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1.
Euro Surveill ; 27(15)2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1793107

ABSTRACT

BackgroundHouseholds appear to be the highest risk setting for COVID-19 transmission. Large household transmission studies in the early stages of the pandemic in Asia reported secondary attack rates ranging from 5 to 30%.AimWe aimed to investigate the transmission dynamics of COVID-19 in household and community settings in the UK.MethodsA prospective case-ascertained study design based on the World Health Organization FFX protocol was undertaken in the UK following the detection of the first case in late January 2020. Household contacts of cases were followed using enhanced surveillance forms to establish whether they developed symptoms of COVID-19, became confirmed cases and their outcomes. We estimated household secondary attack rates (SAR), serial intervals and individual and household basic reproduction numbers. The incubation period was estimated using known point source exposures that resulted in secondary cases.ResultsWe included 233 households with two or more people with 472 contacts. The overall household SAR was 37% (95% CI: 31-43%) with a mean serial interval of 4.67 days, an R0 of 1.85 and a household reproduction number of 2.33. SAR were lower in larger households and highest when the primary case was younger than 18 years. We estimated a mean incubation period of around 4.5 days.ConclusionsRates of COVID-19 household transmission were high in the UK for ages above and under 18 years, emphasising the need for preventative measures in this setting. This study highlights the importance of the FFX protocol in providing early insights on transmission dynamics.

2.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-333009

ABSTRACT

Prevention of infection and propagation of SARS-CoV-2 is of high priority in the COVID-19 pandemic. Here, we describe S-nitrosylation of multiple proteins involved in SARS-CoV-2 infection, including angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), the receptor for viral entry. This reaction prevents binding of ACE2 to the SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein, thereby inhibiting viral entry, infectivity, and cytotoxicity. Aminoadamantane compounds also inhibit coronavirus ion channels formed by envelope (E) protein. Accordingly, we developed dual-mechanism aminoadamantane nitrate compounds that inhibit viral entry and thus spread of infection by S-nitrosylating ACE2 via targeted delivery of the drug after E-protein channel blockade. These non-toxic compounds are active in vitro and in vivo in the Syrian hamster COVID-19 model, and thus provide a novel avenue for therapy.

3.
Zhongguo Yi Liao Qi Xie Za Zhi ; 46(2): 160-163, 2022 Mar 30.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1786151

ABSTRACT

Body temperature is an essential physiological parameter. Conducting non-contact, fast and accurate measurement of temperature is increasing important under the background of COVID-19. The study introduces an infrared temperature measurement system based on the thermopile infrared temperature sensor ZTP-135SR. Extracting original temperature date of sensor, post-amplification and filter processing have been performed to ensure accuracy of the system. In addition, the temperature data of environmental compensation which obtained by polynomial fitting is added to the system to further improve measurement accuracy.


Subject(s)
Body Temperature , COVID-19 , Algorithms , Humans , Temperature , Thermometers
4.
The North American Journal of Economics and Finance ; 60:101672, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1730008

ABSTRACT

To assess the resiliency of stock price indices during the COVID-19 crisis, this study provides a distinctive perspective;that is, we evaluate the ability of stock price indices to absorb COVID-19 shocks. We construct the measures of absorptive intensity and duration to identify a stock price’s absorptive capacity. We then employ the Granger causality test and a topology network approach to investigate the interactions of absorptivity among stock price indices. Our results show that stock price absorptivity varies over time and across countries and industries. The US and the Brazil stock indices have relatively high absorptive intensity while short duration. The health care industry shows distinctive trend in absorptive intensity from the other industries. The intensity of the non-cyclical industries such as utilities and consumer staples is high, while the cyclical industries such as banking, real estate, and energy have lower absorptive intensity. Moreover, the utilities, consumer staples, and financials industries are the main resiliency transmitters.

5.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-325165

ABSTRACT

To control and contain the outbreaks of emerging infectious diseases such as COVID-19, it is important to know how easy and fast they transmit among people. To explore the essential information of the novel infectious agents, people always confront an inverse problem: using (partially) observed numbers of infected people by time and region to dig up the underlying characteristics of unknown infectious agents. Epidemics armed with advanced statistical inference and mathematical theory has been developed to help reconstruct transmission dynamics processes and to estimate key features of infectious diseases. In this study we use COVID-19 outbreak in Shaanxi province as an example to illustrate how the infectious disease dynamics method can be used to help build the transmission process and to estimate the transmissibility of COVID-19. Three transmission dynamics models were proposed for this. By separating continuous importation from local transmission and treating imported cases as the source rather than results of local transmission, the basic reproduction number of COVID-19 in Shaanxi province was estimated in the range from 0.46 to 0.61, well below the critical value of 1.0. This indicates that COVID-19 cannot self-sustain in Shaanxi province and reflects the timely and strong control measures taken in Shaanxi province.

6.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-325164

ABSTRACT

Background: The novel coronavirus pneumonia (COVID-19) is a highly contagious and highly pathogenic disease caused by a novel coronavirus(SARS-CoV-2)and has become pandemic within a short period of time. The epidemic has brought not only the risk of death from infection but also unbearable psychological pressure. College students as a special group, their mental health status need to be studied during the outbreak of COVID-19.MethodsWe used the Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS), Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS), and the compulsive behavior part of the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (YBOCS), combined with demographic information, using online questionnaires to research, and the study was conducted between February 21 and 24, 2020. A total of 2270 valid questionnaires were collected, the respondents of these questionnaires included 563 medical students and 1707 non-medical students. We separately analyzed the mental health status of medical and non-medical students during the outbreak of COVID-19.ResultsOf the 563 medical students, 20 (3.55%) students had anxiety symptoms, and 57 (10.12%) students had depressive symptoms. Gender, PMH, compulsive behavior, and regularity of daily life during the epidemic outbreak were correlated with their anxiety symptoms and age, PMH, compulsive behavior, and regularity of daily life during the epidemic outbreak were associated with their depressive symptoms. Of the 1707 non-medical students, 66 (3.87%) students had anxiety symptoms, and 180 (10.54%) students had depressive symptoms. Gender, contact history of similar infectious disease, PMH, compulsive behavior, regularity of daily life and exercise during the epidemic outbreak and concern on COVID-19 were correlated with their anxiety symptoms and contact history of similar infectious disease, PMH, compulsive behavior, regularity of daily life and exercise during the epidemic outbreak and concern on COVID-19 were associated with their depressive symptoms.ConclusionsResults indicated that gender, age, contact history of similar infectious disease, past medical history (PMH), compulsive behavior, regularity of daily life, and exercise during the epidemic outbreak are the key factors making college students anxious or depressed. The results provided a theoretical basis for relevant interventions;it is also essential for medical education and public health epidemic prevention.

7.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-325158

ABSTRACT

Background: SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV are two coronaviruses that received great attention due to their high pathogenicity and mortality rates in human populations. While SARS was controlled, MERS continues to be a global public health concern. To examine differences in the epidemic patterns of these two viruses, we collected all available sequences to compare the different evolutionary characteristics of SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV. Notably, almost all of the human infection cases occurred in the Middle East, and cases that occurred outside of the Middle East involved travelers from this region, while African infections have so far not been reported. It is not clear that genetic differences between Africans and Arabs lead to differences in susceptibility.ResultsIn this study, we compared their evolutionary dynamics to provide a One Health perspective of their different results of disease control. The phylogenetic network of SARS-CoVs showed that human isolates gathered into a “super-spreader” cluster, and were distinct from civet isolates. In contrast, dromedary camel- and human-isolated MERS-CoVs were clustered together. Thus, most clades of MERS-CoV can infect humans, and MERS-CoVs seem easier to spill over from animal-to-human interface. Although MERS-CoVs are endemic to dromedary camels in both the Middle East and Africa, all human infections are linked to the Middle East. The nucleotide sequences of the MERS-CoV receptor gene--dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4) from 30 Egyptians, 36 Sudanese, and 34 Saudi Arabians showed little difference.ConclusionsOur study reveals the reason why MERS-CoV is not easily controlled. Analysis of genetic differences between Africans and Arabs suggest that human population differences in DPP4 might not be the reason for their different MERS prevalence, raising the possibility that other reasons, such as poorer disease surveillance in Africa, might explain these observations.

8.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-323601

ABSTRACT

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has been considered a great threat to global public health. We aimed to clarify the risk factors associated with the development of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and progression from ARDS to death and construct a risk prediction model. Methods: : In this single-centered, retrospective, and observational study, 796 COVID-19 patients developed ARDS and 735 COVID-19 patients without ARDS were matched by propensity score at an approximate ratio of 1:1 based on age, sex and comorbidities. Demographic data, symptoms, radiological findings, laboratory examinations, and clinical outcomes were compared between those with or without ARDS. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression models were applied to explore the risk factors for development of ARDS and progression from ARDS to death and establish a comprehensive risk model. Results: : Higher SOFA, qSOFA, APACHE II and SIRS scores, elevated inflammatory cytokines, dysregulated multi-organ damage biomarkers, decreased immune cell subsets were associated with higher proportion of death (34.17% vs 1.22%;P <0.001) and increased risk odds of death (OR=57.216, 95%CI=28.373-115.378;P <0.001) in COVID-19 patients with ARDS. In addition to previous reported risk factors related to ARDS development and death, such as neutrophils, IL-6, D-Dimer, leukocytes and platelet, we identified elevated TNF-α (OR=1.146, 95%CI=1.100-1.194;P <0.001), CK-MB (OR=1.350, 95%CI=1.180-1.545;P <0.001), declined ALB (OR=0.834, 95%CI=0.799-0.872;P <0.001), CD8 + T cells (OR=0.983, 95%CI=0.976-0.990;P <0.001) and CD3 - CD19 + B cells (OR=0.992, 95%CI=0.988-0.997;P =0.003) as novel risk factors. Most importantly, the predictive accuracy of the combined model integrating four score systems and these risk factors demonstrated highest among all models for the development of ARDS (AUC= 0.904) and the progression from ARDS to death (AUC= 0.959). Conclusion: COVID-19 patients with ARDS were more likely to develop into death. The potential risk factors and the comprehensive prediction model could be helpful to identify patients that are at risk of developing ARDS with poor prognosis at an early stage, which might help physicians to formulate a timely therapeutic strategy.

9.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-322750

ABSTRACT

Background: Little is known about the relationship between health-related behavior and psychological status of pregnant women during the COVID-19 outbreak. We aimed to describe the health-related behavior changes and psychological status of Chinese pregnant women, and to explore the relationship between pregnant women’s characteristics, health-related behavior and different psychological status following the peak of COVID-19 outbreak. Methods: : We conducted an online survey through social media (WeChat) from March 14 to April 7. A self-designed questionnaire was used to investigate Chinese pregnant women’s health-related behavior changes. Generalized Anxiety Disorder scale, Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale and Perceived Stress Scale were used to assess anxiety, depression and stress among pregnant women. Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used to compare health-related behavior changes before and during the COVID-19 outbreak and Spearman’s rank correlation analysis or logistic regression analysis were used to explore the relationships between variables. Results: : A total of 113 pregnant women were included in this study. Most pregnant women wore masks (98.2%), changed location or tried to stay away from those who seem to have a cold or fever (99.1%) and washed hands more often than before (96.5%). Pregnant women washed hands with soap or hand sanitizer more often and went out less often than before the outbreak. There were 41.6% pregnant women who didn’t have antenatal visits or weren’t on time for antenatal visits. Majority (77.9%) pregnant women sought help when feeling panic or anxiety, whereas few turned to psychological workers. The rates of pregnant women with anxiety, depression and health risk stress were 64.6%, 58.4% and 54.9%, respectively. Analysis of relationship between variables showed that household income, gestational age, pregnancy complications, knowledge about COVID-19 and maternal and child protection, perception of the likelihood of infection, the frequency of going out, prenatal check-up behavior, help-seeking behavior were significantly associated or correlated with psychological status. Conclusions: : Attention should be paid to the mental health of pregnant women with specific health-related behaviors changes. Screening for mental health problems and psychological interventions among pregnant women are needed.

10.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-311720

ABSTRACT

Background: The outbreak of coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) ineluctably caused social distancing and unemployment, which may bring additional health risks for patients with cancer. To investigate the association of the pandemic-related impacts with the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among patients with melanoma during the COVID-19 pandemic, we conducted a cross-sectional study among Chinese patients with melanoma. Methods A self-administered online questionnaire was distributed to melanoma patients through social media. Demographic and clinical data, and pandemic-related impacts (unemployment and income loss) were collected. HRQoL was determined by the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-General (FACT-G) and its disease-specific module (the melanoma subscale, MS). Results A total of 70 patients with melanoma completed the study. The mean age of the patients was 55.2 ± 14.8 years, 45.7% (32/70) were male, and 21.4% (15/70) were unemployed since the epidemic. Unemployment of the patients and their family members and income loss were significantly associated with a lower FACT-G score, while the MS score was associated with the unemployment of the patients’ family members. Conclusions Our findings suggested that unemployment is associated with impaired HRQoL in melanoma patients during the COVID-19 epidemic.

11.
Adv Sci (Weinh) ; 9(11): e2105378, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1680239

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 Delta (B.1.617.2) strain is a variant of concern (VOC) that has become the dominant strain worldwide in 2021. Its transmission capacity is approximately twice that of the original strain, with a shorter incubation period and higher viral load during infection. Importantly, the breakthrough infections of the Delta variant have continued to emerge in the first-generation vaccine recipients. There is thus an urgent need to develop a novel vaccine with SARS-CoV-2 variants as the major target. Here, receptor binding domain (RBD)-conjugated nanoparticle vaccines targeting the Delta variant, as well as the early and Beta/Gamma strains, are developed. Under both a single-dose and a prime-boost strategy, these RBD-conjugated nanoparticle vaccines induce the abundant neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) and significantly protect hACE2 mice from infection by the authentic SARS-CoV-2 Delta strain, as well as the early and Beta strains. Furthermore, the elicitation of the robust production of broader cross-protective NAbs against almost all the notable SARS-CoV-2 variants including the Omicron variant in rhesus macaques by the third re-boost with trivalent vaccines is found. These results suggest that RBD-based monovalent or multivalent nanoparticle vaccines provide a promising second-generation vaccine strategy for SARS-CoV-2 variants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nanoparticles , Animals , Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies , COVID-19/prevention & control , Macaca mulatta/metabolism , Mice , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Vaccines, Conjugate
13.
Transportation Research Record ; : 03611981211069961, 2022.
Article in English | Sage | ID: covidwho-1651038

ABSTRACT

Probe data that provide roadway speeds and travel times are increasingly being used for a variety of purposes in the transportation domain. A key use of these datasets has been roadway performance monitoring by state and local transportation agencies that are mandated to measure and report performance of their transportation networks. The San Francisco County Transportation Authority (SFCTA) monitors roadway performance as a part of the biennial Congestion Management Program (CMP) and primarily uses probe-based speed data for that purpose. Despite considerable savings in time and effort for data collection, integrating and processing the probe data still required a significant amount of manual work. This study highlights these challenges and proposes a data processing pipeline which includes an automated network conflation process, an efficient large data processing framework, and an interactive web-based visualization. In addition, all the scripts and code developed were made open source and are readily accessible from a public repository on GitHub. The value of the pipeline is demonstrated through the development of web-based interactive maps to monitor both long-term and short-term congestion in San Francisco. The short-term congestion monitoring application is timely given the spread of the COVID-19 pandemic and the region?s rapidly changing traffic conditions. Several valuable lessons learned from use of probe data for roadway performance monitoring are shared. Developing tools to ensure consistency of the data product and to reduce reliance on any one data vendor is of key importance.

14.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 7(1): 7, 2022 01 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1606287

ABSTRACT

Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) initiates class-switch recombination and somatic hypermutation (SHM) in antibody genes. Protein expression and activity are tightly controlled by various mechanisms. However, it remains unknown whether a signal from the extracellular environment directly affects the AID activity in the nucleus where it works. Here, we demonstrated that a deubiquitinase USP10, which specifically stabilizes nuclear AID protein, can translocate into the nucleus after AKT-mediated phosphorylation at its T674 within the NLS domain. Interestingly, the signals from BCR and TLR1/2 synergistically promoted this phosphorylation. The deficiency of USP10 in B cells significantly decreased AID protein levels, subsequently reducing neutralizing antibody production after immunization with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) or human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) nanoparticle vaccines. Collectively, we demonstrated that USP10 functions as an integrator for both BCR and TLR signals and directly regulates nuclear AID activity. Its manipulation could be used for the development of vaccines and adjuvants.


Subject(s)
AIDS Vaccines/immunology , B-Cell Activating Factor/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Cytidine Deaminase/immunology , HIV-1/immunology , Nanoparticles , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Signal Transduction/immunology , Ubiquitin Thiolesterase/immunology , Ubiquitination/immunology , AIDS Vaccines/genetics , Animals , B-Cell Activating Factor/genetics , COVID-19 Vaccines/genetics , Cytidine Deaminase/genetics , HEK293 Cells , HIV-1/genetics , Humans , Mice , Mice, Knockout , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Signal Transduction/genetics , Ubiquitin Thiolesterase/genetics
15.
Cell Rep ; 38(3): 110256, 2022 01 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1588136

ABSTRACT

Inoculation against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is ongoing worldwide. However, the emergence of SARS-CoV-2 variants could cause immune evasion. We developed a bivalent nanoparticle vaccine that displays the receptor binding domains (RBDs) of the D614G and B.1.351 strains. With a prime-boost or a single-dose strategy, this vaccine elicits a robust neutralizing antibody and full protection against infection with the authentic D614G or B.1.351 strain in human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 transgene mice. Interestingly, 8 months after inoculation with the D614G-specific vaccine, a new boost with this bivalent vaccine potently elicits cross-neutralizing antibodies for SARS-CoV-2 variants in rhesus macaques. We suggest that the D614G/B.1.351 bivalent vaccine could be used as an initial single dose or a sequential enforcement dose to prevent infection with SARS-CoV-2 and its variants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Cross Protection , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vaccines, Combined/therapeutic use , Animals , CHO Cells , COVID-19 Vaccines/chemical synthesis , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Chlorocebus aethiops , Cricetulus , Cross Protection/immunology , Female , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Macaca mulatta , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mice, Transgenic , Nanoparticles , Vaccination/methods , Vaccines, Combined/chemical synthesis , Vaccines, Combined/immunology , Vero Cells
16.
Acad Radiol ; 2021 Dec 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1549616

ABSTRACT

RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: We aimed to provide insights into the adaptive strategies, benefits, and challenges faced by the radiology programs during the 2021 residency virtual Match. Furthermore, we explored the potential impacts of related topics, such as diversity and social media use on the Match process and outcomes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional survey of 31 questions was designed and distributed via e-mails to individuals involved radiology programs match process during the 2021 Match. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the results of most questions. Two questions comparing the changes in factors influencing the selection of applicants on a Likert scale of 1-5 were analyzed using paired t-test and Wilcoxon signed-rank test where p-value <0.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS: Responses from 125 participants were analyzed. The following factors carried less weight in evaluating applicants during 2021 Match: away rotations (p < 0.01), no failed attempts in USMLE Step 1/CK (p < 0.01), grades in radiology clerkship (p < 0.04), and class rank/quartile (p < 0.04), while personal statements were more important (p < 0.03). Out of the 125 respondents, 80 (64%) and 58 (47%) strongly or somewhat agree on the effectiveness of virtual interviews in gauging applicants' candidacy and showing their programs' advantages, respectively. Advantages of virtual interviews included decreased cost, time flexibility, less faculty burden, and an increased number of offered interviews according to 81% (101/125), 46% (58/125), 40%, (50/125), and 34% (43/125), respectively. The most helpful platforms that showcased program advantages were program websites followed by Twitter and Instagram. CONCLUSION: Most radiology programs were able to adjust to the virtual interview process, and the majority agree on their effectiveness citing many benefits. However, there were mixed opinions if it could be sustained in future cycles.

17.
Ocean Coast Manag ; 216: 105975, 2022 Feb 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1531690

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has affected China's economic development, international exchanges and other aspects to varying degrees, among which the impact on China's fishery development should not be underestimated. The fishery is a traditional and vast industry in China. The ongoing COVID-19 outbreak has also exposed potential problems in China's fishery development, such as the lack of specialised aquatic product quality and safety supervision and testing institutions. New problems have also arisen, such as the decline in the market demand for fish and aquatic products, affecting fishers' income, livelihood and so on. These deficiencies require China to establish a matching legal system to correspondingly solve the current legal and political problems. This paper will systematically discuss the impact of the COVID-19 on China's fisheries sector from the perspectives of 'fishers' and 'aquatic products' after the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic and analyse how to deal with various problems by referring to relevant experience in light of China's national conditions and characteristics.

19.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 9(11)2021 Nov 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1524213

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Following the COVID-19 pandemic, global interest in influenza vaccines and pneumonia vaccines has increased significantly. We aimed to examine public interest in and actual market circulation of influenza and pneumonia vaccines before and after the initial outbreak of COVID-19 and estimate the coverage and determinants of influenza and pneumonia vaccination uptake following the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: We obtained search volume data for vaccines using the Baidu search index and collected the numbers of vaccines issued from the National Institutes for Food and Drug Control. We also conducted a cross-sectional survey among 3346 adult residents to evaluate the coverage and determinants of influenza and pneumonia vaccination uptake in the Yangtze River delta, China, from 29 January to 4 February 2021. RESULTS: Public searches and the number of vaccines issued for the influenza vaccines and pneumonia vaccines obviously increased after the initial outbreak of COVID-19. In the total sample, 12.5% were vaccinated against influenza, and 21.5% had at least one family member vaccinated against pneumonia. A minority of participants perceived that they were highly or very highly susceptible to influenza (15.9%) and COVID-19 (6.7%). A range of socio-economic factors and perceived susceptibility to COVID-19 were associated with influenza and pneumonia vaccination uptake. CONCLUSIONS: Public interest in and issued volumes of influenza and pneumonia vaccines increased nationally following the COVID-19 pandemic. Perceptions of high susceptibility to COVID-19 were associated with the uptake of the influenza and pneumonia vaccines. Targeted interventions were needed to improve vaccination coverage.

20.
J Cell Physiol ; 237(2): 1521-1531, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1490820

ABSTRACT

Mechanical forces can modulate the immune response, mostly described as promoting the activation of immune cells, but the role and mechanism of pathological levels of mechanical stress in lymphocyte activation have not been focused on before. By an ex vivo experimental approach, we observed that mechanical stressing of murine spleen lymphocytes with 50 mmHg for 3 h induced the nuclear localization of NFAT1, increased C-Jun, and increased the expression of early activation marker CD69 in resting CD8+ cells. Interestingly, 50 mmHg mechanical stressing induced the nuclear localization of NFAT1; but conversely decreased C-Jun and inhibited the expression of CD69 in lymphocytes under lipopolysaccharide or phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate/ionomycin stimulation. Additionally, we observed similar changes trends when comparing RNA-seq data of hypertensive and normotensive COVID-19 patients. Our results indicate a biphasic effect of mechanical stress on lymphocyte activation, which provides insight into the variety of immune responses in pathologies involving elevated mechanical stress.


Subject(s)
Lymphocyte Activation/immunology , Stress, Mechanical , Animals , Antigens, CD/metabolism , Antigens, Differentiation, T-Lymphocyte/metabolism , Biomarkers/metabolism , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/drug effects , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/complications , Cell Nucleus/drug effects , Cell Nucleus/metabolism , Comorbidity , Gene Expression Regulation/drug effects , Humans , Hypertension/complications , Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit/metabolism , Ion Channels/metabolism , Lectins, C-Type/metabolism , Lipopolysaccharides/pharmacology , Lymphocyte Activation/drug effects , Lymphocyte Activation/genetics , Male , Mice, Inbred C57BL , NFATC Transcription Factors/metabolism , Protein Transport/drug effects , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-jun/metabolism , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Tetradecanoylphorbol Acetate/pharmacology
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