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1.
Blood Cells Mol Dis ; 97: 102678, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1944311

ABSTRACT

The T cell-mediated immune responses associated with asymptomatic infection (AS) of SARS-CoV-2 remain largely unknown. The diversity of T-cell receptor (TCR) repertoire is essential for generating effective immunity against viral infections in T cell response. Here, we performed the single-cell TCR sequencing of the PBMC samples from five AS subjects, 33 symptomatic COVID-19 patients and eleven healthy controls to investigate the size and the diversity of TCR repertoire. We subsequently analyzed the TCR repertoire diversity, the V and J gene segment deference, and the dominant combination of αß VJ gene pairing among these three study groups. Notably, we revealed significant TCR preference in the AS group, including the skewed usage of TRAV1-2-J33-TRBV6-4-J2-2 and TRAV1-2-J33-TRBV6-1-J2-3. Our findings may shed new light on understanding the immunopathogenesis of COVID-19 and help identify optimal TCRs for development of novel therapeutic strategies against SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Leukocytes, Mononuclear , Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell/genetics , SARS-CoV-2 , T-Lymphocytes
2.
PLoS Pathog ; 18(5): e1010518, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1902647

ABSTRACT

The three human pathogenic ebolaviruses: Zaire (EBOV), Bundibugyo (BDBV), and Sudan (SUDV) virus, cause severe disease with high fatality rates. Epitopes of ebolavirus glycoprotein (GP) recognized by antibodies with binding breadth for all three ebolaviruses are of major interest for rational vaccine design. In particular, the heptad repeat 2 -membrane-proximal external region (HR2-MPER) epitope is relatively conserved between EBOV, BDBV, and SUDV GP and targeted by human broadly-neutralizing antibodies. To study whether this epitope can serve as an immunogen for the elicitation of broadly-reactive antibody responses, protein design in Rosetta was employed to transplant the HR2-MPER epitope identified from a co-crystal structure with the known broadly-reactive monoclonal antibody (mAb) BDBV223 onto smaller scaffold proteins. From computational analysis, selected immunogen designs were produced as recombinant proteins and functionally validated, leading to the identification of a sterile alpha motif (SAM) domain displaying the BDBV-HR2-MPER epitope near its C terminus as a promising candidate. The immunogen was fused to one component of a self-assembling, two-component nanoparticle and tested for immunogenicity in rabbits. Robust titers of cross-reactive serum antibodies to BDBV and EBOV GPs and moderate titers to SUDV GP were induced following immunization. To confirm the structural composition of the immunogens, solution NMR studies were conducted and revealed structural flexibility in the C-terminal residues of the epitope. Overall, our study represents the first report on an epitope-focused immunogen design based on the structurally challenging BDBV-HR2-MPER epitope.


Subject(s)
Ebolavirus , Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , Epitopes , Glycoproteins , Rabbits
3.
Curr Med Sci ; 2022 Jun 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1889002

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Lianhuaqingwen and Shuanghuanglian are drug treatment options for Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). In China, use of traditional Chinese medicine with Shuanghuanglian or Lianhuaqingwen (for them, forsythiaside is the active antiviral and antibacterial component) in combination with azithromycin is common for the treatment of pediatric pneumonia. It is important to understand the reason why the combination of these compounds is better than a single drug treatment. This study aimed to explore the pharmacokinetic interaction between forsythiaside and azithromycin. METHODS: Twelve male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into an experimental group (Forsythia suspensa extract and azithromycin) and a control group (a single dose of Forsythia suspensa extract in 5% glucose solution). Plasma samples were collected at scheduled time points, and the high-performance liquid chromatography combined with ultraviolet method was used to determine the plasma forsythiaside concentration. Non-compartmental analysis and population pharmacokinetic methods were used to investigate the forsythiaside pharmacokinetic difference between the experimental and control group. RESULTS: Compared with a single administration, the area under the curve and half-life of forsythiaside increased, and forsythiaside clearance decreased significantly after co-administration with azithromycin. The in vivo behavior of forsythiaside could be described by the one compartment model. The forsythiaside clearance decreased when combined with azithromycin. Visual evaluation and bootstrap results suggested that the final model was precise and stable. CONCLUSION: Co-administration of azithromycin can significantly decrease the forsythiaside clearance and increase drug exposure. A lower dose of azithromycin can obtain sufficient forsythiaside concentration to provide antiviral and antibacterial activity.

4.
Journal of Financial Markets ; : 100757-100757, 2022.
Article in English | PMC | ID: covidwho-1885770
5.
Blood cells, molecules & diseases ; 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1876790

ABSTRACT

The T cell-mediated immune responses associated with asymptomatic infection (AS) of SARS-CoV-2 remain largely unknown. The diversity of T-cell receptor (TCR) repertoire is essential for generating effective immunity against viral infections in T cell response. Here, we performed the single-cell TCR sequencing of the PBMC samples from five AS subjects, 33 symptomatic COVID-19 patients and eleven healthy controls to investigate the size and the diversity of TCR repertoire. We subsequently analyzed the TCR repertoire diversity, the V and J gene segment deference, and the dominant combination of αβ VJ gene pairing among these three study groups. Notably, we revealed significant TCR preference in the AS group, including the skewed usage of TRAV1-2-J33-TRBV6-4-J2-2 and TRAV1-2-J33-TRBV6-1-J2-3. Our findings may shed new light on understanding the immunopathogenesis of COVID-19 and help identify optimal TCRs for development of novel therapeutic strategies against SARS-CoV-2 infection.

6.
EBioMedicine ; 78: 103962, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1828376

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The results and data availability of vaccine trials directly affect the decisions of healthcare providers, the public, and policymakers as to whether the vaccine should be applied. However, the reporting and data sharing level of COVID-19 vaccine studies are not clear. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted. A systematic search up to 9 May 2021 in 12 databases and an updated search to 6 July 2021 were conducted in the Cochrane Living Systematic Review and Network Meta-Analysis database to identify COVID-19 vaccine trials. The basic characteristics of included trials were summarized. The reporting level was assessed according to the CONSORT checklist. The data sharing level was assessed by open science practices. Types of incomplete reporting including protocol deviation, lack of primary outcomes clarity, and the omission of harms were analyzed. FINDINGS: Finally, thirty-six COVID-19 vaccine articles reporting on 40 randomized controlled trials were included in this analysis. Based on the CONSORT checklist, the mean reporting score was 29.7 [95% confidence interval 28.7, 30.7]. Thirty-one articles (31/36, 86.1%) had data sharing statements, twenty-five articles (25/36, 69.4%) provided access to the source data. Twenty-seven articles (27/36, 75.0%) had protocol deviation, lack of primary outcomes clarity, or the omission of harms. INTERPRETATION: The reporting and data sharing level of COVID-19 vaccine trials were not optimal. We hope that the reporting and data sharing of future trials will be improved. We recommend establishing a comprehensive, accurate data sharing system for future vaccine trials. FUNDING: This work was supported by the National Key R&D Program of China (2019YFC1710400; 2019YFC1710403).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Databases, Factual , Humans , Information Dissemination
7.
Infect Drug Resist ; 15: 1971-1979, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1817635

ABSTRACT

Aim: To analyze the possible risk factors of delayed virus clearance in hospitalized patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Methods: Retrospective analysis of patients with COVID-19 admitted to the isolation wards from our hospital from 19th Jan 2020 to 18th March 2020. We were collected patient's data including demographic, epidemiologic, and clinical information, as well as laboratory and radiologic findings. The possible confounding risk factors for prolonged viral RNA shedding of COVID-19 during hospitalization were explored by univariate analysis and any variables with a p value less than 0.05 after univariate analysis were included in a subsequent multivariate logistic regression model analysis. Results: The 104 patients included 30 mild patients and 74 severe or critically ill patients. The median duration of viral RNA positivity in sputum was 11 days, and the longest duration of viral RNA positivity was 49 days after admission. Multivariate analysis shown that the used with darunavir/cobicistat treatment (odds ratio [OR]: 4.25, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.25-14.42, p = 0.020), duration of fever (OR: 1.15, 95% CI: 1.03-1.30, p = 0.015) and time to radiological improvement (OR: 1.14, 95% CI: 1.01-1.30, p = 0.033) were associated with delayed clearance of SARS-CoV-2 in sputum from COVID-19 patients. Then adjusted in the multivariate binary logistic regression analysis model in severe COVID-19 and found that critical COVID-19 patients (OR: 13.25, 95% CI: 1.45-12.07, p = 0.022), lower virus cycle threshold (CT) values of RT-PCR (OR: 0.96, 95% CI: 0.93-0.99, p = 0.004) and used with darunavir/cobicistat treatment (OR: 8.44, 95% CI: 2.21-32.28, p = 0.022) were associated with delayed clearance of SARS-CoV-2 in sputum from COVID-19 patients. Conclude: Clearance of viral RNA in sputum was delayed in severe COVID-19 patients, especially with lower virus CT value. And antivirals with darunavir/cobicistat has little advantage in eliminating SARS-CoV-2.

8.
Humanities & Social Sciences Communications ; 9(1), 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1788361

ABSTRACT

Research on oil prices has concentrated on demand and supply factors and has largely underestimated the importance of the financialization of commodities. To assess the impact of financial factors on oil prices, this article investigates the liquidity of Brazil, Russia, India, and China (BRIC) and that of a group of four developed economies (G4) consisting of the Eurozone, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States. An application of the single-state vector autoregressive (VAR) model to monthly data from the 1999–2020 sample period reveals that a positive shock to the liquidity of the BRIC countries leads to significant increases in real oil prices. These novel findings stem from a consideration of Markov-switching vector autoregressive (MSVAR) models, which shows that an unanticipated increase in the G4 liquidity is positively linked with real oil prices. The main findings are as follows. (1) We identify three regimes that are associated with the volatility of real oil prices and the liquidity measure, including a crisis regime that characterizes the subprime crisis and the COVID-19 pandemic. (2) Impulse response function analyses show that the impact of G4 liquidity under the crisis regime is almost twice as large as that during normal periods, while the impact of BRIC liquidity during such a crisis period is almost three times larger. (3) A shock to BRIC liquidity has a greater impact on real oil prices than a shock to the liquidity of the G4 economies. This analysis helps in assessing the importance of BRIC and G4 liquidity in relation to upsurges in the real oil prices.

9.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(5)2022 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1771188

ABSTRACT

Total suspended particles (TSP) were collected in Vladivostok, Russia, which is a typical port city. This study investigated the concentration, potential sources, and long-term variation in particle PAHs and NPAHs in the atmosphere of Vladivostok. The PAH and NPAH concentrations were higher in winter than in summer (PAHs: winter: 18.6 ± 9.80 ng/m3 summer: 0.54 ± 0.21 ng/m3; NPAHs: winter: 143 ± 81.5 pg/m3 summer: 143 ± 81.5 pg/m3). The diagnostic ratios showed that PAHs and NPAHs mainly came from vehicle emissions in both seasons, while heating systems were the main source of air pollution in winter. The TEQ assessment values were 2.90 ng/m3 and 0.06 ng/m3 in winter and summer, respectively, suggesting a significant excess cancer risk in the general population in winter. The ILCR values conveyed a potential carcinogenic risk because the value was between 1 × 10-5 and 1 × 10-7 and ingestion was a main contributor in Vladivostok. However, it is worth noting that the concentrations of PAHs and NPAHs showed an overall downward trend from 1999 to 2020. An important reason for this is the cogenerations project implemented by the Far Eastern Center for Strategic Research on Fuel and Energy Complex Development in 2010. This research clarified the latest variations in PAHs and NPAHs to provide continuous observation data for future chemical reaction or model prediction research.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons , Air Pollutants/analysis , China , Environmental Monitoring , Humans , Particulate Matter/analysis , Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons/analysis , Risk Assessment , Seasons
10.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-325267

ABSTRACT

Objective: In the battle against COVID-19, most medical resources in China have been directed to infected patients in Wuhan. Thus, patients with hepatobiliary pancreatic tumors who are not suffering from COVID-19 are often not given timely and effective anti-cancer treatments. In this study, we aimed to describe clinical characteristics, treatment, and outcomes of patients with hepatobiliary and pancreatic oncology from our department, which retained normal working during the COVID-19 epidemic. We also sought to formulate a set of standardized hospitalization and treatment processes. Methods: : A retrospective and descriptive study was conducted involving patients hospitalized from February 1, 2020, to February 29, 2020 (Return to work after the Spring Festival), at our Department of Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Surgical Oncology. Results: : The study included 92 patients from 12 provinces in the north of China who underwent surgical resection at our Department of Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Surgical Oncology during the COVID-19 epidemic. Robotic surgery was performed on 82% (75/92) of patients, while the rest underwent laparoscopic (2/92) and open surgery (15/92). Eighty-six patients had malignant tumor, and six had emergency benign diseases. Only five patients had severe pancreatic fistula, and three had biliary fistula after operation. Conclusions: : The standardized hospitalization and treatment processes described in this study could prevent cross-infection of patients and still ensure timely treatment of patients with hepatobiliary and pancreatic cancers. These study findings will guide the management of surgical oncology departments and treatment of patients with hepatobiliary and pancreatic oncology during serious epidemics.

11.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-324643

ABSTRACT

Background: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection swept through Wuhan and spread across China and overseas beginning in December 2019. To identify predictors associated with disease progression, we evaluated clinical risk factors for exacerbation of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Methods: A retrospective analysis was used for PCR-confirmed COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019)-diagnosed hospitalized cases between January 19, 2020, and February 19, 2020, in Zhejiang, China. We systematically analysed the clinical characteristics of the patients and predictors of clinical deterioration. Results: One hundred patients with COVID-19, with a median age of 54 years, were included. Among them, 49 patients (49%) had severe and critical disease. Age ([36-58] vs [51-70], P=0.0001);sex (49% vs 77.6%, P=0.0031);Body Mass Index (BMI ) ([21.53-25.51] vs [23.28-27.01], P=0.0339);hypertension (17.6% vs 57.1%, P<0.0001);IL-6 ([6.42-30.46] vs [16.2-81.71], P=0.0001);IL-10 ([2.16-5.82] vs [4.35-9.63], P<0.0001);T lymphocyte count ([305- 1178] vs [167.5-440], P=0.0001);B lymphocyte count ([91-213] vs [54.5-163.5], P=0.0001);white blood cell count ([3.9-7.6] vs [5.5-13.6], P=0.0002);D2 dimer ([172-836] vs [408-953], P=0.005), PCT ([0.03-0.07] vs [0.04-0.15], P=0.0039);CRP ([3.8-27.9] vs [17.3-58.9], P<0.0001);AST ([16, 29] vs [18, 42], P=0.0484);artificial liver therapy (2% vs 16.3%, P=0.0148);and glucocorticoid therapy (64.7% vs 98%, P<0.0001) were associated with the severity of the disease. Age and weight were independent risk factors for disease severity. Conclusion: Deterioration among COVID-19-infected patients occurred rapidly after hospital admission. In our cohort, we found that multiple factors were associated with the severity of COVID19. Early detection and monitoring of these indicators may reduce the progression of the disease. Removing these factors may halt the progression of the disease. In addition, Oxygen support, early treatment with low doses of glucocorticoids and liver therapy, when necessary, may help reduce mortality in critically ill patients.

12.
Energy Economics ; : 105798, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1664894

ABSTRACT

The fluctuation of energy prices has a great impact on the economy, making it essential to analyze the risk transmission among energy commodities. In this paper, we use the minimum spanning tree (MST) approach and connectedness method to study the risk transmission among energy futures in China. Eleven commodities, including two globally traded crude oil, are considered. Four major results are obtained. First, MST analysis provides evidence of industry clustering. Second, the risk transmission is generally from the petrochemical sector to the coal sector;while the risk transmission in each sector mainly spills from upstream to the downstream products. Third, “methanol - polyethylene” bridges the coal sector and petrochemical sector, through which the link between the two sectors has been strengthened since the outbreak of COVID-19. Fourth, the systemic risk of the energy market has increased, and several commodities have experienced a role reversal in the network since the pandemic began, especially in the petrochemical sector.

13.
Sleep Breath ; 2022 Jan 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1611459

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the positive impact of e-aid cognitive behavioural therapy on the sleep quality, anxiety, and depression of nurses on site during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: Nurses on site at the Tianjin Medical University General Hospital Airport Site experiencing insomnia, anxiety and depression during the COVID-19 prevention and control period, from February 2020 to April 2021, were selected and divided into either an e-aid cognitive behavioural therapy (eCBT-I) group or a control group using a randomized grouping method. The eCBT-I group was given standard eCBT-I for 6 weeks; the control group did not get any intervention. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and the Insomnia Severity Index (ISI) were used to evaluate the sleep quality of the subjects. The Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7-item (GAD-7) and the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) were used to assess the subjects' anxiety and depression. Changes in sleep quality, anxiety and depression before and after treatment were compared between the two groups. RESULTS: Of 118 nurses randomized, the PSQI and ISI scores within the eCBT-I group (n=60) were significantly lower after treatment (5.9 ± 3.9, 6.7 ± 4.5) than before treatment (10.4 ± 3.5, 12.4 ± 4.7) (p <0.05). Compared to the scores of the control group (n=58) (9.1 ± 3.9, 10.6 ± 4.1), the PSQI and ISI scores in the eCBT-I group (5.9 ± 3.9, 6.7 ± 4.5) were lower after treatment (p <0.05). The GAD-7 and PHQ-9 scores in the eCBT-I group were all lower after treatment (3.7±3.4, 4.2±4.1) than before treatment (6.7±4.9, 7.7±5.1) (p <0.05). Compared with subjects in the control group (7.1±5.6, 7.3±5.1), subjects in the eCBT-I group (3.7±3.4, 4.2±4.1) had lower scores on the GAD-7 and PHQ-9 scales after treatment (p <0.05). CONCLUSION: eCBT-I improved the sleep quality of frontline nurses during the COVID-19 prevention and control period and relieved anxiety and depression.

14.
Adv Sci (Weinh) ; 8(23): e2102593, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1559092

ABSTRACT

Fast and accurate identification of microbial pathogens is critical for the proper treatment of infections. Traditional culture-based diagnosis in clinics is increasingly supplemented by metagenomic next-generation-sequencing (mNGS). Here, RNA/cDNA-targeted sequencing (meta-transcriptomics using NGS (mtNGS)) is established to reduce the host nucleotide percentage in clinic samples and by combining with Oxford Nanopore Technology (ONT) platforms (meta-transcriptomics using third-generation sequencing, mtTGS) to improve the sequencing time. It shows that mtNGS improves the ratio of microbial reads, facilitates bacterial identification using multiple-strategies, and discovers fungi, viruses, and antibiotic resistance genes, and displaying agreement with clinical findings. Furthermore, longer reads in mtTGS lead to additional improvement in pathogen identification and also accelerate the clinical diagnosis. Additionally, primary tests utilizing direct-RNA sequencing and targeted sequencing of ONT show that ONT displays important potential but must be further developed. This study presents the potential of RNA-targeted pathogen identification in clinical samples, especially when combined with the newest developments in ONT.


Subject(s)
Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/microbiology , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing/methods , Infections/genetics , Metagenomics/methods , RNA/genetics , Sequence Analysis, RNA/methods , Aged , Bronchoalveolar Lavage/methods , Female , Humans , Male , Metagenome/genetics , Middle Aged
15.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-293880

ABSTRACT

We examine the short-term impact of COVID-19 on consumption spending and labor market outcomes. Using monthly panel data of individuals mainly aged 50–70 in Singapore, we find that COVID-19 reduced consumption spending and labor market outcomes immediately after its outbreak, and its negative impact quickly evolved. At its peak, the pandemic reduced total household consumption spending by 22.8% and labor income by 5.9% in April. Probability of full-time work also went down by 1.2 pp and 6.0 pp in April and May, respectively, but employment and self-employment were only mildly affected. Our heterogeneity analysis indicates that the reduction in consumption spending was greater among those with higher net worth, while the decreases in labor market outcomes were greater among those with lower net worth. However, we find little evidence that those in worse health status experienced larger reductions in consumption spending and labor market outcomes. Reductions in consumption spending correlated with increased risk avoidance behavior, the nationwide partial lockdown, worsening economic outlook, and reduced income.

16.
Canadian Journal of Economics/Revue canadienne d'économique ; 2021.
Article in English | Wiley | ID: covidwho-1541705

ABSTRACT

We examine the short-term impact of COVID-19 on consumption spending and its underlying mechanisms using individual-level monthly panel data from Singapore. Although Singapore's case fatality rate was one of the lowest in the world in the early stage of the pandemic (0.05%), we find that the COVID-19 pandemic reduced household consumption spending by almost one quarter at its peak, with a larger response from households with above-median wealth. We show that the reduction in consumption spending is associated with the nationwide lockdown policy, heightened economic uncertainty and reduced income. In addition, we find a substantial increase in monthly savings among households without income losses, suggesting a substantial rebound in consumption spending after the lifting of the lockdown. The results from June 2020 confirm this conjecture, as we find that consumption spending rebounded by about 10 percentage points in that month.

17.
Can J Infect Dis Med Microbiol ; 2021: 6213450, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1476877

ABSTRACT

AIM: To find the predictors of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in hospitalized patients. METHODS: A prevalence study compared the characteristics of COVID-19 patients with non-COVID-19 patients from January 19, 2020, to February 18, 2020, during the COVID-19 outbreak. Laboratory test results and pulmonary chest imaging of confirmed COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 patients were collected by retrieving medical records in our center. RESULTS: 96 COVID-19 patients and 122 non-COVID-19 patients were enrolled in this study. COVID-19 patients were older (53 vs. 39; P < 0.001) and had higher body mass index (BMI) than non-COVID-19 group (24.21 ± 3.51 vs. 23.00 ± 3.27, P = 0.011); however, differences in gender were not observed between the two groups. Logistic regression analysis showed that exposure history (OR: 23.34, P < 0.001), rhinorrhea (odds radio (OR): 0.12, P = 0.006), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) (OR: 1.03, P = 0.049), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) (OR: 1.01, P = 0.020), lymphocyte (OR: 0.27, P = 0.007), and bilateral involvement on chest CT imaging (OR: 23.01, P < 0.001) were independent risk factors for COVID-19. Moreover, bilateral involvement on chest CT imaging (AUC = 0.904, P < 0.001) had significantly higher AUC than others in predicting COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: Exposure history, elevated ALT and LDH, absence of rhinorrhea, lymphopenia, and bilateral involvement on chest CT imaging provide robust evidence for the diagnosis of COVID-19, especially in resource-limited conditions where nucleic acid detection is not readily available.

18.
Chemical & Pharmaceutical Bulletin ; 69(3):237-245, 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1408633

ABSTRACT

As a background sampling site in western Japan, the Kanazawa University Wajima Air Monitoring Station (KUWAMS) continuously observes the air pollutants, including PM1, PM2.5, organic carbon (OC) and element carbon (EC). Data for September 2019 to April 2020 were compared with data for September 2018 to April 2019. The mean concentrations of both PM1 and PM2.5 were 4.10 micro g/m3 (47%) and 5.82 micro g/m3 (33%) lower, respectively in the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) period (January to April) than in the same period in 2019. Notably, the average concentrations of both classes of particulate matter (PM) in the COVID-19 period were the lowest for that period in all years since 2016. OC and EC also considerably lower (by 69 and 63%, respectively) during the COVID-19 period than during the same period in 2019. All pollutants were then started to increase after the resumption of the work in 2020. The pollutant variations correspond to the measure implemented during the COVID-19 period, including the nationwide lockdown and work resumption. Furthermore, the reductions in the ratios PM1/PM2.5 and OC/EC during COVID-19 period indicate lighter pollution and fewer emission sources. This analysis of the changes in the pollutant concentrations during the epidemic and non-epidemic periods illustrates the significance of the dominant pollution emissions at KUWAMS and the impact of pollution from China that undergoes long-range transport to KUWAMS.

19.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(16)2021 08 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1376813

ABSTRACT

Although creating a high-quality urban green space (UGS) is of considerable importance in public health, few studies have used individuals' emotions to evaluate the UGS quality. This study aims to conduct a multidimensional emotional assessment method of UGS from the perspective of spatial quality. Panoramic videos of 15 scenes in the West Lake Scenic Area were displayed to 34 participants. For each scene, 12 attributes regarding spatial quality were quantified, including perceived plant attributes, spatial structure attributes, and experiences of UGS. Then, the Self-Assessment-Manikin (SAM) scale and face recognition model were used to measure people's valence-arousal emotion values. Among all the predictors, the percentages of water and plants were the most predictive indicators of emotional responses measured by SAM scale, while the interpretation rate of the model measured by face recognition was insufficiently high. Concerning gender differences, women experienced a significantly higher valence than men. Higher percentages of water and plants, larger sizes, approximate shape index, and lower canopy densities were often related to positive emotions. Hence, designers must consider all structural attributes of green spaces, as well as enrich visual perception and provide various activities while creating a UGS. In addition, we suggest combining both physiological and psychological methods to assess emotional responses in future studies. Because the face recognition model can provide objective measurement of emotional responses, and the self-report questionnaire is much easier to administer and can be used as a supplement.


Subject(s)
Facial Recognition , Parks, Recreational , Arousal , Emotions , Female , Humans , Male , Self Report
20.
Econ Anal Policy ; 72: 213-225, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1363985

ABSTRACT

The Chinese equity market plummeted and was roiled in crisis with the rapid spread of COVID-19 in the first quarter of 2020, but it also exhibits great resilience when the pandemic is gradually under control in China. In this study, we try to quantify the influence of regional COVID-19 outbreaks in 31 provinces on the stock returns of local listed firms by using a difference-in-difference framework. To our limited knowledge, we are the first to study provincial equity market performance during the spread of COVID-19. We show that when there is a COVID-19 outbreak in a province, treated firms first underperform by daily lower returns of 0.54% but abruptly regain their value by daily higher returns of 0.76%. Even though strict lockdown restrictions deteriorate economic prosperity, negative effects on firm values are only temporary in a maximum 20-trading-day window. Our results are also robust when subsamples of provinces and companies are considered.

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