-cost companion diagnosis for combating the pandemic. FUNDING: Detailed funding information is available at the end of the manuscript.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Proteins/metabolism , Betacoronavirus/genetics , CRISPR-Associated Proteins/metabolism , Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats/genetics , Endodeoxyribonucleases/metabolism , RNA, Viral/metabolism , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins , Humans , Limit of Detection , Nasal Cavity/virology , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/methods , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/standards , Nucleocapsid Proteins/genetics , Nucleocapsid Proteins/metabolism , Pandemics , Phosphoproteins , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Polyproteins , RNA, Viral/genetics , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/standards , Reference Standards , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Proteins/genetics , Viral Proteins/metabolism
16.
Preprint | SSRN | ID: ppcovidwho-493

ABSTRACT

Background: An outbreak of clusters of viral pneumonia due to 2019 novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV) happened in Wuhan, Hubeprovince in China in December 2019. Si

17.
Front Immunol ; 11: 565278, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-796802

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has led to an outbreak of a pandemic worldwide. For better understanding the viral spike (S) protein variations and its potential effects on the interaction with the host immune system and also in vaccine development, the cell epitopes, glycosylation profile and their changes during the global transmission course were characterized and compared with SARS-CoV for their glycosylation profile. We analyzed totally 7,813 sequences screened from 8,897 whole genome sequences on GISAID database up to April 26, and 18 S protein amino acid variations with relatively high frequency (≥10-3) were identified. A total of 228 sequences of variants had multiple variations, of note, most of them harboring the D614G mutation. Among the predicted 69 linear B cell epitopes, 175 discontinuous B cell epitopes and 41 cytotoxic T lymphocyte epitopes in the viral S protein, we found that the protein structure and its potential function of some sites changed, such as the linear epitope length shortened and discontinuous epitope disappeared of G476S. In addition, we detected 9 predicted N-glycosylation sites and 3 O-glycosylation sites unique to SARS-CoV-2, but no evidently observed variation of the glycan sites so far. Our findings provided an important snapshot of temporal and geographical distributions on SARS-CoV-2 S protein cell epitopes and glycosylation sites, which would be an essential basis for the selection of vaccine candidates.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Epitopes, B-Lymphocyte/immunology , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Amino Acid Sequence , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Genome, Viral/genetics , Glycosylation , Host-Pathogen Interactions/immunology , Humans , Membrane Glycoproteins/immunology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Protein Conformation , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Whole Genome Sequencing
18.
J Epidemiol Glob Health ; 11(1): 26-33, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-789173

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Restricted outdoor activities and online learning during COVID-19 pandemic may pose threats on the physical and mental health of Chinese adolescents in middle schools. The study was to explore the relationship of Physical Activity (PA) and Sedentary Time (SED) with mood states among Chinese adolescents during the pandemic. METHODS: A total of 4898 adolescents (16.3 ± 1.3 years old) from 49 middle schools in 13 urban and rural areas in Yan'an, China volunteered to participate in this study and completed online questionnaires. International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) were used to measure PA and SED, and Profile of Mood States were used to evaluate mood states. We used Mann-Whitney U-test and Kruskal-Wallis test to assess differences in PA and SED in different sex and grade group, respectively. Mixed linear regression was used to analyze the relationship between PA/SED and mood states. RESULTS: Participants in our study accumulated 23.4 ± 52.5 min of moderate-to-vigorous PA and 363.6 ± 148.4 min of SED per day. The mood states of boys were better than that of girls (p < 0.01). The mood states of the students in Senior High School Grade 3 were at the highest level of mood disturbance. Higher levels of PA were significantly associated with lower levels of total mood disturbance in this population (High PA group according to IPAQ: B = -3.22, SE = 0.40, p < 0.001; Moderate: B = -1.47, SE = 0.37, p < 0.001, compared to Low PA group). CONCLUSION: Chinese adolescents maintained a sedentary lifestyle during the COVID-19 pandemic. Girls and students in Grade 3 Senior High School had higher level of mood disturbance. More PA was associate with improving mood state among adolescents in the pandemic. The present study may assist policymakers and healthcare professionals understand PA and mood states of Chinese adolescents during the epidemic and take targeted actions in case of emergencies in future.


Subject(s)
Affective Symptoms , COVID-19 , Education, Distance/methods , Exercise/psychology , Mental Health/statistics & numerical data , Students , Adolescent , Adolescent Behavior/physiology , Adolescent Behavior/psychology , Affect/physiology , Affective Symptoms/diagnosis , Affective Symptoms/etiology , Affective Symptoms/prevention & control , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/psychology , China/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Infection Control/methods , Male , Rural Health , SARS-CoV-2 , Sedentary Behavior , Sex Factors , Students/psychology , Students/statistics & numerical data , Surveys and Questionnaires , Urban Health
19.
Epidemiol Infect ; 148: e137, 2020 07 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-633285

ABSTRACT

From 21 January 2020 to 9 February 2020, three family clusters involving 31 patients with coronavirus disease 2019 were identified in Wenzhou, China. The epidemiological and clinical characteristics of the family cluster patients were analysed and compared with those of 43 contemporaneous sporadic cases. The three index cases transmitted the infection to 28 family members 2-10 days before illness onset. Overall, 28 of the 41 sporadic cases and three of 31 patients in the family clusters came back from Wuhan (65.12 vs. 9.68%, P< 0.001). In terms of epidemiological characters and clinical symptoms, no significant differences were observed between the family cluster and sporadic cases. However, the lymphocyte counts of sporadic cases were significantly lower than those of family cluster cases ((1.32 ± 0.55) × 109/l vs. (1.63 ± 0.70) × 109/l, P = 0.037), and the proportion of hypoalbuminaemia was higher in sporadic cases (18/43, 41.86%) than in the family clusters (6/31, 19.35%) (P < 0.05). Within the family cluster, the second- and third-generation cases had milder clinical manifestations, without severe conditions, compared with the index and first-generation cases, indicating that the virulence gradually decreased following passage through generations within the family clusters. Close surveillance, timely recognition and isolation of the suspected or latent patient is crucial in preventing family cluster infection.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Cluster Analysis , Contact Tracing , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Family , Female , Humans , Infectious Disease Incubation Period , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , SARS-CoV-2 , Travel
20.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 9(1): 1470-1473, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-627700

ABSTRACT

Since the first report of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in late December 2019, the pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has now widely spread to more than 187 countries and regions. However, it is unclear whether there has been cryptic transmission before these early officially confirmed cases, we therefore retrospectively screened for the SARS-CoV-2 RNA in 1271 nasopharyngeal swab samples, as well as the prevalence of IgM, IgG, and total antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 in 357 matched serum samples collected from hospitalized patients with influenza-like illness between 1 December 2018 and 31 March 2020 in Shanghai Ruijin Hospital. The onset date of the earliest COVID-19 case in this study was 25 January 2020. Before this time point, the presence of SARS-CoV-2 was not observed, which limited the possibility that SARS-CoV-2 has already spread among the population before the large-scale outbreak. Additionally, among 6662 patients with influenza-like illness from 1 December 2017 to 31 March 2020, the overall number of patients positive for influenza and other respiratory viruses during the COVID-19 period decreased significantly when compared with that in the same period of the last two years, reflecting that public health interventions can effectively control the spread of common respiratory viruses.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Diagnosis, Differential , Female , Humans , Influenza, Human/diagnosis , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Nasal Cavity/virology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , RNA, Viral/analysis , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
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